Practice Relating to Rule 23. Location of Military Objectives outside Densely Populated Areas
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states:
57. Within tactically equivalent alternatives, the defence position shall be chosen so as to expose civilian persons and objects to the least danger.
63. Movement and stay during movement near civilian objects shall be restricted to the minimum duration possible.
64. The location of combat units shall be chosen so as to avoid the close vicinity of military objectives and civilian persons and objects.
65. In case of unavoidable close vicinity of military objectives and civilian persons and objects, the following principles shall guide the commander:
a) in the vicinity of important concentrations of civilian persons and objects only smaller military objectives shall be placed;
b) larger military objectives are to be placed in the vicinity of less important concentrations of civilian persons and of smaller civilian objects.