United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Practice Relating to Rule 22. The Principle of Precautions against the Effects of Attacks
Section A. Precautions to protect the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Parties to a conflict are required, to the maximum extent feasible, to:
c. take other necessary precautions to protect the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their control against the dangers resulting from military operations.
In its chapter on internal armed conflict, the manual states:
15.24. Military commanders and the civilian authorities should do everything that they feasibly can do to protect civilians and civilian objects in their area of control from the effects of war.
15.24.1. Nothing is laid down in customary law or in the treaties dealing with internal armed conflicts about precautions in defence. This is a matter of common humanity. The use of human shields is prohibited.