Practice Relating to Rule 38. Attacks against Cultural Property
According to Ethiopia’s Standing Rules of Engagement (2007), “historical places, places of spiritual and cultural heritage, works of art and places of worship” do not constitute military objectives.
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 270.- War Crimes against the Civilian Population.
Whoever, in time of war, armed conflict or occupation organizes, orders or engages in, against the civilian population and in violation of the rules of public international law and of international humanitarian conventions:
(j) attack [against] historical monuments, works of art, or places of worship…
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death.
The Report on the Practice of Ethiopia reasserts the commitment of “states and governments of the Horn of Africa not to attack any objects of cultural value”.