Practice Relating to Rule 30. Persons and Objects Displaying the Distinctive Emblem
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Respect all persons and objects bearing the emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent and Red Crystal.”
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) provides for the punishment of “anyone who, in the event of armed conflict, should … knowingly violate the protection due to medical units and medical transports … which are duly identified with signs or the appropriate distinctive signals”.
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
2. Exercising violence … against personnel authorized to bear the distinctive signs of the Geneva Conventions in accordance with international law.