Practice Relating to Rule 22. The Principle of Precautions against the Effects of Attacks
Section A. Precautions to protect the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) requires that “all necessary precautions be taken in order to protect civilians and civilian objects from the effects of attacks”.
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “To the extent possible … precautionary measures must be taken to protect civilians and civilian property from the effects of attacks”.