Practice Relating to Rule 145. Reprisals
Section B. Reasonable notice and measure of last resort
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) provides:
To be valid, a reprisal action must conform to the following criteria:
3. When circumstances permit, reprisal must be preceded by a demand for redress by the enemy of his unlawful acts.
5. Reprisal must only be used as a last resort when other enforcement measures have failed or would be of no avail.