Practice Relating to Rule 93. Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Violence
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states that “acts prohibited in circumstances of armed conflict [include] sexual violence”.
The manual also states that “rape and enforced prostitution … are prohibited”.
The manual further states that “[w]omen have … the right under IHL to certain forms of protection specific to their sex, namely the following: … protection of civilians against sexual abuse and degrading treatment; … prohibition of sexual violence and rape, often utilized as methods of warfare”.
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, under the heading “Basic rules of IHL” and in a section on “Treatment”, stated: “Sexual violence is prohibited.”
In an exercise asking students to identify IHL violations, the ministry provided the following example: “Girls that have been raped have now children who do not have a father. It is a crime that will never be resolved.”
In 2011, in the History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, under the heading “[O]ffences related to violations of humanitarian law”, listed “[r]ape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy or all other forms of sexual violence”.
Under the heading “Codes and wisdom”, the ministry also states: “One does not rape women.”
Under the heading “Ethics of Debne warriors” [inhabitants of the Dikhil region in Djibouti], the ministry further stated: “Never rape a woman, irrespective of whether she is married.”