Practice Relating to Rule 22. The Principle of Precautions against the Effects of Attacks
Section A. Precautions to protect the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects
China’s Civil Air Defence Law (1996) states:
Article 2. Civil air defense is a component part of national defense. In light of the need of national defense, the State mobilizes and organizes the masses to take protective measures for preventing or minimizing damage caused by air raid.
Article 8. All organizations and individuals shall have the right of being protected by civil air defense and must perform their duties in civil air defense according to law.
Article 18. Civil air defense works include underground protective structures that are constructed particularly for sheltering people and goods and materials, civil air defense command and medical aid in time of war, and basements that are constructed in combination with the surface buildings and that can be used for air defense in time of war.
Article 29. The State ensures unimpeded civil air defense communications and warning in order that air defense warning signals are promptly and accurately transmitted and sent out and civil air defense is effectively organized and directed.
Article 37. Civil air defense evacuation shall be directed in a unified manner by the people’s governments at or above the county level.
Civil air defense evacuation must be carried out in accordance with the order issued by the State. No organization may go into action without such order.
Article 45. The State develops civil air defense education to help citizens enhance their awareness of the importance of national defense and acquire the basic knowledge and skills of civil air defense.
In 2004, in a white paper entitled “China’s National Defense in 2004”, China stated:
As an important part of the national defense and an important aspect of the economic and social development, China’s civil air defense (CAD) refers to measures and actions to mobilize and organize the Chinese people to be prepared against enemy air raids and disastrous events, and to deal with the aftermath of enemy air raids and disastrous events. Resorting to preventive means such as camouflage, cover and evacuation, and adopting measures such as emergency rescue and rush-repair, the CAD serves the purpose of securing the people’s lives and property, reducing losses of national economy and preserving the war potentials. The CAD is built and managed strictly in accordance with the Civil Air Defense Law of the PRC
[People’s Republic of China]. The CAD adopts a system of joint leadership by the people’s governments and the military organs with the local people’s governments and the military organs at the county level and above exercising leadership over the CAD work within their respective administrative areas. The basic task of the CAD is to organize the people in CAD building in peacetime and to organize and direct people to fight against air raids in wartime.