Règle correspondante
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
Practice Relating to Rule 145. Reprisals
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states:
Reprisal, under the provisions of this military manual, means an act which is contrary to the laws of war, but whose unlawfulness is abolished because it is undertaken in response to acts of the enemy who does not respect the laws of war, in order to force him to stop such violations, and to respect the laws of war in future. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 27.
In another provision entitled “Aim and duration of reprisals”, the manual states: “The aim of reprisals is to prevent the enemy from repeating violations of the laws of war and to force him to respect the laws of war.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 28.
The manual further provides: “The armed forces of the SFRY [Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia] shall undertake reprisals against the enemy exceptionally and temporarily … Reprisals shall not be undertaken for every violation of the laws of war by the enemy but only in response to preceding, serious and repeated violations.” Moreover, it states: “The taking of hostages is prohibited in reprisal as well.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, §§ 29 and 31.
In 1991, notwithstanding the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, according to which these States agreed that hostilities should be conducted in accordance with, inter alia, Articles 48–58 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA) issued a general warning to the attention of the Croatian authorities to the effect that “a number of impudent crimes has been committed against the members of the Y.P.A. … Family members of the Y.P.A. are being maltreated, persecuted and destroyed in many different ways. This cannot be tolerated any longer.” The YPA therefore warned:
1. For every attacked and seized object of the [YPA] – an object of vital importance for the Republic of Croatia will be destroyed immediately.
2. For every attacked and occupied garrison – an object of vital importance to the town in which the garrison is located will be destroyed. This is, at the same time, a warning to civilian persons to abandon such settlement in time. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Headquarters of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the S.F.R.Y, Warning to the attention of the President of Croatia, the Government of Croatia and the General Staff of the Croatian Army, 1 October 1991.
According to the Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, “this warning calls for detailed analysis, but arguably it can be classified as a threat of the use of belligerent reprisals”. 
Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1997, Chapter 2.9.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states: “Before they undertake reprisals, the armed forces of the SFRY [Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia] shall try to force the enemy to respect the laws of war by means of other methods for preventing violations of such laws.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 29.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states: “Reprisals may be undertaken by application of the same or similar measures. The consequences of such measures must be proportionate to the consequences that the enemy caused by violating the laws of war.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 27.
The manual further states:
When reprisals are undertaken, care must be taken that they be in proportion to the seriousness of the violations committed by the enemy, that is, that the seriousness of the reprisals undertaken corresponds to the seriousness of the violations of the laws of war committed by the enemy. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 29.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states: “The armed forces of the SFRY [Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia] shall undertake reprisals against the enemy … only by order of a commander who is competent to determine reprisals.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 29.
In another provision, the manual specifies that reprisals must be ordered by a competent commander (corps commander and equal or higher rank responsible for the sector in which the violation of the adversary took place), except when a commander of a lesser rank cannot establish contact with higher command. Reprisals against an entire enemy force can only be ordered by the Supreme Command. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 30.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988), in a provision entitled “Aim and duration of reprisals”, states: “When the enemy stops violating the rules of the international laws of war, the party to the conflict undertaking reprisals is obliged to terminate reprisals.” The manual further provides: “The armed forces of the SFRY [Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia] shall undertake reprisals against the enemy exceptionally and temporarily.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, §§ 28 and 29.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) states: “Yugoslav military officers competent to determine reprisals cannot order the application of dishonourable methods of reprisals.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 29.