United States of America
Practice Relating to Rule 134. Women
The US Field Manual (1956) states:
The commanders of United States ground forces will, when the situation permits, inform the enemy of their intention to bombard a place, so that the noncombatants, especially the women, … may be removed before the bombardment commences.
The manual also states that, as prisoners of war, “women shall be treated with all regard due to their sex and shall in all cases benefit by treatment as favourable as that granted to men”.
The manual further states that, as wounded and sick, “women shall be treated with all consideration due to their sex”.
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) provides that, as wounded and sick, “women are required to be treated with all consideration due their sex”.
The US Naval Handbook (1995) states: “Women … are entitled to special respect and protection.”
In 1987, the Deputy Legal Adviser of the US Department of State affirmed: “We support … the principle that women … be the object of special respect and protection.”
The US Field Manual (1956) contains several rules intended to protect specifically maternity cases and pregnant women.
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) contains several rules intended to protect specifically maternity cases and pregnant women.
According to the Report on US Practice, “Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II] reflect general US policy on treatment of persons in the power of an adverse party in armed conflicts governed by common Article 3” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The report also notes: “It is the opinio juris
of the US that persons detained in connection with an internal armed conflict are entitled to humane treatment as specified in Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II].”