Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 121. Location of Internment and Detention Centres
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states that prisoners of war are “entitled to protection” and that this protection includes “[r]emoval from the combat zone as soon as the tactical situation allows it”. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 74.
South Africa’s LOAC Teaching Manual (2008) states:
Fundamental Norms and Values (rules)
The fundamental norms/val[u]es which underlie the LOAC [law of armed conflict] are:
- All persons who are captured or under the authority of an adverse party are entitled to, as a minimum, the protection and guarantees bestowed upon prisoners of war (POW). 
South Africa, Advanced Law of Armed Conflict Teaching Manual, School of Military Justice, 1 April 2008, as amended to 25 October 2013, Learning Unit 1, pp. 16–17.
The manual also states:
c. Prisoners of War [POW]
Capture of POW
Upon capture[,] combatants (POW) shall be[:]
- evacuated away from the area of combat as soon as the tactical situation allows it.
Treatment of POW
While awaiting evacuation to a base camp, captured combatants shall:
- not be unnecessarily exposed to combat dangers;
POW must be interned in camps that are hygienic. They shall not be detained in areas where they may be exposed to combat actions and areas that are detrimental to their health.
POW camps must be provided with the necessary shelters against air and ground bombardment.
POW shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The conditions must make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no way be prejudicial to their health. They shall also be assembled in quarters as far as possible according to nationality, language and customs.
Conclusion
Upon capture combatants (POW) shall be:
- evacuated to base camps, as soon as the tactical situation allows it.
While awaiting evacuation to a base camp, captured combatants shall not be unnecessarily exposed to combat dangers[.]
Specific rules exist with regard to the treatment, accommodation, administration, utilisation, disciplining, repatriation, etc of POW[.]
2.4 Specifically Protected Persons and Objects:
Internment of Civilians
Location and Marking
The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment in areas particularly exposed to the dangers of war. …
Accommodation
The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and possible measures to ensure that protected persons shall from the outset of their internment, be accommodated in buildings or quarters which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene and health, and pro[vide] efficient protection against the rigours of the climate and the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of internment be situated in unhealthy areas or in districts the climate of which is injurious to the internees. 
South Africa, Advanced Law of Armed Conflict Teaching Manual, School of Military Justice, 1 April 2008, as amended to 25 October 2013, Learning Unit 2, pp. 91, 93, 95, 96, 100–101, 112, 127 and 128–129.
South Africa’s State of Emergency Act (1997) states:
PREAMBLE
WHEREAS section 37 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act No. 108 of 1996), provides that a state of emergency may be declared only in terms of an Act of Parliament, and only when the life of the nation is threatened by war, invasion, general insurrection, disorder, natural disaster or other public emergency and the declaration is necessary to restore peace and order;
Emergency regulations
2. …
(5) Whenever any person is detained under any regulation made in pursuance of a state of emergency declared in a particular area, such person shall be detained at any place within that area unless –
(a) no suitable place of detention is available within that area; or
(b) the detention of such person at a place outside that area is reasonably necessary to restore peace and order. 
South Africa, State of Emergency Act, 1997, Preamble and Section 2(5).
South Africa’s Implementation of the Geneva Conventions Act (2012) states: “A protected prisoner of war who is in the custody of the South African National Defence Force must be granted the protection of the [1949] Third [Geneva] Convention or the [1949] Fourth [Geneva] Convention, as the case may be.” 
South Africa, Implementation of the Geneva Conventions Act, 2012, Section 12(2).
The Act defines a “protected prisoner of war” as a “person protected by the Third Convention or a person who is protected as a prisoner of war under [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I”. 
South Africa, Implementation of the Geneva Conventions Act, 2012, Section 1.