Practice Relating to Rule 61. Improper Use of Other Internationally Recognized Emblems
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides:
It is … forbidden to make improper use of … emblems and signals which are mentioned in treaties on the law of war. This concerns, inter alia
, the signs for civil defence and cultural property. The signals are light signals and electronic communication and identification as regulated in Annex I to Additional Protocol I.
The manual further states that “the misuse of … recognized protective signs” is a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
It is also forbidden to make unauthorized use of other signs and emblems mentioned in the conventions on the law of war. These include signs of civilian protection and cultural property. Signs mean illuminated signs and electronic communication and identification, as governed by AP [1977 Additional Protocol I] Annex I.