Practice Relating to Rule 9. Definition of Civilian Objects

Additional Protocol I
Article 52(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I defines civilian objects as “all objects which are not military objectives”. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 52(1). Article 52 was adopted by 79 votes in favour, none against and 7 abstentions. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.41, 26 May 1977, p. 168.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 2(5) of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and Article 2(7) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons define civilian objects as “all objects which are not military objectives”. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 2(5); Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 2(7).
Protocol III to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 1(4) of the 1980 Protocol III to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons defines civilian objects as “all objects which are not military objectives”. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 1(4).
No data.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states:
4.02 – Definitions
(2) Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives, that is, those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action or whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military advantage.
4.45 – Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, §§ 4.02(2) and 4.45.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
530 – [The 1977 Additional Protocol I] defines “civilian objects” as all objects which are not military objectives.
916 – Civilian property or objectives are defined as anything which are not military objectives. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, §§ 530 and 916.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
5.34 [The 1977 Additional Protocol I] defines “civilian objects.” as all objects which are not military objectives.
9.16 Civilian property or objectives are defined as anything that are not military objectives. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 5.34 and 9.16.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) defines civilian objects as “any object which is not a military object or which is not used for military purposes”. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule I, p. 13.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 16; see also pp. 32, 53 and 86.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “Under the law of armed conflict, a ‘civilian object’ is any object which is not a ‘military objective’.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-4, § 36.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting: “Under the LOAC, a ‘civilian object’ is any object, which is not a ‘military objective’.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 427.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “Are considered ‘civilian objects’ all objects which are not military objectives.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 17.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) defines “civilian objects” as “all objects which are not military objects [objectives]”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 92, § 352.13; see also p. 134, § 412.13.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 1 (Basic and team leader instruction) that civilian objects “are all objects which are not military objectives or which are not used for military purposes.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 1: Formation élémentaire toutes armés (FETA), formation commune de base (FCB), certificat d’aptitude technique No. 1 (Chef d’équipe) , Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter II, Section I, § 4.
Colombia
Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999) states:
A civilian object … is every object that is not a military objective. … In sum, it may be said that civilian objects are those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use do not make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, do not offer a definite military advantage. 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, pp. 16–17.
[emphasis in original]
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
II.1 Protected persons and objects
- Civilian objects: objects which are not regarded as military objectives. For example: a school, a dwelling, a granary, a civilian means of transportation, etc. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 18–19.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
III.1. Civilian objects
By civilian objects, one means all objects which are not military objectives. …
One can cite as examples of civilian objects:
- buildings and installations used by civilians, as long as they are not used for military purposes, for example houses, apartment buildings, hospitals, factories and workshops producing goods devoid of military significance;
- offices, markets, warehouses, farms, schools, museums, places of worship and other similar buildings, as well as means of transport such as civilian aircraft, cars, trains and buses;
- foodstuffs and areas for the production of foodstuffs, springs, wells, water conveyance works and reservoirs. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 32–33; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 21 and 28–29; Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 35.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) defines civilian objects as “those objects that are not used for military purposes”. 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, § 6.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) defines civilian objects as “all civilian property and activities other than those used to support or sustain the enemy’s war-fighting capability”. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 8.1.2.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) states: “Civilian objects are those objects that are not used for military purposes.” 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, § 1.1.
Ireland
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states: “Civilian objects are any objects that are not military objectives … .” 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 10.
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) defines civilian objects as “those objects that are not used for military purposes”. 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 6.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) states: “‘Civilian object’ means any object which is not a military objective.” 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 2, p. 11.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) states: “‘Civilian object’ means any object which is not a military objective.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 2-SO, § D; see also Fiche No. 4-T, § 1.
The manual further states: “Civilian objects: civilian objects are those which are not used for military purposes.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 2-O, § 6.
Mexico
Mexico’s IHL Guidelines (2009) states: “A civilian object is any object (a community, its facilities and personal property) which is not a military objective and which by its nature, location, purpose or use does not contribute to forming a military objective.” 
Mexico, Cartilla de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Ministry of National Defence, 2009, § 2.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. V-3.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “Civilian objects are all objects that are not military objectives.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0513.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) defines the term “civilian object” as: “Any object which is not a military objective. It may not be the target of attacks or reprisals.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Chapter 9, Glossary of Terms.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states in its Glossary of Terms: “Civilian objects: Objects which are not military objectives.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 398.
The manual also states: “Civilian objects are objects which are not used for military purposes.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 6, p. 418.
Philippines
The Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (2006) notes in its glossary:
Civilian objects – any object which is not a military objective. Objects which are normally civilian objects can, according to the military situation, become military objectives (e.g. house or bridge tactically used by the defender and thus a target for an attacker). In case of doubt whether an object which is normally dedicated to civilian purposes (e.g. a place of worship, a house or dwelling, a school) is a military objective or not, it shall be considered as a civilian object. 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, p. 67, Glossary.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
civilian objects are objects that are not military objectives.
In case of doubt whether an object which is normally dedicated to civilian purposes is being used for military purposes, the object shall be considered a civilian object. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) states: “Civilian objects are those objects that are not military objectives and therefore should not be attacked.” 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, p. 26.
(emphasis in original)
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “Civilian objects. This refers to any object which is not a military objective.” 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 24(e). This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) provides that a “civilian object” is “any object which is not a military objective”. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 47(e).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “Civilian objects are those which are not military objectives, within the meaning explained in this chapter.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 4.5.b.(2).b.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives as defined in this chapter.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 4.5.b.(2)(b).
The manual further states: “Any area, facility or object that does not fulfil any of the requirements … which would qualify it as a military objective, must be considered a civilian object.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 4.2.b.(2); see also § 1.3.b.(2).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) states:
Seen against the background of the enormous destruction of civilian property associated with the Second World War and all later conflicts, application of [Article 52 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I] could bring about an appreciable humanizing of warfare – people would no longer need to experience the catastrophe of bombed-out homes and ruined cities. However, Article 52 cannot be expected to bring about such great changes in warfare … [An] important reason [for this] is the lack of a definition of civilian objectives. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.2.1.5, p. 53.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states in the section on the principle of distinction: “Protected objects are all objects that are not military objectives.” 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, § 159(4).
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) defines civilian objects as “any object which is not a military object or which is not used for military purposes”. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule I, p. 14.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives. Objects that are normally civilian may become military objectives depending on the situation … In case of doubt whether a civilian object is being used for military purposes, it shall be presumed to be civilian. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.46.
The manual further states that “civil objects” are protected by international humanitarian law. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.51.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states: “‘Civilian objects’ are all objects which are not military objectives.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 4, p. 13, § 3(c).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
5.24.1. “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives …”
5.24.2. The term “civilian objects” would normally include cities, towns, and villages as such but not military objectives within those places. It also includes foodstuffs and food producing areas, springs, wells, water works and other water sources, buildings and facilities used by civilians (so long as they do not fall within the definition of military objectives) such as housing estates and houses; apartment blocks and flats; factories and workshops producing goods of no military significance; offices, shops, markets and warehouses; farms and stables; schools, museums, places of worship and other similar buildings; and means of transport such as civil aircraft, cars, railway trains, trams, and buses. Special protection is also given to hospitals, internment and prisoner of war camps. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 5.24.1–2.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the manual states:
15.16.1. There is no definition of civilian objects nor is the term used in the treaties dealing with internal armed conflicts but the principles of military necessity and humanity require attacks to be limited to military objectives. Thus attacks on the following are prohibited unless they are being used for military purposes: civilian dwellings, shops, schools and other places of non-military business, places of recreation and worship, means of transportation, cultural property, hospitals and medical establishments and units.
15.16.2. UN General Assembly Resolution 2675, which was unanimously adopted and applies to all armed conflicts, can be regarded as evidence of state practice. Paragraph 5 of the resolution states: “dwellings and other installations that are used only by the civilian population should not be the object of military operations.” The principle of military necessity demands that civilian property may only be destroyed, or requisitioned for use, for necessary military purposes.
15.16.3. The old practices that tolerated during sieges the bombardment of civilian buildings (other than places of worship), hospitals, cultural property, indispensable objects and works containing dangerous forces, have not survived. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 15.16.1–3.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states: “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 5-3(a)(1)(b).
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) defines civilian objects as “all civilian property and activities other than those used to support or sustain the enemy’s war-fighting capability”. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 8.1.2.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states: “Civilian objects consist of all objects that are not military objectives”. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 8.3.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) defines civilian objects as “objects which are not military”. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 73.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War (1995), as amended to 2007, states that “civilian objects are all objects that are not military objectives”. 
Azerbaijan, Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War, 1995, as amended to Law 430-IIIQD dated 9 October 2007, Article 4.
Burundi
Burundi’s Penal Code (2009) states that “civilian objects … [are] objects which are not military objectives”. 
Burundi, Penal Code, 2009, Article 198(2)(2o).
Cuba
The Report on the Practice of Cuba (1998) asserts that objects not listed by the National Defence Act (1994) among the “Military Reserve of Facilities and Equipment of the National Economy” should be considered as civilian objects. 
Report on the Practice of Cuba, 1998, Chapter 1.3, referring to National Defence Act, 1994, Article 119.
Colombia
In 2007, in the Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated: “Civilian objects shall be ‘any objects that cannot be legitimately considered a military objective’ [quoting Prosecutor v. Tihomir Blaškić, Judgement, Trial Chamber I, 3 March 2000, Case No. IT-95-14-T].” 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, Judgment of 25 April 2007, p. 94.
Germany
In 2010, in the Fuel Tankers case, the Federal Prosecutor General at Germany’s Federal Court of Justice investigated whether war crimes or other crimes under domestic law had been committed in the course of an airstrike which was ordered by a colonel (Oberst) of the German armed forces against two tankers transporting fuel for the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan stolen by the Taliban near Kunduz and which resulted in the deaths of a number of civilians. The Federal Prosecutor General stated:
Pursuant to § 170 para. 2 StPO [Penal Procedure Code], the investigation proceedings which were initiated by the order of 12 March 2010 against Colonel (Oberst) Klein and Company Sergeant Major (Hauptfeldwebel) Wilhelm due to suspected offences under the VStGB [International Crimes Code] and other offences are to be terminated as a result of the investigations conducted and based on the sources of information set out hereafter and on the reasons given in detail hereafter. 
Germany, Federal Court of Justice, Federal Prosecutor General, Fuel Tankers case, Decision, 16 April 2010, p. 1.
The Federal Prosecutor General also stated:
The following is to be considered regarding the subjective element of § 11 (1) (3) VStGB [which states that carrying out an attack by military means and definitely anticipating that the attack will cause death or injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects on a scale out of proportion to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated is a war crime in international and non-international armed conflict]:
bb)
Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives according to Art. 52 (1) para. 1 sentence 2 AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] and customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Court of Justice, Federal Prosecutor General, Fuel Tankers case, Decision, 16 April 2010, pp. 47–49.
Canada
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the minister counsellor of the Permanent Mission of Canada stated: “We … recall that media equipment and installations constitute civilian objects within international law as affirmed by UN Security Council Resolution 1738 (2006).” 
Canada, Statement by the minister counsellor of the Permanent Mission of Canada during a UN Security Council open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 17 July 2013.
Djibouti
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, under the heading “Terminology”, defined civilian objects as “[a]ll objects that do not constitute military objectives”. 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, 2010, p. 203.
Egypt
Upon signature of the 1998 ICC Statute, Egypt declared:
Civilian objects [referred to in article 8, paragraph 2 (b) of the Statute] must be defined and dealt with in accordance with the provisions of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] and, in particular, article 52 thereof. 
Egypt, Declarations made upon signature of the 1998 ICC Statute, 26 December 2000, § 4(b).
Iraq
On the basis of the reply by Iraq’s Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, the Report on the Practice of Iraq defines civilian objects as objects whose utilization is confined exclusively to civilian purposes. According to the report, an object should always be considered as civilian if it does not have a major effect on military operations and is indispensable to civilians. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Reply by the Iraqi Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, July 1997, Chapter 1.3.
Israel
In 2007, Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in a diplomatic note:
Damage to property [caused by Hizbullah’s missile attacks] was also heavy: in total, some 12,000 civilian buildings were damaged, among them about 400 public buildings, while about 2,000 private homes and apartments were completely destroyed. In addition, 23 schools, four kindergartens and two community centers were damaged. During the conflict, hospitals were damaged in Nahariya, Haifa, Safed and Mizra. One of them – a psychiatric hospital – had to be evacuated.
Significant damage was also inflicted on infrastructure: sewage plants were damaged and, in some cases, sewage had to be released into the sea and atmosphere (by burning). Over 50 km of roads were damaged and 2 km² of cultivated forest, as well as 40 km² of natural woodland, were destroyed by fires caused by the missiles. All these clearly constitute civilian objects, which are protected from attack by international law, and whose destruction served no military purpose whatsoever. 
Israel, Israel’s War with Hizbullah. Preserving Humanitarian Principles While Combating Terrorism, Diplomatic Notes No. 1, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel, April 2007, p. 5.
Israel
In 2009, in a report on Israeli operations in Gaza between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009 (the “Gaza Operation”, also known as “Operation Cast Lead”), Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: “A ‘civilian objective’ is any objective which is not a military target.”  
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Operation in Gaza 27 December 2008–18 January 2009: Factual and Legal Aspects, 29 July 2009, § 223.
Israel
In 2010, in a position paper submitted to the Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010 (the Turkel Commission), established by the Israeli Government to examine the Gaza flotilla incident, Israel’s Military Advocate General stated: “‘Civilian objects’, that is, all the objects which are not military objectives, also benefit from similar protection [i.e. protected from ‘direct and intentional attack’]”. 
Israel, position paper by the Military Advocate General on investigating allegations of violations of IHL, submitted to the Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010 (the Turkel Commission), 19 December 2010, Part B.
[footnote in original omitted]
Malaysia
The Report on the Practice of Malaysia states that no written laws in Malaysia define the concept of “civilian objects”. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 1.3.
Mexico
At the CDDH, Mexico stated that it believed Article 47 of the draft Additional Protocol I (now Article 52) to be so essential that it “cannot be the subject of any reservations whatsoever since these would be inconsistent with the aim and purpose of Protocol I and undermine its basis”. 
Mexico, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.41, 26 May 1977, p. 193.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states: “Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives.” 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 12.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council recalled that “media equipment and installations constitute civilian objects, and in this respect shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals, unless they are military objectives”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1738, 23 December 2006, §3, voting record: 15-0-0.
No data.
No data.
No data.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “Civilian object means any object which is not a military objective.” 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 57.
Americas Watch
In 1985, in a report on violations of the laws of war in Nicaragua, Americas Watch stated:
For purposes of the Nicaraguan conflict, the following should be considered civilian objects immune from direct attack:
Structures and locales, such as a house, dwelling, school, farm, village and cooperatives, which in fact are exclusively dedicated to civilian purposes and, in the circumstances prevailing [at] the time, do not make an effective contribution to military action. 
Americas Watch, Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides in Nicaragua: 1981–1985, New York, March 1985, p. 32.
This view was reiterated in its 1986 report on the use of landmines in the conflicts in El Salvador and Nicaragua. 
Americas Watch, Land Mines in El Salvador and Nicaragua: The Civilian Victims, New York, December 1986, p. 99.
Africa Watch
In 1989, in a report on violations of the laws of war in Angola, Africa Watch stated that “structures and locales, such as houses, churches, dwellings, schools, and farm villages, that are exclusively dedicated to civilian purposes and, in the circumstances prevailing at the time, do not make an effective contribution to military action” should be considered civilian objects immune from direct attack by combatants, as well as by landmines and related devices. 
Africa Watch, Angola: Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides, New York, April 1989, p. 139.
Human Rights Watch
In 2000, in a report on the NATO air campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Human Rights Watch used the definition of a military objective contained in Article 52(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Human Rights Watch, Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign, New York, 7 February 2000, p. 7.