Practice Relating to Rule 8. Definition of Military Objectives

Hague Convention (IX)
Article 2 of the 1907 Hague Convention (IX) allows the bombardment of “military works, military or naval establishments, depots of arms or war matériel”. 
Hague Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War, The Hague, 18 October 1907, Article 2.
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property
Under Article 8 of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property, cultural property may be placed under special protection provided, inter alia, that it is situated “at an adequate distance … from any important military objective constituting a vulnerable point, such as, for example, … [an] establishment engaged upon work of national defence”. 
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 14 May 1954, Article 8.
Hague Rules of Air Warfare
According to Article 24(2) of the 1923 Hague Rules of Air Warfare, “military works [and] military establishments or depots” are military objectives. 
Rules concerning the Control of Wireless Telegraphy in Time of War and Air Warfare, Part II, drafted by a Commission of Jurists, The Hague, December 1922–February 1923, Article 24(2).
ILA Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations against New Engines of War
Article 5(1) of the 1938 ILA Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations against New Engines of War provides that “aerial bombardment is prohibited unless directed at … belligerent establishments”. 
Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations against New Engines of War, adopted by the International Law Association, Fortieth Conference, Amsterdam, 29 August–2 September 1938, Article 5(1).
New Delhi Draft Rules
Paragraph I of the proposed annex to Article 7(2) of the 1956 New Delhi Draft Rules stated that “the objectives belonging to the following categories are those considered to be of generally recognized military importance”, that is:
(2) Positions, installations or constructions occupied by the [armed forces], as well as combat objectives (that is to say, those objectives which are directly contested in battle between land or sea forces including airborne forces).
(3) Installations, constructions and other works of a military nature, such as barracks, fortifications, War Ministries (e.g. Ministries of Army, Navy, Air Force, National Defence, Supply) and other organs for the direction and administration of military operations.
(4) Stores of arms or military supplies, such as munition dumps, stores of equipment or fuel, vehicle parks. 
Draft Rules for the Limitation of the Dangers Incurred by the Civilian Population in Time of War, drafted by the International Committee of the Red Cross, September 1956, submitted to governments for their consideration on behalf of the 19th International Conference of the Red Cross, New Delhi, 28 October–7 November, Res. XIII, Paragraph I of the proposed annex to Article 7(2).
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 5.4 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin states: “Military installations and equipment of peacekeeping operations, as such, shall not be considered military objectives.” 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 5.4.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) gives “military equipment, units and bases” as examples of military objectives. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 527(a); see also § 916(b).
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) gives “military equipment, units and bases” as examples of military objectives. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 5.31.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers considers that “all objects occupied or used by enemy military forces (positions, barracks, depots, etc.)” are military objectives. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 20.
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) considers that “the army, its positions, provision of its supplies, its stores, workshops, arsenals, depots, defence works, … war buildings, etc.” are military objectives. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 26.
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) considers “the establishments, positions and constructions where armed forces and their materiel are located (e.g. positions, barracks and depots)” as military objectives. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule I, p. 12.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states that “[m]ilitary objectives [are] … units, buildings and positions where armed forces and their material are located (positions, barracks, depots)”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 16; see also pp. 32, 53 and 86.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) considers military positions, barracks and depots as military objectives. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 17.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) qualifies “positions, barracks and depots” as “military objectives”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 92, § 352.12; see also p. 134, § 412.12.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) considers that “military bases, warehouses, … ; and … buildings and objects that provide administrative and logistical support for military operations” are “generally accepted as being military objectives”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-2, § 9.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting:
1. The following are generally accepted as being military objectives:
a. military bases, warehouses, petroleum storage areas, ports and airfields; and
b. military aircraft, weapons, ammunition, buildings and objects that provide administrative and logistical support for military operations.
2. Civilian vessels, aircraft, vehicles and buildings are military objectives if they contain combatants, military equipment or supplies. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 407.1-2.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 1 (Basic and team leader instruction): “The following are considered military objectives: … establishments, positions or buildings where armed forces or material belonging to them are located (for example positions, barracks, stores)”. 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 1: Formation élémentaire toutes armés (FETA), formation commune de base (FCB), certificat d’aptitude technique No. 1 (Chef d’équipe), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter II, Section I, § 3.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that military objectives may include:
(2) The establishments, buildings and positions where the armed forces are located (site), the places where weapons, munitions and equipment are made;
(3) The materials of war (logistics) … ;
(4) Munitions and weapons stores. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 58; see also pp. 35 and 57.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
II.1.1. Military objectives
Military objectives are:
- the establishments, buildings and positions where the armed forces and their materiel are located (barracks, munitions depot, command position). 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 28; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 18.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
The following objects are generally recognized as military objectives:
- warehouses, petrol storage sites, harbours, airfields and military bases;
- … buildings and objects providing administrative and logistical support to military operations. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 26.
Croatia
According to Croatia’s LOAC Compendium (1991) and Commanders’ Manual (1992), military objectives include military establishments and positions. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 7; Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, § 4.
Ecuador
According to Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989), proper targets for naval attack include such military objectives as naval and military bases ashore; warship construction and repair facilities; military depots and warehouses; storage areas for petroleum and lubricants; and buildings and facilities that provide administrative and personnel support for military and naval operations, such as barracks, headquarters buildings, mess halls and training areas. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 8.1.1.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) considers military establishments, installations, and materiel and positions of tactical importance to be military objectives. 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, Part I, § 1.2.
Ethiopia
According to Ethiopia’s Standing Rules of Engagement (2007), “military objectives” include the “property, constructions and institution of the armed forces”. 
Ethiopia, Standing Rules of Engagement, National Defense Force, Addis Ababa, 2007, § 8.3.5.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) provides that military objectives include, in particular, “buildings and objects for combat service support”. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 443.
Greece
The Hellenic Navy’s International Law Manual (1995) states with regard to naval bombardment:
1. … [T]he provisions of the otherwise obsolete IX Hague Convention concerning the respect and protection of the victims of armed conflict should be considered as bearing a perpetual binding effect.
2. To the above effect, the significance of the codified text of IX Hague Convention is great and the following provisions should be applied by the belligerents:
c. Bombardment only of targets excluded by the prohibition of art. 1 (military works, military or naval establishments, depots of arms or war material, workshops or plants which could be utilized for the needs of the hostile fleet or army and the ships of war in the harbour) (art. 2). 
Greece, International Law Manual, Hellenic Navy General Staff, Directorate A2, Division IV, 1995, Chapter 7, Part II, §§ 1–2.
Hungary
According to Hungary’s Military Manual (1992), military objectives include military establishments and positions. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 18.
Ireland
Ireland’s Basic LOAC Guide (2005) states: “Military objectives … obviously include military equipment … barracks and other military sites.” 
Ireland, Basic Guide to the Law of Armed Conflict, TP/TRG/01-2005, Director of Defence Forces Training, Department of Defence, July 2005, p. 4.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) states:
The war effort is not only expressed in attacking fighters at the front, but also in striking at the enemy’s logistical infrastructure – depots, factories, mobilisation centres and communications. A soldier understandably constitutes a military target, as do weapons, bases, installations, airfields and army vehicles. 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 23.
The Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) is a second edition of the Manual on the Laws of War (1998).
Italy
According to Italy’s IHL Manual (1991), “military quarters, military works and establishments, defence works and preparations” are military objectives. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 12.
Italy
According to Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991), military objectives include military establishments and positions. 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 4.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) provides that “the establishments, buildings and positions where armed forces or their material are located (e.g. positions, barracks, stores, concentrations of troops)” are military objectives. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 2, p. 11.
Madagascar
According to Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994), military objectives include “establishments, constructions and positions where the armed forces and their materiel are located (for example positions, army barracks, depots)”. 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 2-SO, § C; see also Fiche No. 2-O, § 4 and Fiche No. 4-T, § 1.
Mexico
Mexico’s IHL Guidelines (2009) states: “Military objectives are: … the establishments, buildings and positions of the armed forces.” 
Mexico, Cartilla de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Ministry of National Defence, 2009, § 8.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands considers that positions of military units, such as artillery positions, constitute military objectives “under all circumstances”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. V-3.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Naturally, locations of military units also form military objectives, e.g., artillery and guided-weapon positions. Mention must also be made of military aircraft, air bases, communication and radar installations, and storage sites of military equipment. All these objects constitute military objectives, in all circumstances. Whether a road or railway line forms a military objective depends on the military situation in the field. The answer to the question whether neutralization of such an object at that time confers military advantage is decisive to the object’s classification. This applies even more strictly to objects which, by nature, are intended for civilian purposes (e.g. houses and school buildings). However, these may become military objectives by virtue of their use (e.g. as military billets and equipment as command posts). 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0510.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states: “Military bases, warehouses … buildings and objects that provide administrative and logistic support for military operations are examples of objects universally regarded as military objectives.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 516(2); see also § 623(2).
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “[Air] bombardment is legitimate only when directed exclusively against the following objectives: … military works, military establishments or depots”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 172.d.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “[Air] bombardment is only legitimate when it is exclusively directed against the following objectives: … military works, military establishments or depots”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 163(c), p. 343.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “military objectives include … objects (structures, buildings) used (ready to be used) for military purposes”. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states that military objectives include “the establishments, buildings and positions where armed forces or their material are located”. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 24(d)(ii). This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states that “military objectives” include “the establishments, buildings and positions where armed forces or their material are located”. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 47(d).
Spain
According to Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996), “establishments, constructions and positions where armed forces are located [and] establishments and installations of combat support services and logistics” are military objectives. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 4.5.b.(2).a.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states that “establishments, constructions and positions where armed forces are located [and] establishments and facilities of combat support services and logistics services” are military objectives. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 4.5.b.(2).(a).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) lists the armed forces and “their materiel, sites and buildings occupied by them (barracks, fortresses, arsenals) … and establishments directly linked to the activity of the armed forces” among military objectives. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 28.
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) considers “the establishments, positions and constructions where armed forces and their materiel are located (e.g. positions, barracks and depots)” as military objectives. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule I, p. 13.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states that “military objectives” include “objects (such as constructions, buildings, positions, quarters, warehouses) used or prepared to be used for military purposes”. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.45.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states that military objectives include “buildings”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 4, p. 13, § 3(b)(2).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states: “The term ‘military objective’ includes combatant members of the enemy armed forces and their military weapons, vehicles, equipment and installations.” 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 5.4.1.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) considers that “an adversary’s military encampments … are military objectives beyond any dispute”. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 5-3(b).
United States of America
According to the US Naval Handbook (1995), proper targets for naval attack include such military objectives as naval and military bases ashore; warship construction and repair facilities; military depots and warehouses; petroleum/oils/lubricants (POL) storage areas; and buildings and facilities that provide administrative and personnel support for military and naval operations, such as barracks, headquarters buildings, mess halls and training areas. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 8.1.1.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states:
Proper objects of attack include, but are not limited to, such military objectives as … naval and military bases ashore, warship construction and repair facilities, military depots and warehouses, petroleum/oils/lubricants storage areas … buildings and facilities that provide administrative and personnel support for military and naval operations such as barracks, … headquarters buildings, mess halls, and training areas. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 8.2.5.
Cuba
Cuba’s Military Criminal Code (1979) includes “military installations, other military objects and objects intended for use by military units or institutions” in a list of military objects. 
Cuba, Military Criminal Code, 1979, Article 33(1).
Italy
According to Italy’s Law of War Decree (1938), as amended in 1992, “military quarters, military works and establishments, defence works and preparations, depots of arms and war materiel” are military objectives. 
Italy, Law of War Decree, 1938, as amended in 1992, Article 40.
No data.
Algeria
The Report on the Practice of Algeria states that tanks and munitions and ammunition stores were considered military objectives during the war of independence. 
Report on the Practice of Algeria, 1997, Chapter 1.3.
Iraq
In 1983, in reply to criticism of alleged attacks against civilian objects during the hostilities against Islamic Republic of Iran, the President of Iraq stated: “Our aircraft did not bomb civilian targets in Baneh during their raid of 5 June; they bombed a camp in which a large body of Iranian forces was concentrated.” 
Iraq, Message from the President of Iraq, annexed to Letter dated 10 June 1984 to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/16610, 19 June 1984, p. 2.
Lebanon
The Report on the Practice of Lebanon states that, according to an advisor of the Lebanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, any position used by the occupying army for military purposes is considered a military objective. 
Report on the Practice of Lebanon, 1998, Interview with an advisor of the Lebanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chapter 1.3.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 1991, in a report submitted to the UN Security Council on operations in the Gulf War, the United Kingdom listed ammunition storage depots among the targets the Royal Air Force had attacked. 
United Kingdom, Letter dated 13 February 1991 to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/22218, 13 February 1991, p. 1.
United States of America
In 1950, the US Secretary of State stated: “The air activity of the United Nations forces in Korea has been, and is, directed solely at military targets of the invader. These targets [include] … supply dumps”. 
United States, Statement by the Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, 6 September 1950, reprinted in Marjorie Whiteman, Digest of International Law, Vol. 10, Department of State Publication 8367, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 140.
United States of America
In 1966, in the context of the Vietnam War, the US Department of Defense stated: “Military targets include but are not limited to … POL [petroleum/oils/lubricants] facilities, barracks and supply depots. In the specific case of Nam Dinh and Phu Li, targets have been limited to … POL dumps”. 
United States, Department of Defense, Statement on targeting policy in Vietnam, 26 December 1966, reprinted in Marjorie Whiteman, Digest of International Law, Vol. 10, Department of State Publication 8367, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 427.
United States of America
In 1992, in its final report to Congress on the conduct of the Gulf War, the US Department of Defense stated that Iraq’s military storage and production sites had been included among the 12 target sets for the coalition’s attacks. 
United States, Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, 10 April 1992, Chapter VI, The Air Campaign, p. 98.
No data.
No data.
No data.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
In 1997, in the case concerning the events at La Tablada in Argentina, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights stated that a military base is a “quintessential military objective”. 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 11.137 (Argentina), Report, 18 November 1997, § 155.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that military objectives include “the establishments, buildings and positions where armed forces or their material are located (e.g. positions, barracks, stores)”. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 55.
Farabundo Martí Front for National Liberation (FMLN)
In 1985, in the context of the conflict in El Salvador, the FMLN declared “those places visited by military elements, both from the army of the puppet regime as well as foreign military personnel involved in repressive and genocidal activities against the popular revolutionary movement” to be military objectives. It also considered houses or any other property leased to foreign military advisers as military objectives. 
Communication by the FMLN, June 1985, § 4, Estudios Centroamericanos, Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas, Vol. XL, Nos. 441–442, July–August 1985, p. 581.
Americas Watch
In 1985, in a report on violations of the laws of war in Nicaragua, Americas Watch listed “military works, military and naval establishments, supplies, vehicles, camp sites, fortifications, and fuel depots or stores which are or could be utilized by either party to the conflict” as objects which “can arguably be regarded as legitimate military objectives subject to direct attack”. 
Americas Watch, Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides in Nicaragua: 1981–1985, New York, March 1985, p. 33.
This view was reiterated in its 1986 report on the use of landmines in the conflicts in El Salvador and Nicaragua. 
Americas Watch, Land Mines in El Salvador and Nicaragua: The Civilian Victims, New York, December 1986, pp. 99–100.
Africa Watch
In 1989, in a report on violations of the laws of war in Angola, Africa Watch listed “military works, military and naval establishments, supplies, vehicles, camp sites, fortifications, and fuel depots or stores that are, or could be, utilized by any party to the conflict” as objects which “may be regarded as legitimate military objectives subject to direct attack by combatants and mines”. 
Africa Watch, Angola: Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides, New York, April 1989, pp. 139–140.