Practice Relating to Rule 83. Removal or Neutralization of Landmines

Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 5(1) of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
The use of remotely delivered mines is prohibited unless such mines are only used within an area which is itself a military objective or which contains military objectives, and unless:
(a) their location can be accurately recorded in accordance with Article 7(1)(a); or
(b) an effective neutralizing mechanism is used on each such mine, that is to say, a self-actuating mechanism which is designed to render a mine harmless or cause it to destroy itself when it is anticipated that the mine will no longer serve the military purpose for which it was placed in position, or a remotely-controlled mechanism which is designed to render harmless or destroy a mine when the mine no longer serves the military purpose for which it was placed in position. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 5(1).
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 8 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons stipulates:
1. When a United Nations force or mission performs functions of peacekeeping, observation or similar functions in any area, each party to the conflict shall, if requested by the head of the United Nations force or mission in that area, as far as it is able:
(a) remove or render harmless all mines … in that area. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 8.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 9 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
After the cessation of active hostilities, the parties shall endeavour to reach agreement, both among themselves and, where appropriate, with other States and with international organizations, on the provision of information and technical and material assistance – including, in appropriate circumstances, joint operations – necessary to remove or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines … placed in position during the conflict. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 9.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 1(2) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
This Protocol shall apply, in addition to situations referred to in Article 1 of this Convention, to situations referred to in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. This Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 1(2).
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 3(2) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict is, in accordance with the provisions of this Protocol, responsible for all mines … employed by it and undertakes to clear, remove, destroy or maintain them as specified in Article 10 of this Protocol. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 3(2).
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 10 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. Without delay after the cessation of active hostilities, all minefields, mined areas, mines … shall be cleared, removed, destroyed or maintained in accordance with Article 3 and paragraph 2 of Article 5 of this Protocol.
2. High Contracting Parties and parties to a conflict bear such responsibility with respect to minefields, mined areas, mines … in areas under their control.
3. With respect to minefields, mined areas, mines … laid by a party in areas over which it no longer exercises control, such party shall provide to the party in control of the area pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article, to the extent permitted by such party, technical and material assistance necessary to fulfil such responsibility.
4. At all times necessary, the parties shall endeavour to reach agreement, both among themselves and, where appropriate, with other States and with international organizations, on the provision of technical and material assistance, including, in appropriate circumstances, the undertaking of joint operations necessary to fulfil such responsibilities. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 10.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 12 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. Application
(a) With the exception of the forces and missions referred to in sub-paragraph 2(a)(i) of this Article, this Article applies only to missions which are performing functions in an area with the consent of the High Contracting Party on whose territory the functions are performed.
(b) The application of the provisions of this Article to parties to a conflict which are not High Contracting Parties shall not change their legal status or the legal status of a disputed territory, either explicitly or implicitly.
(c) The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to existing international humanitarian law, or other international instruments as applicable, or decisions by the Security Council of the United Nations, which provide for a higher level of protection to personnel functioning in accordance with this Article.
2. Peace-keeping and certain other forces and missions
(a) This paragraph applies to:
(i) any United Nations force or mission performing peace-keeping, observation or similar functions in any area in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;
(ii) any mission established pursuant to Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations and performing its functions in the area of a conflict.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a force or mission to which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) so far as it is able, take such measures as are necessary to protect the force or mission from the effects of mines, booby-traps and other devices in any area under its control;
(ii) if necessary in order effectively to protect such personnel, remove or render harmless, so far as it is able, all mines, booby-traps and other devices in that area; and
(iii) inform the head of the force or mission of the location of all known minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices in the area in which the force or mission is performing its functions and, so far as is feasible, make available to the head of the force or mission all information in its possession concerning such minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices.
3. Humanitarian and fact-finding missions of the United Nations System
(a) This paragraph applies to any humanitarian or fact-finding mission of the United Nations System.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this Article; and
(ii) if access to or through any place under its control is necessary for the performance of the mission’s functions and in order to provide the personnel of the mission with safe passage to or through that place:
(aa) unless on-going hostilities prevent, inform the head of the mission of a safe route to that place if such information is available; or
(bb) if information identifying a safe route is not provided in accordance with sub-paragraph (aa), so far as is necessary and feasible, clear a lane through minefields.
4. Missions of the International Committee of the Red Cross
(a) This paragraph applies to any mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross performing functions with the consent of the host State or States as provided for by the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and, where applicable, their Additional Protocols.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this Article; and
(ii) take the measures set out in sub-paragraph 3(b) (ii) of this Article.
5. Other humanitarian missions and missions of enquiry
(a) Insofar as paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 above do not apply to them, this paragraph applies to the following missions when they are performing functions in the area of a conflict or to assist the victims of a conflict:
(i) any humanitarian mission of a national Red Cross or Red Crescent Society or of their International Federation;
(ii) any mission of an impartial humanitarian organization, including any impartial humanitarian demining mission; and
(iii) any mission of enquiry established pursuant to the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and, where applicable, their Additional Protocols.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to which this paragraph applies, shall, so far as is feasible:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this Article, and
(ii) take the measures set out in sub-paragraph 3(b) (ii) of this Article. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 12.
Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines
Article 5 of the 1997 Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines provides:
1. Each State Party undertakes to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control, as soon as possible but not later than ten years after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party.
2. Each State Party shall make every effort to identify all areas under its jurisdiction or control in which anti-personnel mines are known or suspected to be emplaced and shall ensure as soon as possible that all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control are perimeter-marked, monitored and protected by fencing or other means, to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians, until all anti-personnel mines contained therein have been destroyed. The marking shall at least be to the standards set out in the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended on 3 May 1996, annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects.
3. If a State Party believes that it will be unable to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines referred to in paragraph 1 within that time period, it may submit a request to a Meeting of the States Parties or a Review Conference for an extension of the deadline for completing the destruction of such anti-personnel mines, for a period of up to ten years. 
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, Ottawa, 18 September 1997, Article 5.
Amendment to Article 1 of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
In 2001, States parties to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons decided to amend Article 1 of the Convention, governing its scope. This amendment states:
1. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall apply in the situations referred to in Article 2 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims, including any situation described in paragraph 4 of Article 1 of Additional Protocol I to these Conventions.
2. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall also apply, in addition to situations referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, to situations referred to in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence, and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts. 
Amendment to Article 1 of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons), Geneva, 21 December 2001.
New Delhi Draft Rules
Article 15 of the 1956 New Delhi Draft Rules provides:
If the Parties to the conflict make use of mines, they are bound … to chart the mine-fields. The charts shall be handed over, at the close of active hostilities, to the adverse Party, and also to other authorities responsible for the safety of the population. 
Draft Rules for the Limitation of the Dangers Incurred by the Civilian Population in Time of War, drafted by the International Committee of the Red Cross, September 1956, submitted to governments for their consideration on behalf of the 19th International Conference of the Red Cross, New Delhi, 28 October–7 November, Res. XIII, Article 15.
N’Sele Ceasefire Agreement
The 1992 N’Sele Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front provides:
Article II
The cease-fire shall imply:
8. A ban on any mine-laying operations or the hindering of operations to remove the mines. 
N’Sele Ceasefire Agreement of 29th March, 1991 between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, as amended in Gbadolite on 16 September 1991 and at Arusha on 12 July 1992, Article II(8), as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Cairo Declaration
Paragraphs 79 and 80 of the 2000 Cairo Declaration adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit states that there is a need to intensify efforts “in the fields of mine clearance, assistance thereto, as well as with respect to mine victims and mine awareness”. The States present at the Summit declared that they would “continue to co-operate towards a comprehensive resolution of the landmine problem in Africa, in particular by addressing the issue of the removal of existing landmines”. 
Cairo Declaration, adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit under the Aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union, Cairo, 3–4 April 2000, §§ 79 and 80.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) reproduces the content of Article 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.24(2).
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states: “The location of minefields … is to be recorded.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 942.
As regards remotely delivered mines, the Guide states:
Either the location of minefields containing remotely delivered mines must be accurately recorded or the mines themselves must be equipped with an effective neutralising mechanism which destroy or renders them harmless after a period of time. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 940.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
The location of all pre-planned minefields and areas in which there has been large scale and pre-planned use of booby-traps must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other minefields, mines and booby traps so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 423.
The manual further states:
Remotely delivered mines can only be used within the area of a military objective if their location can be accurately recorded and they can be neutralised when they no longer serve the military purpose for which they were placed in position. Either each mine must have an effective self neutralising or destroying mechanism or a remotely controlled mechanism designed to render the mine harmless or destroy it. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 425.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
Anti-Vehicle landmines
4.25 The use of anti-vehicle landmines is permitted so long as … they are either cleared, removed, destroyed, or appropriately maintained after cessation of active hostilities.
4.28 Self-deactivation. It is prohibited to use remotely delivered anti-vehicle mines “unless, to the extent feasible, they are equipped with an effective self-destruction or self-neutralisation mechanism and have a back-up self-deactivation feature, which is designed so that the mine will no longer function as a mine when the mine no longer serves the military purpose for which it was placed in position”. [Article 6 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons]
Landmines, booby traps and other devices
4.40 Remotely delivered landmines can only be used within the area of a military objective if their location can be accurately recorded and they can be neutralised when they no longer serve the military purpose for which they were placed in position. Either each mine must have an effective self neutralising or destroying mechanism or a remotely controlled mechanism designed to render the mine harmless or destroy it. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 4.25, 4.28 and 4.40.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states, with reference to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, that remotely delivered minefields are only permitted if the location of the mines is mapped. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 38.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states that the restrictions contained in the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons must be scrupulously applied in order to avoid civilian casualties. The manual provides, therefore, that the use of mines, booby-traps and other devices must follow the rules on recording and publication of the location of mines and minefields as defined in Article 7 of the Protocol. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 123.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006), under the heading “The Weapons of Warfare Subject to International Rules” quotes Article 2 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. It further states:
The only restrictions concern use directed against civilian populations. All rules must be scrupulously observed so that their use in a situation of armed conflict does not cause victims amongst the civilian populations. Hence the rules regarding:
- the removal of mines. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 270, § 631.
The manual further states:
Protocol II … (as amended on 3 May 1996) modifies the [earlier] version by obliging the parties to a conflict to remove both anti-vehicle mines and anti-personnel mines and to take additional measures to protect the civilian population against the dangers which they pose. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 270, § 631; see also p. 323.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “The location of all pre-planned minefields … must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other minefields [and] mines … so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-5, § 46.
The manual also states:
Canada’s obligation to clear minefields after the cessation of hostilities will vary depending upon circumstances such as the degree of jurisdiction or control exercised over the territory, the terms of any peace accord and any other bilateral or multilateral arrangement. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-2, § 19.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Restrictions on the use of weapons”:
Canada’s obligation to clear minefields after the cessation of hostilities will vary depending upon circumstances such as the degree of jurisdiction or control exercised over the territory, the terms of any peace accord and any other bilateral or multilateral arrangement. There is no legal obligation to clear mines simply because Canada is conducting operations in an Area of Responsibility (AOR) during peace support or any other operation. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 511.7.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
Restoring normal conditions for the civilian population as soon as the armed conflict is over is a strategic objective. The armed forces [are to] help to restore normal conditions for the civilian population ([for example] mine clearance). 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 94.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
II.2.3. Remotely-delivered mines
Remotely-delivered landmines can only be used in the area of a military objective, if their location can be precisely recorded and if they can be neutralized if they are no longer necessary for serving the military purpose for which they were placed in position.
Every mine must have:
- an effective automatic destruction or neutralization mechanism;
- a remotely-controlled mechanism designed to render harmless or destroy the mine. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 56–57.
France
According to France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000), employing landmines (except anti-personnel mines) is allowed on the condition that their exact location is recorded. It further provides: “At the end of hostilities the mine fields have to be indicated and as far as possible neutralized.” 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 7.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) states that employing landmines (except anti-personnel mines) is allowed on the condition that their exact location is recorded. It further states: “At the end of hostilities the mine fields have to be indicated and as far as possible neutralized.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 55; see also p. 82.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states:
The location of minefields [and] mines … shall be recorded: the parties to the conflict shall retain these records and, whenever possible, by mutual agreement, provide for their publication (Weapons Conv., Prot. 2, Art. 7). In the Federal Armed Force the territorial command authorities are responsible for the mining documentation.
The manual adds:
After the cessation of an international armed conflict, the parties to the conflict shall, both among themselves and, where appropriate, with other states or international organizations, exchange information and technical assistance necessary to remove or otherwise render ineffective minefields [and] mines. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, §§ 417 and 419.
With respect to remotely delivered mines, the manual, quoting Article 5(1) of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, provides: “After emplacement their location shall be accurately recorded.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 413.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Laws of War (1998) states:
It is incumbent on every army to keep a record of a minefield laid during combat. Any mine manufactured after the Convention came into force must contain a metal piece of at least 8 grams to enable its detection by a mine detector. 
Israel, Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, p. 14.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) states:
Every army has a duty to record the minefields for which it is responsible, even minefields laid during battle. Any mine produced after the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] came into force is required to contain a piece of metal weighing at least eight grams that will aid a mine-detector to identify its presence. 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 15.
The Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) is a second edition of the Manual on the Laws of War (1998).
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) states: “The location shall be recorded of: pre-planned minefields … other minefields, mines … when the tactical situation permits.” With respect to remotely delivered mines, the manual states that their use is allowed when “their location can be accurately recorded or an effective neutralizing mechanism is used on each mine”. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, pp. 3–4.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) cites Article 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and states: “All feasible efforts will be made to record the location of all minefields.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 514.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
After the termination of combat operations, in order to ensure the protection of the civilian persons against the effects of antipersonnel mines and to prevent civilians from getting into the mined areas, all minefields, mines and booby-traps shall be destroyed (removed) or left within the marked and fenced perimeter that is maintained under proper protection (observation). 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 146.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) provides that when anti-vehicle landmines are used, they must be removed after the operation ends. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, pp. 44–45.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) contains the same provisions as Article 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, § 3.2.a.(4).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) states:
According to Protocol II [to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], the parties to a conflict shall record the locations of all pre-planned minefields … The parties shall retain all mine records and, after cessation of hostilities, shall make them available to the adversary – this provision, however, is not obligatory in a case where the latter party still has combat forces on the wrong side of the frontier. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.3.2, pp. 80–81.
With respect to remotely delivered mines, the manual states:
The protocol [II to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] states the special precautionary measures to be observed in the form of recording the locations of the mine fields, or the use of self-destruction mechanisms. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.3.2, pp. 80–81.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states that large-scale minefields must be mapped, and after the cessation of hostilities, in order to protect the civilian population, these maps shall be handed over to the adverse party and to the United Nations. In this context, the manual refers to Articles 6 to 9 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 23.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981), under the heading “Future Developments”, considers the possibility of a treaty imposing “an obligation to record minefields and to fit remotely delivered mines with self-neutralising mechanisms or to record their location”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 11, p. 40, § 4(b).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
The [the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] contains detailed provisions on the clearance of mines and booby-traps after the cessation of active hostilities. Basically states are responsible for devices they have emplaced and for the areas under their control. There are provisions for international exchanges of information and co-operation in this respect. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 6.14.10.
United States of America
The US Air Force Commander’s Handbook (1980) states: “The party establishing a minefield should always keep a record of its location.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-34, Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Armed Conflict, Judge Advocate General, US Department of the Air Force, 25 July 1980, § 6-5.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) states that international law “requires that, to the extent possible, belligerents record the location of all minefields in order to facilitate their removal upon the cessation of hostilities. It is the practice of the United States to record the location of minefields in all circumstances.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), p. 448, § 9.3.
Albania
Albania’s Anti-personnel Mines Decision (2000) provides: “All the areas of the Republic of Albania infested with mines must be determined and cleared by 2009.” 
Albania, Anti-personnel Mines Decision, 2000, § 7.
Burundi
Burundi’s Anti-Personnel Mines Law (2008) states:
The relevant services of the ministries in charge of national defence and public security shall ensure:
- the destruction of anti-personnel mines present in mined areas under the State’s jurisdiction or control, as soon as possible and in any event before 1st April 2014. 
Burundi, Anti-Personnel Mines Law, 2008, Article 13.
Chad
Chad’s Law on Anti-Personnel Mines (2006) states:
The competent services of the Minister responsible for national defence attend to:
- the destruction of anti-personnel mines stockpiled by State authorities or designated for destruction by the previous article [of the present law], with the shortest delay possible;
- the destruction of anti-personnel mines stockpiled by State authorities located in mined areas under its jurisdiction or the control of the Chadian State as soon as possible, and in any case before 1 November 2009. 
Chad, Law on Anti-Personnel Mines, 2006, Article 12.
The Law also states:
If an area has been identified in which anti-personnel mines are known or suspected to be emplaced, the relevant sections of the Ministry responsible for the national defence and security must ensure that, to the extent possible, this area is perimeter-marked according to the international rules on the fight against mines, monitored, and protected by fencing or other means in order to prevent civilians from entering until all anti-personnel mines in this area have been destroyed.
This marking must at least be to the standards set out in the Protocol … on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended on 3 May 1996, annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects. 
Chad, Law on Anti-Personnel Mines, 2006, Article 14.
Colombia
Colombia’s Law Implementing the Ottawa Convention (2002) states:
The “National Humanitarian Missions for the verification of facts and the formulation of recommendations” have the following functions:
1. Carry out visits to places where the presence of anti-personnel mines has been established or is suspected.
2. Verify the existence of anti-personnel mines in the visited place by means of inspections and interviews.
6. Formulate recommendations and observations so that the State adopts all necessary measures as soon as possible to ensure the detected or suspected anti-personnel mines are properly marked and isolated until their destruction. 
Colombia, Law Implementing the Ottawa Convention, 2002, Article 11(1)–(2) and (6); see also Article 14.
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Fiji
Fiji’s Anti-Personnel Mines Decree (2011) states:
In exercise of the power vested in me as the President of the Republic of Fiji and the Commander in Chief of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces by virtue of the Executive Authority of Fiji Decree 2009, I hereby make the following Decree –
TO GIVE EFFECT TO THE CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE, STOCKPILING, PRODUCTION AND TRANSFER OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION IN FIJI.
PART 4 – DESTRUCTION OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES
Delivery or notification of Anti-Personnel Mines
19. – (1) Any person who knowingly possesses an anti-personnel mine otherwise than in accordance with section 26, must, without delay, deliver it or notify the Republic of Fiji Military Forces and make arrangements for the anti-personnel mines collection and destruction.
(2) If an anti-personnel mine is delivered to a member of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, or a police officer, in accordance to section 19(1), the member or the officer, as the case may be, must ensure the destruction or permanent deactivation of the mine.
Destruction of Anti-Personnel Mines
20. – (1) Subject to section 22, the Minister shall ensure the destruction of all –
(a) stockpiled anti-personnel mines owned or possessed by Fiji or under its jurisdiction or control;
(b) anti-personnel mines in mined areas under the jurisdiction or control of Fiji; and
(c) anti-personnel mines notified or delivered for destruction under section 19.
Marking, monitoring and protection
21. Where an area is identified as a mined area or is suspected to be a mined area, the Minister shall, as soon as possible,
(a) ensure that such area is perimeter-marked and protected by fencing; and
(b) employ such means as are necessary to notify civilians of the presence of anti-personnel mines,
until all anti-personnel mines contained therein are destroyed.
Permission to retain or transfer
22. The Minister may, in writing, grant permission for a specified number of anti-personnel mines to be in the custody of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces –
(a) to be placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area, or
(b) be possessed; or
(c) be produce[d] or otherwise acquired; or
(d) be physically moved, or for the purpose of development of, and training in any or all of the following –
(i) mine detection techniques;
(ii) mine clearance techniques;
(iii) mine destruction techniques; and/or
(iv) mine deactivation techniques. 
Fiji, Anti-Personnel Mines Decree, 2011, Articles 19–22.
France
France’s Code of Defence (2004), as amended in 2009, states: “The National Commission for the Elimination of Antipersonnel Mines ensures … international action from France regarding assistance … in the removal of [antipersonnel] mines.” 
France, Code of Defence, 2004, as amended in 2009, Article R.2343-1.
Malaysia
Malaysia’s Anti-personnel Mines Act (2002) provides:
Where an area is identified as a mined area or is suspected to be a mined area, the Minister shall, wherever possible, ensure that such area is perimeter-marked and protected by fencing or otherwise employ such means as necessary so as to notify civilians of the presence of anti-personnel mines. 
Malaysia, Anti-personnel Mines Act, 2002, Section 6.
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Conventional Weapons Act (2001) provides:
1. The Commander of the military unit that emplaced mines … must record and maintain the following information on the emplaced field:
a. Precise location and boundary of the emplaced area;
b. Type, number, emplacing method, type of fuse and life time of the emplaced mine … and
c. Location of every emplaced mine (except for remotely-delivered anti-personnel mines) …
2. The Commander of the military unit that emplaced mines must manage the information, which was recorded and maintained as prescribed by paragraph 1 in accordance with the Military Secrets Protection Act. 
Republic of Korea, Conventional Weapons Act, 2001, Article 8.
Senegal
Senegal’s Decree on the National Centre for Anti-Mine Action (2006) states:
The Centre [the National Centre for Anti-Mine Action in Senegal, CNAMS] is the operational body which executes anti-mine action at the national and international level;
for this reason, it is tasked:
- with ensuring the conduct of demining and decontamination initiatives in the entire national territory;
- to coordinate, supervise and control the logistical support and material for activities related to demining and decontamination operations, awareness-raising and assisting victims. 
Senegal, Decree on the National Centre for Anti-Mine Action, 2006, Article 2.
No data.
Afghanistan
In 1994, during the debate in the UN General Assembly that preceded the adoption of Resolution 49/215, Afghanistan stated that it and “many others expect the Secretary-General to enhance the role of the existing Mine Clearance and Policy Unit … in order, inter alia, to study on a continuous basis the problem of land-mines and mine-clearance in war-stricken countries”. It further stated: “All States that have spread land-mines in other countries must provide maps of the minefields.” 
Afghanistan, Statement before the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/49/PV.95, 23 December 1994, p. 4.
Australia
In 2008, in a ministerial statement on Iraq before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Prime Minister stated: “Australia will remain a friend to the Iraqi people for the long term in the postwar reconstruction of their country. … We will continue to support the clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance.” 
Australia, House of Representatives, Prime Minister, Ministerial statement: Iraq, Hansard, 2 June 2008, p. 3945.
Australia
In 2009, in a ministerial statement on Sri Lanka before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
[A] prerequisite for the revival of northern Sri Lanka is the de-mining of former conflict areas. It is the case that the demining challenge will affect the resettlement of displaced people from the camps. That is why in June, Australia provided over $1 million to non-government organisations for de-mining and why we responded in August to a further request by the government of Sri Lanka by providing a further $1 million through the International Organisation for Migration for de-mining efforts. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ministerial statement: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 14 September 2009, p. 9414.
Australia
In 2009, in a statement before a meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Australia’s ambassador for disarmament and permanent representative to the United Nations stated:
Australia’s Mine Action Strategy … has assisted in reducing the humanitarian suffering and socio-economic impact of landmines and other explosive remnants of war principally through clearance, risk education and survivor assistance. We have delivered support to countries across the Asia-Pacific, and in the Middle East and Africa. 
Australia, Statement by the ambassador for disarmament and permanent representative of Australia to the United Nations at a meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 9 November 2009.
Canada
In 1975, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Canada advocated the “automatic and compulsory marking” of remotely delivered minefields. 
Canada, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.14, 5 March 1975, p. 131.
Canada
Upon ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Canada stated:
With respect to Protocol II [to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], it is the understanding of the Government of Canada that:
(a) Any obligation to record the location of remotely delivered mines pursuant to sub-paragraph 1(a) of article 5 refers to the location of mine fields and not to the location of individual remotely delivered mines.
(b) The term “pre-planned”, as used in sub-paragraph 1(a) of article 7, means that the position of the minefield in question should have been determined in advance so that an accurate record of the location of the minefield, when laid, can be made.
(c) The phrase ‘similar functions’ used in article 8, includes the concepts of ‘peace-making’, ‘preventive peace-keeping’ and ‘peace-enforcement’ as defined in an agenda for peace (United Nations document A/47/277 of 17 June 1992). 
Canada, Declaration made upon ratification of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 24 June 1994, § 3.
Canada
Upon ratification of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Canada stated:
It is understood that the maintenance of a minefield referred to in Article 10, in accordance with the standards on marking, monitoring and protection by fencing or other means set out in Amended Protocol II, would not be considered as a use of the mines contained therein. 
Canada, Reservations and statements of understanding made upon ratification of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 5 January 1998, § 3.
Canada
In 2007, in a report to Parliament on Canada’s mission in Afghanistan, the Government of Canada stated:
As a signatory to the Ottawa anti-personnel mine ban treaty, Afghanistan has received a substantial contribution from Canada to fund the clearance of anti-personnel mines and unexploded ordnance scattered throughout the country which is helping to improve the safety of the Afghan people and to promote development.
Demining activities such as minefield survey and clearance, stockpile destruction, mine-risk education, victim assistance and capacity building are ongoing in Kandahar Province and across Afghanistan to open up more land for agriculture, pasture and housing. 
Canada, Canada’s Mission in Afghanistan: Measuring Progress, Report to Parliament, Government of Canada, 26 February 2007, p. 17.
Canada
In 2013, Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development issued a press release entitled “Harper Government observes the International Day for Mine Awareness”, which stated:
The Harper Government is committed to assisting with landmine clearing, education on landmine detection, and programs that work with victims of landmine accidents. …
To mark the International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action, here are few of the projects supported by the Harper Government to help some of the most vulnerable victims of war in some of the most dangerous parts of the world:
- The Landmine Clearing for Results project in Cambodia helped clear more than 35 km2 of land and strengthen the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority. This project saw a decrease in the number of recorded landmine casualties, from 145 in 2010 to 98 in 2011, which exceeded targets. From the recently cleared land, more than 15,000 people benefited directly from new housing and agricultural opportunities. And more than 200,000 people benefited indirectly through risk reduction and through the public use of the cleared land for a school, roads, a pagoda, and other infrastructure.
- The Support to Mine Action Program for Afghanistan, one of the most heavily mined countries in the world, has contributed to clearing 18,027 hazardous areas, covering more than 1,522 km2. As a result, 112 districts and 1,996 communities are no longer affected by landmines. 
Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, “Harper Government observes the International Day for Mine Awareness”, Press Release, 4 April 2013.
China
In 2003, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
In recent years, China has been actively participating in international demining assistance efforts and has donated a large amount of detecting and demining equipment to mine-affected countries. Moreover, China sent two groups of demining experts to Eritrea for on-site training and instruction in 2002 and 2003. This year, China joined the Mine Action Support Group.
We are ready to cooperate with all interested countries and international organizations in the future with a view to providing further assistance to mine-affected countries. 
China, Statement by the ambassador at the First Committee of the 58th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 7 October 2003.
China
In 2004, in a position paper submitted to the UN General Assembly, China stated:
China understands and attaches importance to the humanitarian concerns of the international community over indiscriminate injuries to innocent civilians caused by landmines. It has always supported and taken an active part in international efforts to solve the problem. As a State Party to the [1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], China has strictly honored its commitments and vigorously participated in international de-mining assistance. 
China, Position Paper at the 59th Session of the UN General Assembly, 5 August 2004.
China
In 2004, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
In recent years, China has been an active participant in international de-mining cooperation. We have provided mine-affected countries with de-mining assistance including funding, equipment and training. Last April, China and Australian Network of ICBL co-sponsored a Humanitarian Mine/UXO Clearance Technology and Cooperation Workshop in Kunming. This workshop promoted exchanges and cooperation between donor countries and mine-affected countries. In the future, we will continue to give our support, within our capacity, to international mine clearance operations. We are also ready to intensify exchanges and cooperation with all interested countries and international organizations in this regard. 
China, Statement by the ambassador at the First Committee of the 59th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 5 October 2004.
China
In 2004, in a white paper on “China’s National Defense in 2004”, China stated:
China attaches great importance to the solution of the humanitarian issue arising from landmines. While strictly implementing the Amended Landmine Protocol, it is strengthening communications and exchanges with the states parties to the Ottawa Convention. China continues to provide assistance in international mine clearance efforts. After providing assistance to Eritrea in this regard in 2002, China sent another group of mine clearance experts to that country to give guidance on de-mining operations in 2003, trained a total of 120 mine clearance specialists for Eritrea, and provided Eritrea with de-mining equipment. China joined the Mine Action Supporting Group, headquartered in New York, in 2003. China and the Australian Network of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) co-sponsored the Humanitarian Mine/UXO Clearance Technology and Cooperation Workshop in Kunming, Yunnan Province, in April 2004. 
China, White Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China: China’s National Defense in 2004, December 2004.
China
In 2005, in a working paper relating to mines other than anti-personnel mines (MOTAPM), China proposed:
31. All MOTAPM minefields should be marked and fenced as early as possible after conflict so as to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians and humanitarian personnel and vehicles from the area. All MOTAPM minefields emplaced during the conflict should be cleared as soon as possible upon cessation of the conflict.
32. All MOTAPM minefields emplaced by a State outside its own territory during the conflict shall be fenced and marked immediately by the State upon cessation of the conflict. The documentation of such MOTAPM minefields shall be provided to the State where the minefields are located, as well as relevant international humanitarian organizations.
33. A State which has emplaced MOTAPM minefields outside its own territory and the manufacturing State of the emplaced MOTAPM have the obligation to assist the State where such MOTAPM minefields are located in clearing the minefields as soon as possible upon cessation of the conflict.
EXPLANATION
34. Strengthening post-conflict demining efforts is the ultimate and most effective way to address the humanitarian concerns caused by MOTAPM. The civilian and humanitarian organization casualties inflicted by MOTAPM mainly occur in the post-conflict period. Therefore, to avoid accidental casualties inflicted by MOTAPM on civilians and humanitarian organizations and to relieve, to the greatest extent, the impediments caused by MOTAPM on economic and social development and humanitarian efforts, it is imperative to thoroughly clear MOTAPM as soon as possible in the post-conflict period. Until the complete clearance of the MOTAPM minefields, as a temporary measure, such minefields shall be immediately and effectively marked and fenced upon cessation of the conflict.
36. China holds the view that the biggest difficulty in post-conflict demining operations is the clearance of the MOTAPM minefields emplaced by a State on foreign territory, as in most cases that foreign State where the minefields are located has little knowledge about the function of the MOTAPM emplaced as well as the most effective method to clear them. Therefore, the emplacing State shall provide the documentation of the MOTAPM minefields to the State where the MOTAPM minefields are located and relevant international humanitarian organizations in time so as to avoid possible humanitarian consequences. 
China, Package Solution to the Issue of MOTAPM, Working Paper prepared by the People’s Republic of China for the Eleventh Session of the Group of Governmental Experts of the States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, UN Doc. CCW/GGE/XI/WG.2/WP.2, 28 July 2005, §§ 31–34 and 36.
China
In 2005, in a white paper on “China’s Endeavours for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation”, China stated:
China fully understands and sympathizes with other countries’ sufferings caused by landmines and has been actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and cooperation. Since 1998, China has participated in de-mining operations in about 10 countries in Asia and Africa through various forms of assistance, including financial donations, providing de-mining equipment and technical training. In 2004, China and the Australian Network of International Campaign to Ban Landmines co-sponsored a Humanitarian Mine/UXO Clearance Technology and Cooperation Workshop in Kunming. 
China, White Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China: China’s Endeavours for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, 1 September 2005.
China
In 2005, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
China fully understands and sympathizes with other countries’ sufferings caused by landmines and has been actively engaged in, through various forms, international de-mining assistance and cooperation in recent years. This September, China started a de-mining assistance program in Thailand. We sent a group of experts to provide technical training to the Thai de-miners. For this program, we also donated de-mining equipment and materials to the Thai side. 
China, Statement by Head of Chinese Delegation at Thematic Debate of First Committee of UNGA 60th Session on Conventional Weapons, 13 October 2005.
China
In 2006, in a white paper on “China’s National Defence in 2006”, China stated:
China continues to take an active part in international demining operations. In the period September–December 2005, Chinese military demining experts worked in Thailand to train demining personnel and give on-site instructions. China also provided Thailand with demining equipment. In the period September–December 2006, China ran demining training courses for Lebanon and Jordan in Nanjing, and provided the two countries with demining equipment. 
China, White Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China: China’s National Defence in 2006, 29 December 2006.
China
In 2007, at a conference in Phnom Penh on “Mine Action and Implications for Peace and Development”, China stated:
We are glad that, with the joint efforts of the international community, encouraging progress in the field of mine action has been constantly achieved at national, regional and international levels. At the same time, it should not be neglected that there are still severe landmine problems in various countries and regions which still pose threats to the security of civilian lives and properties and hinder local economic development and social rehabilitation. It remains an important task for us to explore effective ways to promote relevant international assistance and cooperation and speed up the international mine action process.
Geographically speaking, current landmine problems mainly exist in the less developed countries and regions, which have suffered or are still suffering from wars or armed conflicts. Due to the lack of economic and technical capabilities in mine action, they are usually unable to carry out demining operations, victim assistance and post-war reconstruction on their own. Therefore, mine-affected countries and regions are in great need of international cooperation. Constantly enhancing and enriching international cooperation will be conducive to fast and comprehensive implementation of mine action, and is an effective way to resolve the landmine problems.
Bearing those in mind, we believe that the international community should focus its efforts of international mine action cooperation on the following aspects:
Firstly, new measures and approaches of international cooperation on mine action should be explored. At present, much cooperation in this field is carried out on bilateral basis. To improve quality and efficiency of the cooperation, new approaches should be adopted. For example, multiple parties can be invited to participate in one program, which will offset one party’s weakness with other parties’ strong points by giving full play to the respective advantages of participating parties in human resources, funding, equipment, technology and management and etc. This can also optimize the structure and enhance the efficiency of relevant programs. In this regard, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and other relevant international institutions should play more effective roles in coordination.
Secondly, mine action should be carried out in accordance with the specific situation of the recipient countries and regions. The situation and needs of mine-affected countries and regions are quite different. If we simply stick to one pattern or criteria in providing assistance and cooperation without taking into account the specific situation and needs of the recipients, the results of such assistance will be affected.
Thirdly, capacity building of mine-affected countries should be enhanced. Usually, it takes a long time and a large amount of financial and human resources for a country or a region to completely resolve landmine problems. One or two cooperation programs can not achieve this goal. We believe that, in carrying out relevant cooperation and assistance, donor countries should, from a long-term perspective, focus on building blood-making capability of recipient countries to help them accomplish the gradual transition from purely depending on external assistance to building up their own capacity, so as to achieve the sustainable development of mine action and fundamentally resolve the problems facing mine-affected countries and regions.
Fourthly, the efficiency of demining operations should be further enhanced. The progress and efficiency of demining operations have direct bearing on the return of local civilians and the process of economic reconstruction. While assuring the full and timely provision of relevant funding, the donor countries and the recipient countries should give priority to the concrete results of the demining assistance and cooperation. Both sides should strengthen coordination and enhance efficiency in utilizing the funding, equipment and personnel for demining operations, and make every effort to avoid waste and low efficiency.
… China maintains broad contacts and exchanges with States Parties to the Ottawa Convention and relevant international organizations such as International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). As a member of the Mine Action Support Group (MASG), China has actively participated in relevant activities of the Group and made valuable proposals on ways to enhance the coordination and cooperation of international mine action.
China attaches great importance to and has actively participated in the international cooperation in the field of mine action. China’s cooperation and assistance are mainly directed to those developing countries that suffer from severe landmine problems and lack relevant capabilities. Such cooperation and assistance focus on the capacity-building of the countries concerned, aiming at assisting those countries in achieving sustainable development of their own mine action.
The Chinese Government pursues a policy of “building good relationship and partnership with neighbours”. China fully understands the concerns and feelings of the mine-affected neighbouring countries, including Cambodia. China stands ready to enhance, within its own capability, the exchange and cooperation with other countries to actively explore effective approaches and measures to assist neighboring countries in getting rid of their landmine problems at an early date and to build a peaceful, prosperous and harmonious society. 
China, Statement by the ambassador at the Conference on “Mine Action and Implications for Peace and Development”, Phnom Penh, 14 March 2007, available at http://www.mfa.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/jks/kjfywj/t305534.htm (last accessed on 29 March 2011).
China
In 2007, on the 10th Anniversary of the Opening for Signature of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention, China stated in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly:
China actively deals with the landmine problem on its territory. Since 1990s, for the purpose of safeguarding the civilians’ lives and safety in the border areas and promoting local economic and social development, China has conducted three large-scale de-mining operations in the border areas, thus basically eliminated the landmine problem within its borders.
China understands and sympathizes with other countries’ suffering from landmines, and has been actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and cooperation. Since 1990s, the Chinese Government has provided de-mining assistance to more than 10 countries in Asia and Africa by various means, including financial donation, provision of de-mining equipments, dispatch of peace-keeping engineer troops and host of personnel training courses.
– In 1998, China donated 100,000 US dollars to the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Mine Clearance Assistance, which was earmarked for mine actions in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
– In 1999 and 2000, the Chinese Government, in cooperation with the United Nations, organized two de-mining training courses for trainees from Cambodia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Angola, Namibia, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Mozambique.
– In 2001, China provided some de-mining equipment to Cambodia, Angola, Namibia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Mozambique.
– In 2002 and 2003, China sent two groups of de-mining experts to Eritrea to train and guide the Eritrean de-mining troops in their de-mining operations. Some de-mining equipment were donated to Eritrea.
– In September 2005, China carried out its de-mining assistance program in Thailand by donating de-mining equipment and sending an expert group to train local de-mining personnel and guide field de-mining operations.
– From September to December 2006, China hosted a de-mining training course for 40 trainees from Lebanon and Jordan, and donated a number of de-mining equipment to these two countries.
– According to the Beijing Action Plan adopted at the Beijing Summit of the China-Africa Forum in 2006, the Chinese Government pledged that it would continue to provide de-mining assistance within its capability to mine-affected African countries. From later this month, China will host a de-mining training course for the de-mining officers from five mine-affected African countries, namely Angola, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Chad. China will also donate some de-mining equipments to these countries.
– For many times, the Chinese peace-keeping engineer troops participated in de-mining operations in Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan and Lebanon. In 2007, the Chinese peace-keeping engineering troops to Lebanon received qualification certification from the UN Mine Action Service with their excellent performance. Up to now, the Chinese peace-keeping troops are still conducting operations of eliminating landmines and other unexploded munitions in Lebanon. 
China, Statement by the Chinese Delegation on the 10th Anniversary of the Opening for Signature of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention at the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, 23 October 2007, pp. 2–3.
China
In 2007, during a debate on conventional weapons in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated:
China is committed to promoting international de-mining cooperation and has provided assistance to relevant mine-affected countries within its capability. So far, the Chinese Government has provided de-mining assistance to more than 10 countries in Asia and Africa by various means, including financial donation, provision of de-mining equipments and personnel training course. This October, China will host a new de-mining training course in Nanjing for personnel from 5 African countries, namely Angola, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Chad. China will also donate a number of de-mining equipments to these countries. 
China, Statement by the Chinese Delegation at the Thematic Debate on Conventional Weapons at the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, 29 October 2007.
China
In 2007, during a debate in the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly, China stated with regard to assistance in mine action:
China attaches great importance to international demining assistance. Since 1998, the Chinese Government has actively participated in the demining operations in more than 10 countries in Asia and Africa by providing financial donation and demining equipments, dispatching peace-keeping engineering troops and demining expert groups, as well as hosting demining training courses. The Chinese peace-keeping engineering troops in Lebanon have received demining certification from the UN with excellent performance. Today, the Chinese peace-keeping troops are still conducting landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance in Lebanon.
In the Beijing Action Plan adopted at the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation last year, the Chinese Government pledged that it would continue to support and participate in humanitarian demining process in Africa, and provide demining assistance within its capability to mine-affected African countries. From last month, China hosts a demining training course in Nanjing, China for demining personnel from 5 mine-affected African countries namely Angola, Burundi, Chad, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. China will also donate some demining equipments to these 5 countries. 
China, Statement by the Chinese Delegation at the Thematic Debate on Conventional Weapons at the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, 29 October 2007.
China
In 2007, at the Eighth Meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, China’s observer delegation stated:
After large-scale de-mining operations in border areas in 1990s, China has almost eliminated landmine threat within its territory, which paves the way for social and economic development in former mine-affected areas. In de-mining operations, the Chinese de-mining troops accumulated experience and developed a number of reliable, user-friendly, cost-effective de-mining equipments. China’s de-mining technology has also been improved.
After solving domestic landmine problems, China has actively engaged in international mine actions. Since 1998, China has provided de-mining assistance to more than ten countries in Asia and Africa by means of providing financial donations, hosting training courses, donating de-mining equipments and dispatching peace-keeping engineering troops or de-mining expert groups. China’s de-mining assistance has been highly appreciated by recipient countries. In 2006, China hosted a three-month humanitarian de-mining training program for forty trainees from Jordan and Lebanon, and donated some mine-detection and de-mining equipments to these two countries.
With a view to supporting humanitarian de-mining process in African countries, according to the Beijing Action Plan adopted at the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, China has launched a new round of de-mining assistance to African countries. Currently, China is hosting a humanitarian de-mining training course in Nanjing for five African countries, namely Angola, Burundi, Chad, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. China will also donate some de-mining equipments to these five countries.
Mr. President,
China has all along unswervingly contributed to maintaining peace and promoting common development of the world. China used to suffer from landmines, therefore deeply understands the aspirations of the people of mine-affected countries for safety and development. China is willing to make contributions to releasing these countries from landmine problems. China sincerely hopes to further enhance exchanges and cooperation with the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention, relevant international organizations and civil society, so as to promote international mine actions with the aim of completely resolving the humanitarian problems caused by APLs [anti-personnel mines]. 
China, Statement of the Chinese Observer Delegation at the Eighth Meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, 18 November 2007.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Côte d’Ivoire stated that it welcomed the establishment of the UN fund for assistance in demining. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.6, 18 October 1995, p. 2.
Cuba
In 2008, in a statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly during the thematic debate on conventional weapons, the representative of Cuba stated: “Cuba calls on all States in a position to do so, to provide the financial, technical and humanitarian assistance necessary for mine clearing operations and the social and economic rehabilitation of victims.” 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly during the thematic debate on conventional weapons, 21 October 2008, p. 2.
Cuba
In 2010, in a statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly during the thematic debate on conventional weapons, the representative of Cuba stated: “Cuba calls on all States in a position to do so, to provide the financial, technical and humanitarian assistance necessary for mine clearing operations and the social and economic rehabilitation of victims.” 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly during the thematic debate on conventional weapons, 19 October 2010, p. 2.
Ethiopia
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Ethiopia stated that it “welcomed the outcome of the July 1995 international meeting on mine clearance and the pledges made there”. 
Ethiopia, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.9, 25 October 1995, p. 16.
Fiji
In 2011, in a statement submitted during the 11th Meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, the head of the Fiji delegation stated:
Mr President, hearing statements of progress and development from member countries this week and of course the continuing support and significant contribution from major donor agencies towards this worthy course, I can only add that the ensuing momentum would no doubt consolidate resources to providing unprecedented support and cooperation amongst affiliated international organizations at the grass root level for the sustainment of demining and building the lives of those affected immensely by land mines. …
Mr President, Fiji is one of the many Island countries in the South Pacific and common knowledge revealed that the Second World War was fought on the Pacific front. In the post war development, these smaller Island countries are still littered with World War II (WWII) ordnances such as cluster munitions and other explosives[;] though it may not be a direct threat to the people[,] … the leakage of explosive materials, contamination and the gradual corrosion of war heads from missiles and mortars is a major concern.
Mr President, in the Pacific, we have nothing but our natural resources, land and sea as the only means of sustaining our livelihood. Tourism, on the other hand[,] is an added value to our fragile economy. The Pacific is surrounded by vast ocean and the concern for the delay in demining and the proper disposal of these WWII ordnances in our respective sea beds is somewhat a sensitive issue to discuss diplomatically with major donors such as Japan, US etc given their direct involvement in the war.
These WWII ordnances significantly pose unprecedented threats to our Pacific Ocean, our environment, resources and if not expeditiously addressed now, it could destroy our only source of livelihood. Fiji, currently Chairs the Melanesian Spearhead Group which includes Vanuatu, Solomons, and Papua New Guinea and these countries were then regarded as battle fields in the WWII. Hence, on the margin of this forum, we would be able to focus on specific areas of assistance and development to these countries by maintaining our Pacific as a safe and secure place to live.
… The Fiji government being renowned for its active participation in the various UN peace keeping missions since the 1970’s, stands ready to provide resources in a form of assisting smaller Island States with affirmative action to engage collaboratively in the clearance, demining of active landmines, cluster munitions and other related WWII ordinances.  
Fiji, Statement by the head of the Fiji delegation submitted during the 11th Meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, Phnom Penh, 29 November 2011, pp. 1–3.
France
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, France stated:
France takes it that article 4 and the Technical Annex to amended Protocol II do not require the removal or replacement of mines that have already been laid …
The provisions of amended Protocol II such as those concerning the marking, monitoring and protection of zones which contain anti-personnel mines and are under the control of a party, are applicable to all zones containing mines, irrespective of the date on which those mines were laid. 
France, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 23 July 1998.
France
In 2009, the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of France stated:
France attaches the highest importance to action against mines … Under … the fight against … antipersonnel mines … , in particular the economic contribution to the clearance of affected zones … , our country will continue to meet its commitments … [France engages in] training in humanitarian demining and destruction of munitions … France voluntarily contributes to several UN peacekeeping operations … which engage … in humanitarian demining operations. Also, demining actions are carried out in the context of military external operations carried out by the French army. 
France, Response from the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs to parliamentary written question No. 62431, Journal officiel de la République française, 15 December 2009, p. 11965.
Germany
In 2004, in its Annual Disarmament Report 2003, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
The Ottawa Convention is the central treaty body on the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines (APM) and since its coming into force on 1 March 1999 a milestone of international humanitarian law.
Apart from its commitment to the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, the Federal Government has also given increased assistance in mine and ordnance clearance … In 2003, the Federal Government overall made 17.4 million euros available to projects. Concrete mine and ordnance clearance is given prominence, other measures concern information of the population, training of local mine clearers, establishing of national structures for mine clearing, technical equipment and provision of care for victims. An important aim of the Federal Government regarding these projects is the promotion of modern mine clearance procedures adapted to the local circumstances. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2003, 14 May 2004, pp. 51–52.
Germany
In 2005, its Annual Disarmament Report 2004, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
The Ottawa Convention is the central treaty body on the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines (APM) and since its coming into force on 1 March 1999 a milestone of international humanitarian law.
As part of its commitment to the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, the Federal Government also gives assistance in mine and ordnance clearing … In 2004, the Federal Government overall made 16 million euros available to bilateral projects … Mine and ordnance clearance by means of modern procedures adapted to the local circumstances are given prominence; other measures concern information of the population, training of local mine clearers, establishing of national structures for mine clearing, technical equipment and provision of care for victims. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2004, 17 June 2005, pp. 53–54.
Germany
In 2006, in its Annual Disarmament Report 2005, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
The Ottawa Convention is the central treaty body on the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines (APM) and since its coming into force on 1 March 1999 a milestone of international humanitarian law.
As part of its commitment to the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, the Federal Government gives assistance in mine and ordnance clearance, in particular where mines and unexploded ordnance are a pressing humanitarian problem. To this purpose, approximately 154 million euros were spent in 36 countries since 1992. In 2005, the Federal Government overall made 17,5 million euros available to bilateral projects … To be added is the German contribution of almost 24 percent to the payments of the EU Commission, which in 2004 came to approximately 58 million euros. The European Union (member States and Commission together) is worldwide the biggest donor in the area of humanitarian mine clearance. Apart from mine and ordnance clearance, assistance includes measures to inform populations threatened by mines, support of national mine clearance institutions, training of local mine clearance staff, as well as care for victims in affected populations. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2005, 12 May 2006, p. 49.
Germany
In 2006, in its report on the cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Nations in the years 2004 and 2005, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
11. Ottawa Convention on the global ban on anti-personnel mines
… As an element of its dedication to the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines the Federal Government gives assistance to mine and ordnance clearance, in particular where they are a pressing humanitarian problem (see: Humanitarian Demining).
2.3. Humanitarian Demining
Since the mid-90s, the Federal Government has promoted the ban on anti-personnel mines on the political level and had a leading role in the development and implementation of the Ottawa Convention. In parallel to that, the funds spent on humanitarian mine and ordnance clearance have been considerably increased. In 2005, the Federal Government provided 16.6 million euros for mine and unexploded ordnance clearance, for victim support and for information on the dangers of mines. 
Germany, Federal Government, Report on the Cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Nations in the Years 2004 and 2005, 7 December 2006, pp. 18 and 39.
Germany
In 2007, in its Annual Disarmament Report 2006, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
The Ottawa Convention is the decisive treaty body on the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines (APM) and therefore since its coming into force on 1 March 1999 a milestone of international humanitarian law.
As part of its commitment to the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, the Federal Government gives assistance in mine and ordnance clearance, in particular where mines and unexploded ordnance are a pressing humanitarian problem. To this purpose, approximately 154 million euros were spent in 36 countries since 1992. In 2006, the Federal Government overall made 15,27 million euros available to bilateral projects … To be added is the German contribution of almost 24 percent to the payments of the EU Commission, which in 2005 [came to] approximately 58 million euros.
The European Union (member States and Commission together) is worldwide the biggest donor in the area of humanitarian mine clearance. Apart from mine and ordnance clearance, assistance includes measures to inform populations threatened by mines, support of national mine clearance institutions, training of local mine clearance staff, as well as care for victims in affected populations. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2006, 27 April 2007, pp. 28–29.
Germany
In 2009, in its Annual Disarmament Report 2008, submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
The [1997] Ottawa Convention is the decisive treaty body on the worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines and therefore since its coming into force on 1 March 1999 a milestone of international humanitarian law.
As part of its commitment for a worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, Germany assists in the removal of mines and other means of warfare, in particular in areas where mines and unexploded ordinances are a pressing humanitarian problem. To this purpose, approximately 170 million euros have been spent in 42 countries since 1992. … To be added is the German contribution of approximately 20 percent to the payments of the EU Commission.
The European Union (member States and Commission) is worldwide the biggest donor in the area of humanitarian mine clearance. Since 1997 it has spent more than 1.5 billion euros on the clearance of mines and means of warfare, supporting national mine clearance institutions, training of local mine clearance staff, as well as care for victims in affected populations. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2008, 21 January 2009, pp. 22–23.
Germany
In 2010, in its Annual Disarmament Report 2009 submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
The 2nd Review Conference [of the 1997 Ottawa Convention held in Cartagena, Colombia, in 2009] succeeded in drafting a good report that draws conclusions on the previous five years and in adopting an action plan for the next five years which essentially focuses on the topics of universalization, clearance of mine fields, care for victims and international cooperation. Moreover, all contracting States present at the conference signed the Cartagena Declaration which emphasizes the central objectives of the Ottawa Convention (no future victims, comprehensive mine clearance and universalization).
As part of its commitment for a worldwide ban on anti-personnel mines, Germany assists in the removal of mines and other means of warfare, in particular in areas where mines and unexploded ordinances are a pressing humanitarian problem. To this purpose, approximately 185 million euros have been spent in 42 countries since 1992. … To be added is the German contribution of approximately 20 percent to the payments of the EU Commission. 
Germany, Federal Government, Annual Disarmament Report 2009, 13 January 2010, p. 23; see also Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Agnes Malczack, Dr. Gerhard Schick, Marieluise Beck (Bremen), further Members and the Parliamentary Group BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, BT-Drs. 17/3185, 5 October 2010, pp. 4–5.
Germany
In 2010, in its report on German humanitarian aid abroad between 2006 and 2009, submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
Humanitarian removal of mines …
Humanitarian removal of mines … is designed to directly save the lives of individuals, mitigate the suffering of the population and reduce the socio-economic impact in countries affected by mines … Affected countries are supported in the removal of mines … , the population is informed about existing dangers and victims receive care. Moreover, the affected countries are supported in fulfilling their international legal obligations under the [1980] “UN Conventional Weapons Convention”, the [1997] “Ottawa Convention” and in the future the [2008] “Oslo Convention”. Projects are usually supported for a year, with subsequent support being envisaged if the projects ensure the development of national and local structures as well as sustainability. 
Germany, Report by the Federal Government on German Humanitarian Aid Abroad 2006 to 2009, 5 August 2010, p. 11.
The Federal Government also stated:
The Federal Foreign Office supports projects around the world for the humanitarian removal of mines and remnants of war and has given approximately 183.5 million euros since 1992 to projects in 42 countries. Efforts concerning the humanitarian removal of mines … , raising awareness about the danger, and care for the victims are usually supported in States parties to the Ottawa Convention … Exceptions are possible if mines … constitute a particularly pressing humanitarian problem. However, pursuant to the purpose identified in the budget, there are no financial resources for disarmament measures such as the destruction of stockpile. Geographic focal areas in the reporting period were Afghanistan, the Balkans, Angola, Cambodia, Tajikistan, Sudan, Viet Nam and Laos. In the reporting period, the total financial support amounted to 91.958.725 euros … including funds for the stability pacts in Afghanistan and South East Europe. … Added to this must be projects of the BMZ [Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development] of about 2.3 million euros in the reporting period. The armed forces (Bundeswehr) support the removal of mines and remnants of war by providing expertise and by on occasion seconding qualified personnel. 
Germany, Report by the Federal Government on German Humanitarian Aid Abroad 2006 to 2009, 5 August 2010, p. 13; see also Report by the Federal Government on Measures to Implement Security Council Resolution 1325 “Women, Peace and Security”, Communication of the Federal Government, 3 December 2010, BT-Drs. 17/4152, p. 13.
The Federal Government further stated:
Since most States affected [by landmines] do not dispose of the financial resources necessary for solving the problem with their own means, international support is still required. Through the contributions of the Federal Foreign Office, the BMZ and the BMVg [Federal Ministry of Defence], the Federal Government has positioned itself well internationally in the area of humanitarian removal of mines … and has, as one of the largest and most reliable global donors, lived up to its high-profile role in the implementation and dissemination of the [Ottawa Convention]. 
Germany, Report by the Federal Government on German Humanitarian Aid Abroad 2006 to 2009, 5 August 2010, p. 14.
Honduras
In 1994, during the debate in the UN General Assembly that preceded the adoption of Resolution 49/215, Honduras stated that it was “grateful for the work the Secretary-General has done in connection with the establishment of a fund for assistance in mine clearance” and that it supported the mine-clearance work of the OAS in the Central America region. 
Honduras, Statement before the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/49/PV.95, 23 December 1994, p. 3.
India
In 2003, at the 5th Annual Conference of the States Parties to the Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the head of the Indian delegation stated:
India remains committed to full and effective implementation of the Amended Protocol II and has taken all the required measures to ensure the compliance with its provisions …
Mr. President, in India only the armed forces are permitted to use landmines. They have well- established Standard of Operation Procedures whereby minefields are laid along border areas as a part of military operations and are explicitly marked and fenced to prevent causalities to innocent civilians or grazing cattle. Mines had to be laid along our western border in 2002 and by last month, over 90 percent of mines laid had been recovered. The target of 100 percent recovery of all mines that have been laid will be achieved shortly.
As a result of the Government of India’s policy on landmines, we are in a position to state that there is no interior part of India that could be regarded as mine afflicted. … The Corps of Engineers of the Indian Army continue to aid civil authorities in defusing and clearing improvised explosive devices used indiscriminately by terrorists in some parts of the country. 
India, Statement by the head of the Indian delegation at the 5th Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 26 November 2003.
India
In 2005, in a statement at the 7th Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the head of the Indian delegation stated:
The Indian army has acquired considerable technical expertise in defusing and clearing mines and improvised explosive devices. This expertise has been extensively applied in UN-sponsored mine clearance programmes in several peacekeeping operations that India has participated in, including those in Angola, Bosnia, Cambodia, Congo, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Somalia. We are in favour of strengthened technical cooperation in mine clearance programmes, including the unrestricted transfer of mine detection and clearance technology, equipment and training …
India supports measures undertaken by the States Parties for the universalization of AP II [the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] … I take this opportunity to urge those who have not done so to ratify the [1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] and its five protocols as soon as possible. My delegation looks forward to a useful exchange of views on the implementation of the Protocol, to which we have committed ourselves with the objective of securing a mine-free world. 
India, Statement by the Head of the Indian Delegation at the 7th Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 23 November 2005.
India
In 2007, at the Ninth Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the permanent representative of India to the Conference on Disarmament stated:
It would be appropriate at this Conference to provide details of India’s national implementation of Amended Protocol-II under specific heads.
Mine clearance programmes
• India’s armed forces have not used mines for maintenance of law and order or in internal security situations, or even for combating terrorists and terrorist organisations, including those that have indiscriminately used improvised explosive devices and mines. The Corps of Army Engineers continues to aid civil authorities in defusing and clearing such devices.
• Whenever and wherever the army has used mines for defensive military operations, the mines have been laid within fenced perimeters and marked, in accordance with the requirements specified in Amended Protocol-II. Post-operations, these mines have been cleared by trained troops and arable land handed back to the owners at the earliest.
International cooperation for mine clearance
• India remains committed to providing mine-related assistance under the UN umbrella. India is one of the largest contributors to the UN peacekeeping operations the world over. Cambodia, Angola and Afghanistan, where we have carried out de-mining operations, are perhaps the most heavily mined countries in the world. In Cambodia, the Indian Army had deployed de-mining supervising teams as far back as 1991. After training several de-mining platoons, de-mining of specific areas was entrusted to these teams, resulting in hundreds of square kilometres of land being cleared of mines. Our training effort towards this end continues even today. In Angola, the Indian Army had undertaken large-scale de-mining operations under the UN umbrella in 1995. More recently, in connection with the Indian Government’s programme of constructing a road in the heavily mined south-western part of Afghanistan, from Zaranj to Delaram, we have undertaken a de-mining operation since December 2005, which is very nearly done, and the road construction now is in full swing.
Technical cooperation and assistance
• India has been a ready provider of technical assistance and expertise for mine clearance and rehabilitation programmes in international de-mining efforts. Besides contributing to participating in national, regional and international workshops and seminars, an Indian Army team imparted training to the Cambodian Army on de-mining operations in March 2007. Thereafter, the trained Cambodian army detachments have undertaken de-mining operations in Sudan under the aegis of UNMIS, starting from mid-2007. 
India, Statement by the permanent representative of India to the Conference on Disarmament at the Ninth Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 6 November 2007.
India
In 2012, in a statement during a debate in the Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) on the situation in Sri Lanka, India’s Minister of External Affairs stated:
The end of the long period of armed conflict in Sri Lanka in May 2009, left around 3,00,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) living in camps in Northern Sri Lanka and general devastation of infrastructure in the affected areas.
… The Government of India has implemented and continues to implement a wide range of projects covering assistance projects for IDPs in the areas of housing, de-mining, …
India also announced the construction of 50,000 houses, mainly for IDPs in Sri Lanka … It may also be kept in mind that construction is taking place in largely inaccessible areas, which in many cases [have] to be freed of mines and other explosive ordinance and cleared of jungle. 
India, Statement by the Minister of External Affairs during a debate in the Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) on the situation in Sri Lanka, 14 March 2012.
Iraq
In 2010, Iraq’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a press release entitled “Iraq takes part in the 10th meeting of the [S]tate [P]arties of the [C]onvention to ban anti-personnel mines”, which stated:
Iraq ha[s] taken part in the tenth meeting of [S]tate [P]arties of the [C]onvention to ban anti[-]personnel mines. …
On the sidelines of the conference, Iraq[’s] permanent representation in Geneva inaugurated a photo gallery at the headquarters of the UN, showing the state of land mines in Iraq and the efforts extended by the Iraq[i] institutions to clear its territories [from] land mines and help and rehabilitate their victims.  
Iraq, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Iraq takes part in the 10th meeting of the [S]tate [P]arties of the [C]onvention to ban anti-personnel mines”, Press Release, 13 December 2010.
Israel
Upon accession to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Israel stated:
With respect to Protocol II [to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], it is the understanding of the Government of Israel that:
(i) Any obligation to record the location of remotely delivered mines pursuant to sub-paragraph 1(a) of article 5 refers to the location of mine fields and not to the location of individual remotely delivered mines;
(ii) the term pre-planned, as used in sub-paragraph 1(a) of article 7, means that the position of the minefield in question should have been determined in advance so that an accurate record of the location of the minefield, when laid, can be made. 
Israel, Declarations and statements of understanding made upon accession to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 22 March 1995, § c.
Italy
In 1976, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Italy stated that “the obligation to record the location of minefields and to fit a neutralizing mechanism on remotely delivered mines provided a satisfactory guarantee for the civilian population”. 
Italy, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.29, 25 May 1976, p. 297, § 20.
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya raised the issue of the clearance of mines on its territory dating from the Second World War and stated that it had “asked the countries concerned, bilaterally or through the United Nations, to provide us with maps of the minefields, to help us in the necessary demining operations and to pay compensation for the damage these mines have caused”. 
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.8, 20 October 1995, p. 18.
Netherlands
Upon ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the Netherlands stated: “With regard to article 8, paragraph 1, of Protocol II: It is the understanding of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that the words ‘as far as it is able’ mean ‘as far as it is technically able’.” 
Netherlands, Declaration made upon ratification of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 18 June 1987, § 3.
Norway
In 2009, in a statement at the Second Review Conference of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, Norway’s Minister of Foreign Affairs stated:
We must ensure that mined areas are cleared.
That the remaining stockpiles are destroyed and that victims and survivors enjoy their rights.
Compliance will make a difference. 
Norway, Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Second Review Conference of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, 3 December 2009.
Pakistan
In 1993, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Pakistan stated that it would have preferred “a more comprehensive approach to the issue of uncleared anti-personnel mines” and that “issues relating to self-neutralizing mines should also be considered”. 
Pakistan, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/48/SR.28, 18 November 1993, p. 8.
Pakistan
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Pakistan stated: “Millions of indiscriminately used mines threaten civilian populations in over 60 countries. There must be a global commitment to remove these mines, especially those in developing countries.” 
Pakistan, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.8, 26 October 1995, p. 19.
Pakistan
At the First Annual Conference of High Contracting Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1999, Pakistan stated that it would convert its entire stock of anti-personnel mines to detectable mines. 
Pakistan, Statement at the First Annual Conference of High Contracting Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Geneva, 17 December 1999.
Peru
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Peru stated that it supported the “establishment of a voluntary fund to finance information and training programmes on de-mining” and stated that it would definitely contribute to the fund. 
Peru, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.9, 25 October 1995, p. 11.
Poland
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Poland stated that it had “pledged to make an important contribution to the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance”. 
Poland, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.9, 25 October 1995, p. 7.
Poland
In 2008, in a letter to the Managing Director of the Polish Red Cross, Poland’s Minister of Foreign Affairs stated:
In response to your letter … concerning the ratification by the Republic of Poland of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, which had been adopted in Oslo on 18 September 1997 (Ottawa Convention), I would like to provide the following information.
For Poland, becoming signatory to the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention on 4 December 1997 gave rise to certain consequences under international law, including the obligation not to undertake any actions which could conflict with the contents or objectives of the Convention. …
Poland also supports the [1996] United Nations General Assembly Resolution on assistance in mine clearance …
For more than a decade, Poland has been providing assistance in mitigating the impact of the mine crisis across the world, participating in mine clearance activities in post-conflict areas, as part of peacekeeping and stability-building efforts. Polish sappers have played a significant role in international activities to clear and disarm mines … At the moment, approximately 100 sappers are directly involved in a variety of peacekeeping missions beyond Poland’s borders, clearing mines … The related costs are estimated at over 1 million euros per year. 
Poland, Letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Managing Director of the Polish Red Cross, 19 February 2008.
Senegal
In 2011, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Senegal stated:
- The Committee notes that the conflict in Casamance sometimes impedes effective implementation of the [1984] Convention [against Torture]
187. The comprehensive peace agreement of 30 December 2004 concluded between the Government of Senegal and the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance has dramatically improved the situation, despite the sporadic but regrettable acts of violence committed by isolated armed gangs and the number of anti-personnel landmine victims.
191. … The Casamance region has benefited from a targeted development programme designed in line with its specific geographical position and post-conflict situation, as provided for under the aforementioned comprehensive peace agreement.
192. This development programme is referred to in the preamble to the peace agreement and is explicitly mentioned in article 4, entitled “Economic and social recovery”, which reads as follows: “The State urges the national agency responsible for social and economic recovery in Casamance to mobilize NGOs and specialized mine-clearance agencies, in partnership with the Armed Forces and the former combatants of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance, to begin the humanitarian demining of the Casamance region without delay in order to facilitate the resumption of economic activities.” 
Senegal, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 5 October 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/SEN/3, submitted 9 February 2011, §§ 187 and 191–192.
Senegal
In 2013, in its third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Senegal stated:
Measures adopted to protect children in Casamance
137. The Government has already launched a series of measures for this purpose. The National Agency to Revive Economic and Social Activity in Casamance (ANRAC) has been established with annual national funding of around 99 million, plus funding from development partners.
138. The aim of ANRAC is to rehabilitate and rebuild social infrastructure, … to develop conflict warning and prevention activities, as well as to address the social and environmental impact of conflicts. These activities complement those relating to … demining …
139. Alongside ANRAC, other activities have been launched for the protection of children as part of the partnership with UNICEF and various NGOs, aimed at improving the prevention of accidents due to land mines by providing training to 2,000 volunteers, establishing 15 community networks and displaying warning signs throughout Casamance drawing attention to the dangers of mines. In 120 villages, more than 40,000 children and their families were made aware of the dangers of mines. Teachers were trained in stress management and dealing with the dangers of mines, while child mine victims received psychosocial and material assistance through a partnership with Handicap International. Additionally, in 2007 the Government established a humanitarian demining programme through the National Anti-Mine Centre of Senegal. Demining operations began progressively in 2008 and 16 villages have been cleared, allowing their inhabitants to return. By mid-June 2012, 6 other villages were declared demined and ready to be repopulated.  
Senegal, Third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 March 2015, UN Doc. CRC/C/SEN/3–5, submitted 29 April 2013, §§ 137–139.
Sweden
At the Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1978, Sweden stated that certain limitations on the use of conventional weapons should be agreed upon by the participants including “that minefields on land must be charted when they were laid, so that they could be cleared at the end of hostilities and not remain as permanent hazards to life”. 
Sweden, Statement at the United Nations Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Doc. A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./I/SR.4, 31 August 1978, p. 2.
Switzerland
In 2007, in its Mine Action Strategy 2008 to 2011, Switzerland stated: “The mine action strategy of the Swiss Confederation for the period 2008 to 2011 covers all aspects of mine action, including the field of explosive remnants of war (ERW). It defines Switzerland’s main lines of action over the next few years aimed at contributing towards the global struggle against anti-personnel mines and explosive remnants of war.” 
Switzerland, Mine Action Strategy 2008 to 2011, 31 December 2007, Introduction.
The Strategy further stated:
- Legal obligations: In the course of the 1990s, the international community pursued significant efforts aimed at limiting the grave humanitarian consequences of the problems associated with landmines and explosive remnants of war. New legal instruments were created that restrict the use of landmines or introduce precise regulations facilitating demining and the clearance of affected zones. 
Switzerland, Mine Action Strategy 2008 to 2011, 31 December 2007, Part 1.
[footnote in original omitted]
The Strategy further stated:
4.3. Strategic goals:
Within the context of the existing challenges and its own lines of action, Switzerland has defined the following … strategic goals in mine action and related activities for the period between 2008 and 2011:
4. Clearance of affected areas of land.
4.4. Political and operational objectives:
The Federal Government has set itself the following political and operational objectives …:
4. Clearance of affected land:
- Contribution to projects in States Parties that can meet the deadline of 10 years stipulated in the Ottawa Convention.
- Contribution to projects in States Parties that can in all likelihood not meet the deadline of 10 years stipulated in the Ottawa Convention, but which set out to fulfil their obligations while taking account of their limited possibilities.
- Contributions to mine action projects that are within the priorities of Switzerland’s policies for promotion of peace and human security, development co-operation and humanitarian aid.
- Financial and material contributions to the GICHD [Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining] for the development of international mine action standards and their translation into national standards.
- Financial and material contributions to the GICHD for the development of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) and for the development of related products.
- Contribution (including within the GICHD) towards the promotion of development instruments aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of humanitarian demining.
- Contribution (in particular within the GICHD) towards the promotion of the integration of action against mines into Switzerland’s commitments in favour of peace promotion and development. 
Switzerland, Mine Action Strategy 2008 to 2011, 31 December 2007, Part 4.3(4) and Part 4.4(4); see also Part 3.
[footnote in original omitted]
Switzerland
In 2009, in its Report on Foreign Policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
Switzerland supports international efforts … for the destruction of anti-personnel mines with financial and diplomatic resources.
The second mine action strategy of the [Swiss] Confederation covers the 2008 to 2011 period and defines six objectives:
1) implementation and global application of the [1997] Ottawa Convention (Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction);
2) implementation and global application … of the [1996] Amended Protocol II to the [1980] Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW);
4) demining of mined areas;
Switzerland … will focus on the progress needed for the destruction of stocks and complete demining. The delays of certain States in this domain are a concern to many countries. … It also supports programs of the UN, concerned States and NGOs by providing them material and demining experts, and by ensuring the transfer of know-how to the areas of concern. …
Switzerland also supports the Centre for humanitarian demining in Geneva, which acts as the secretariat of the Ottawa Convention since 2001. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2009, 2 September 2009, Section 3.3.5.2, pp. 5790–5791.
[footnote in original omitted; emphasis in original]
The Federal Council further stated: “In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the FDFA [Federal Department of Foreign Affairs] will continue to support humanitarian demining [efforts]. An action of this type will also take place in Kosovo.” 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2009, 2 September 2009, Section 3.3.6.2, p. 5798; see also p. 5801.
Switzerland
In 2010, in its Report on Foreign Policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
Switzerland … endeavours to reduce armed violence in the world, in particular as regards anti-personnel mines …
Ten years after the entry into force of the [1997] Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, … there are however a number of important challenges to note: … a number of State parties are not up to date with their obligations concerning demining and the destruction of stockpiles. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2010, 10 December 2010, Section 4.2.2, p. 1093.
Switzerland
In 2011, Switzerland’s Federal Council issued a Communiqué on the continuation of measures promoting peace and human security 2012–2016, which stated:
There has been impressive progress since the entry into force of the [1997] Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (Ottawa Convention) in 1999, but there remains much to be done: 39 State Parties still have to clear the[ir] mined areas. Switzerland participates … in the demining campaigns … We support the International Centre for the Humanitarian Demining (CIDHG) – the main centre of competence in the fight against landmines. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Communiqué on the continuation of measures promoting peace and human security 2012–2016, 29 June 2011, p. 5905.
Switzerland
In 2012, in its Report on Foreign Policy 2011, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated: “Thanks to Switzerland’s support, in 2011 Burundi could declare itself mine-free according to Article 5 of the [1997] Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines.” 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2011, 18 January 2012, pp. 2759–2760.
[footnote in original omitted]
In the report, the Federal Council also stated:
Twelve years after the entry into force of the [1997] Ottawa Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines, we are approaching the elimination of this type of weapon. Major challenges nevertheless remain: about forty countries still do not adhere to the convention and a number of States Parties are not up to date with their obligations related to demining and destruction of their stockpiles. Switzerland is actively engaged in the implementation of the Ottawa Convention. In 2011, together with Colombia, we co-chaired the permanent [Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies Standing Committee]. … We are one of the few countries that have developed a strategy for humanitarian demining and elimination of unexploded ammunition; a strategy that is regularly reviewed. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2011, 18 January 2012, p. 2763.
[footnote in original omitted]
Switzerland
In 2012, in the report on Switzerland’s arms control and disarmament policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
In line with its humanitarian tradition, Switzerland has worked for long time on the complete prohibition of anti-personnel mines. In 1998, it was one of the first countries to ratify the [1997] Convention on the Prohibition of use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mine and on their destruction (Ottawa Convention), which provides for a complete destruction of anti-personnel mine stockpiles. It destroyed its entire stockpiles in 1999. For the years 2012 to 2015, the Confederation’s anti-mine strategy has taken the form of an inter-departmental process. … The strategy identifies four goals:
3. Encourage integration of humanitarian demining into other political areas and operational activities, which affect Switzerland directly or indirectly; develop instruments aimed at measuring the impact.
4. Proactively promote development of new instruments, policies and activities in humanitarian demining and in related areas.
The Confederation continues to dedicate some 16 million Swiss francs a year to political and operational activities linked to the fight against anti-personnel mines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war. About a half of this sum goes to the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), the main centre of competence in this area, which provides an essential contribution to the development of effective norms and methods. Furthermore, Switzerland held the presidency of the Ottawa Convention in 2008/2009 and together with Colombia chaired [the Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies Standing Committee] of the [1997] Ottawa Convention.
Switzerland is also a member of the Mine Action Support Group that unites 28 main donor countries. In the area of demining, the focus of Switzerland’s commitment is South-East Europe, South-East Asia and the Middle East. 
Switzerland, Report of the Federal Council on Switzerland’s arms control and disarmament policy, 30 November 2012, pp. 24–25.
Switzerland
In 2012, in a speech at the 12th Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, the head of Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs stated:
Getting the world rid of the scourge of anti-personnel mines is thus a question of joint willingness; it is also a question of the willingness of each State.
Switzerland’s willingness translates itself into three political priorities: universality, security and sustainability.
2. Security thanks to mine clearance
Switzerland welcomes the considerable progress that has been made, as we are aware of how difficult this work is. But Switzerland is also concerned about the delay of a number of countries in achieving the stated objectives. There is no such a thing as partial demining! … An area remains mined until all mines, without exception, are removed. Only a complete mine clearance allows sustainable development of a region and prevents new victims.
Switzerland has adopted its strategy for humanitarian demining for the years 20012–2015. 
Switzerland, Speech by the head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs at the 12th Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, 3 December 2012.
Switzerland
In 2013, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued the document “Women, Peace and Security: National Action Plan to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)”, which stated:
SUBORDINATE GOAL 3
Switzerland implements UNSCR [UN Security Council resolution] 1325 during and after violent conflicts, as well as in fragile contexts through its bilateral measures for emergency aid, reconstruction and dealing with the past.
Measures
4 Activities, programmes and projects of humanitarian demining and clearance of explosive remnants of war integrate gender aspects and take account of the specific needs of girls and women. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Women, Peace and Security: National Action Plan to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), 2013, p. 17.
Switzerland
In 2013, in a statement at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, the representative of Switzerland stated:
Switzerland supports mine action projects, including clearance projects, both with financial contributions and expertise with regard to the information management, accounting and logistics, or also the donation of so-called SM EOD Charges that allow a contact free disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and mines.
In 2012, Switzerland’s financial contributions to mine action slightly increased to previous years to a total of over 17 [million] CHF in total, within the framework of the strategy of the Swiss Confederation. Most of these resources went towards supporting clearance activities …
Also for the coming years, Switzerland will keep and if possible even extend its engagement in the domain of clearance. 
Switzerland, Statement by the representative of Switzerland at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, 12 September 2013.
Thailand
In 1995, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Thailand stated that it appreciated “the efforts of the United Nations in drawing up a comprehensive mine clearance programme, in launching mine awareness activities, and, more importantly, in establishing the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for land mine-affected countries”. 
Thailand, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/50/PV.5, 17 October 1995, p. 16.
Thailand
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Thailand stated:
48. International instruments relevant to the issue of the involvement of children in armed conflict to which Thailand is a State party include the following:
(29) Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, 18 September 1997.
49. Efforts have been taken to monitor Thailand’s progress toward implementing its obligations under these agreements. Notably, the National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action and the National Mine Action Center were established pursuant to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction [1997 Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines]. The Center acts as focal point for all humanitarian operations concerning landmines. Four operations units were established to coordinate, monitor and implement mine clearance, landmine/unexploded ordnance [s]urvey, mine awareness and victim assistance activities throughout Thailand. These units are required to submit a monthly report on the results of the operations. 
Thailand, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 19 July 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/1, submitted 30 October 2009, §§ 48–49.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, during a debate in the House of Commons, the UK Secretary of State for International Development stated:
There are absolute duties under the Ottawa convention [on Anti-Personnel Mines] to record any use of munitions that may damage civilians, and the British military fully adheres to all international treaties and humanitarian obligations. Our troops always de-mine in the first instance, as they are trying to do in the waterways of Iraq now, so that they can bring in humanitarian supplies. Thereafter, we will probably bring in UNMAS [UN Mine Action Service], the UN body that looks for mines, because Iraq will have to be de-mined if it is to be reconstructed. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Statement by the Secretary of State for International Development, Hansard, 24 March 2003, Vol. 402, Debates, col. 43.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a letter to the President of the UN Security Council, the Permanent Representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States to the United Nations wrote:
The United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners, working through the Coalition Provisional Authority, shall inter alia, provide for security in and for the provisional administration of Iraq, including by: … supporting and coordinating demining and related activities. 
United Kingdom, Letter by the Permanent Representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States to the United Nations to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/2003/538, 8 May 2003.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, the removal of mines and other munitions in Iraq, the UK Minister of State for Defence stated:
Since the end of major combat operations UK and other Coalition forces have been engaged in clearing sites containing unexploded ordnance. In the UK’s area of responsibility an average of about 45 new sites have been discovered each week. Whenever a site is discovered UK forces mark the site and inform those in the vicinity. The munitions are then recovered or destroyed as soon as resources permit. To date around 1,600 sites have been cleared, containing about 619,000 munitions. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Minister of State for Defence, Hansard, 17 November 2003, Vol. 413, Written Answers, col. 504W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, landmine clearance in the Falkland Islands, the UK Foreign Secretary stated:
Under the Ottawa Convention [on Anti-Personnel Mines], the obligation to clear all the landmines by 2009 falls upon the United Kingdom. States Parties in a position to do so are obliged to provide assistance for mine clearance and related activities. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Foreign Secretary, Hansard, 3 November 2004, Vol. 426, Written Answers, col. 344W.
United States of America
In 1976, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the United States supported “reasonable and feasible requirements for recording the location of minefields”. 
United States, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.29, 25 May 1976, p. 300, § 35.
United States of America
In 2003, the Permanent Representatives of the United States and the United Kingdom to the United Nations wrote in a letter to the President of the UN Security Council:
The United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners, working through the Coalition Provisional Authority, shall inter alia, provide for security in and for the provisional administration of Iraq, including by … supporting and coordinating demining and related activities. 
United States, Letter from the Permanent Representatives of the United States and the United Kingdom to the United Nations to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/2003/538, 8 May 2003.
Viet Nam
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Viet Nam stated:
243. … Viet Nam … suffers from serious consequences of historically prolonged and fierce wars. Children have been amongst those that have suffered the most. The country has made significant efforts in the communication and education as well as in prevention and control of unexploded … mines … left behind from wars. This has been carried out through organizing training courses for children and their families, as well as for staff at all levels. In addition, communication campaigns have been launched via the mass media and children have been provided with peer education, community-based education, as well as the integration of communication and education on the dangers of mines … into education curriculums of primary schools in areas suffering serious consequences of unexploded mines … Support and subsidy have been given to … children wounded by unexploded mines … left from wars. In addition to the Government’s efforts, Viet Nam has received important assistance from international organizations, governments of other countries and non-governmental organizations … Thousands of children however, still suffer from disfigurement, malformations, and long-term health and brain-detriments … due inter alia to unexploded mines … left over from wars.
244. In the future, Viet Nam will join international community efforts in improving education and health conditions, mobilizing resources and providing technical support to social programmes that address long-term consequences of the wars, and to therefore, speed up the implementation of relevant international legal provisions. The Government of Viet Nam calls for further supports from the United Nations, international organizations and governments of other countries to help the country redress consequences of the wars, especially consequences that affect children. 
Viet Nam, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 25 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/VNM/3-4, submitted 3 August 2009, §§ 243–244.
[footnote in original omitted]
Zimbabwe
In 2012, on the occasion of the 32nd anniversary of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, the President of Zimbabwe stated:
I am heartened to note that the Zimbabwe Defence Forces have over the years continued to be involved in the humanitarian work of removing anti-personnel landmines that were planted along our borders with Zambia and Mozambique. … Today marks thirty-two years after the hostilities ended and yet we still have the dangerous weapons indiscriminately wreaking havoc on civilian populations, their livestock as well as wild life in the vicinity of the minefields. Regrettably progress in this exercise has been limited because of inadequate resources as the demining process is a very slow and expensive process.
International law surprisingly puts the responsibility of removing the landmines on the Governments of the affected countries instead of punishing those responsible for planting them. … While support in this area was briefly extended to us by the American Government and the European Union in the late 1990s, it was quickly withdrawn soon after the turn of the century… Since then, the programme has been squarely the responsibility of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces Engineer Corps, who are currently deployed at the Sango Border Post to Crooks Corner minefield.
Recent developments in the area of demining have seen the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) coming in to assist the Zimbabwe Defence Forces Engineer Corps by training their deminers as well as providing them with modern demining equipment that will further boost their demining capacity. We sincerely welcome this assistance and urge the ICRC to consider doing more [o]n this highly deserving humanitarian issue. 
Zimbabwe, Speech by the President of the Republic and Commander-in-Chief of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces on the occasion of the 32nd anniversary of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, 14 August 2012.
Zimbabwe
In 2013, on the occasion of the 33rd anniversary of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, the President of Zimbabwe stated:
As we might be aware, Zimbabwe is a State Party of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Landmines, which we ratified in 1999. The Convention brings together all States that have problems of landmines. Zimbabweans will recall that since independence, the country has grappled with the scourge of anti-personnel landmines that were laid by the Smith regime along our borders with Mozambique and Zambia. The need to clear these landmines saw us join the Ottawa Convention, which among other obligations, required us to clear most landmines within our territory within ten years of our joining the Convention, that is, by 2009. However, due to the costly nature of landmine clearance and the unavailability of resources on our part, Zimbabwe could not meet this deadline. Consequently we had to seek and were granted three successive extensions, with the latest 24-month extension granted in November last year.
In pursuit of this objective of meeting our deadline, members of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces have been tirelessly working on the clearance of landmines along our border with Mozambique. Relatively slow progress has been registered on the Sango Border Post to Crooks Corner minefield owing to limited available resources.
In a bid to quicken up the process of clearing the landmines, the Ministry of Defence contracted two International De-mining Non-Governmental Organizations, which will complement the military deminers’ efforts. One of the NGOs has already started work while the other one is set to start soon after its logistical arrangements are in place.
Landmines have continued to be a menace to the communities living around the minefields and a hindrance to their access to the productive use of their land. In addition to the work they undertook on the Sango Border Post to Crooks Corner minefield, members of the Zimbabwe National Army Engineer Demining Squadron also cleared landmines on approximately 2400 square metres of land at Kariba Power Station from March to May 2013. 
Zimbabwe, Speech by the President of the Republic and Commander-in-Chief of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces on the occasion of the 33rd anniversary of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, 13 August 2013.
Zimbabwe
In 2014, in an oral answer to a question without notice in the Senate, Zimbabwe’s Minister of Defence stated:
[I]t is true as we all know that during the liberation war, the Rhodesians planted a lot of landmines along our borders with Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa … After Independence, we launched a programme that was initially supported by the international community to clear the landmines along the border areas. We cleared areas in the Victoria Falls area and we cleared some areas in the Mukumbura area. We are currently clearing some of the mine fields along the border with South Africa. This, we are doing with our own resources. We are also getting some assistance from one or two organisations and the process is going on. We have a whole unit that is dedicated to this programme and we would want a situation where the soil of Zimbabwe is landmine free.
We are training some of the personnel to do so and this is a programme that is ongoing. I hope very soon we should be able to report that Zimbabwe has been cleared of landmines. 
Zimbabwe, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Oral answers by the Government to questions without notice in the Senate, Hansard, 28 August 2014, p. 30.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on supply of an appropriate quantity of explosives for use in the demining operations in Rwanda, the UN Security Council:
Noting … the desire of the Government of Rwanda to address the problem of unexploded landmines, and the interest on the part of other States to assist with the detection and destruction of these mines,
Underlining the importance the Council attaches to efforts to eliminate the threat posed by unexploded landmines in a number of States, and the humanitarian nature of demining programmes. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1005, 17 July 1995, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Cyprus, the UN Security Council called upon the military authorities on both sides “to clear all minefields … inside the buffer zone without further delay, as requested by UNFICYP”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1062, 28 June 1996, § 6(c), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Angola, the UN Security Council emphasized “the need for the political will to speed up demining efforts to enable the free circulation of people and goods and to restore public confidence”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1055, 8 May 1996, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
In another resolution adopted the same year on the situation in Angola, the Council noted the progress being made in the area of demining in Angola and encouraged “both parties to intensify their demining efforts”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1064, 11 July 1996, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
In October 1996, the UN Security Council adopted a further resolution on the situation in Angola in which it expressed “serious concern about interference by UNITA [União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola] with mine-clearing activities” and called upon “both parties to intensify their demining efforts”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1075, 11 October 1996, § 20, voting record: 15-0-0.
In another resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Angola, the UN Security Council expressed its support “for various United Nations demining activities in Angola, including plans aimed at enhancing national demining capacity”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1087, 11 December 1996, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the situation in Croatia, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon the parties to cease and refrain from all violations and from military or other activities which may increase tension, to cooperate fully with the United Nations military observers and to ensure their safety and freedom of movement, including through the removal of landmines. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1093, 14 January 1997, § 4,
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the situation in Croatia, the UN Security Council:
Renews its calls upon the parties to abide by their mutual commitments, implement fully the Agreement on Normalization of Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of 23 August 1996, adopt the practical options proposed by the United Nations military observers for the improvement of safety and security in the area, cease all violations of the demilitarization regime and military or other activities which may increase tension and cooperate fully with the United Nations military observers and ensure their safety and freedom of movement, including through the removal of landmines.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1119, 14 July 1997, § 2,
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on extension of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), the UN Security Council noted “the work done by the UNMEE Mine Action Coordination Centre in demining and education on risk related to mines” and urged “the parties to pursue efforts on mine clearance”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1466, 14 March 2003, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council:
Welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational demining, applauds the progress in demining efforts noted by the Secretary-General in his report, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and emergency demining activities in the south, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in-kind contributions and encourages further international contributions, takes note of the communication to the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL of maps and information on the location of mines and stresses the necessity to provide the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL with any additional maps and records on the location of mines. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1496, 31 July 2003, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on extension of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), the UN Security Council:
Expressing concern regarding the reported increase in incidents of incursions at the local level into the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ), … and expressing further concern about the increasing number of mine incidents in the TSZ, including newly planted mines,
Noting the work done by the UNMEE Mine Action Coordination Centre in demining and education on risk related to mines, and urging the parties to pursue efforts on mine clearance. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1507, 12 September 2003, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council:
Welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational demining, applauds the progress in demining efforts noted by the Secretary-General in his report, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and emergency demining activities in the south, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in-kind contributions and encourages further international contributions, takes note of the communication to the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL of maps and information on the location of mines and stresses the necessity to provide the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL with any additional maps and records on the location of mines. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1525, 30 January 2004, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council:
Welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational demining, applauds the successful completion of Operation Emirates Solidarity noted by the Secretary-General in his report, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and emergency demining activities in the south, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in kind contributions and encourages further international contributions, takes note of the communication to the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL of maps and information on the location of mines and stresses the necessity to provide the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL with any additional maps and records on the location of mines. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1553, 29 July 2004, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council:
Welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational mine clearance, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and clearance of the remaining mine/UXO threat in the south, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in kind contributions and encourages further international contributions, and stresses the necessity for provision to the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL any additional existing maps and minefield records. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1614, 29 July 2005, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council,
Welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational mine clearance, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and clearance of the remaining mine/unexploded ordnances threat in the South, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in kind contributions and encourages further international contributions, and stresses the necessity for provision to the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL any additional existing maps and minefield Records. 
UN Security Council, Res., 1655, 31 January 2006, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council called for the “provision to the United Nations of all remaining maps of landmines in Lebanon in Israel’s possession.” 
UN Security Council, Res. 1701, 11 August 2006, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on reports of the UN Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Decides … that the mandate of UNMIS in Darfur shall also include the following:
(c) To assist the parties to the Agreements, in cooperation with other international partners in the mine action sector, by providing humanitarian demining assistance, technical advice, and coordination, as well as mine awareness programmes targeted at all sectors of society. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1706, 31 August 2006, § 9, voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Cyprus, the UN Security Council:
Welcoming continued progress in demining, expresses strong support for UNFICYP’s efforts to extend demining operations to Turkish Forces minefields in the rest of the buffer zone, and welcomes the prospect that it could be declared free of mines within two years. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1728, 15 December 2006, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Decides that MONUC will have the mandate, within the limits of its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, to assist the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in establishing a stable security environment in the country, and, to that end, to:
(j) Assist the Government in enhancing its demining capacity. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1756, 15 May 2007, § 2(j), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Cyprus, the UN Security Council:
Regrets that demining activity in the buffer zone has stalled, welcomes the provision by the European Union of funds to support these activities, and urges the Turkish Forces and the Turkish Cypriot side to allow the resumption of demining activities. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1758, 15 June 2007, preamble,
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the importance of mine action for peacekeeping operations, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council expresses its grave concern at the harmful and widespread impact of landmines and unexploded ordnance on civilian populations, especially children, and on humanitarian workers and United Nations staff, and, in this regard, stresses the vital importance of eliminating the threat of landmines.
The Security Council urges all parties to armed conflicts to abide by their mine-related commitments, and to cooperate to the fullest extent possible, with mine risk education and mine-clearing activities, and to ensure that abandoned stockpiles are adequately guarded, or destroyed.
The Security Council recognizes the contribution that peacekeeping personnel can make in the areas of mine risk education and demining and calls upon troop-contributing countries, where appropriate, to train selected personnel to demine in accordance with the International Mine Action Standards. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/22, 19 November 2003, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council expresses deepest concern at the presence in very high numbers of unexploded ordnance in south Lebanon, including cluster munitions. It deplores the death and injury of dozens of civilians, as well as of several deminers, caused by those munitions since the cessation of hostilities. It welcomes the continued contribution of UNIFIL to operational mine clearance, encourages further assistance in mine action by the United Nations to the Government of Lebanon in support of both the continued development of its national mine action capacity and clearance of the remaining mine/unexploded ordnance threat in the South, commends donor countries for supporting these efforts through financial and in-kind contributions and encourages further international contributions and practical cooperation.  
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/52, 12 December 2006, p. 3.
UN General Assembly
In numerous resolutions adopted between 1981 and 1999, the UN General Assembly urged all States that had not done so to accede to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and its Protocols. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 36/93, 9 December 1981, § 1, adopted without a vote; Res. 37/79, 9 December 1982, § 1, adopted without a vote; Res. 38/66, 15 December 1983, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 39/56, 12 December 1984, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 40/84, 12 December 1985, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 41/50, 3 December 1986, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 42/30, 30 November 1987, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 43/67, 7 December 1988, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 45/64, 4 December 1990, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 46/40, 6 December 1991, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 47/56, 9 December 1992, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 48/79, 16 December 1993, § 3, voting record: 169-0-3-19; Res. 49/79, 15 December 1994, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 50/74, 12 December 1995, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 51/49, 10 December 1996, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 52/42, 9 December 1997, § 3, adopted without a vote; Res. 53/81, 4 December 1998, § 5, adopted without a vote; Res. 54/58, 1 December 1999, § III(3), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on a moratorium on the export of anti-personnel landmines, the UN General Assembly:
Noting that there are as many as 85 million uncleared land-mines throughout the world, particularly in rural areas,
Expressing deep concern that such mines kill or maim hundreds of peoples each week, mostly unarmed civilians, obstruct economic development and have other severe consequences, which include inhibiting the repatriation of refugees and the return of internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/75K, 13 December 1993, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Being desirous of reinforcing international cooperation in the area of prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons, in particular for the removal of minefields, mines and booby traps. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/79, 15 December 1994, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses grave concern at the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel land-mines in Cambodia and the devastating consequences and destabilizing effects such mines have on Cambodian society, and encourages the Government of Cambodia to continue its support for the removal of these mines. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/199, 23 December 1994, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on assistance in mine clearance, the UN General Assembly:
Affirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
9. Calls upon all States, especially those that have a capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to remove or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines and booby-traps in accordance with international law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/215, 23 December 1994, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on assistance in mine clearance, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
10. Calls upon Member States, especially those that have a capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps and other devices, in accordance with international law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/82, 14 December 1995, preamble and § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses grave concern at the devastating consequences and destabilizing effects of the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel landmines on Cambodian society, encourages the Government of Cambodia to continue its support and efforts for the removal of these mines, and welcomes the intention of the Government of Cambodia to ban all anti-personnel landmines. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/178, 22 December 1995, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Desirous of reinforcing international cooperation in the area of prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons, in particular for the removal of minefields, mines and booby traps. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/49, 10 December 1996, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses grave concern at the devastating consequences and destabilizing effects of the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel landmines on Cambodian society, encourages the Government of Cambodia to continue its support and efforts for the removal of these mines, and urges the Government to ban all anti-personnel landmines. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/98, 12 December 1996, § 25, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on assistance in mine clearance, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
Recognizing the important role that the international community, particularly States involved in the deployment of mines, can play in assisting mine clearance in affected countries through the provision of necessary maps and information and appropriate technical and material assistance to remove or otherwise render ineffective existing minefields, mines and booby-traps,
11. Calls upon Member States, especially those that have a capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby-traps and other devices in accordance with international law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/149, 13 December 1996, preamble and § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
Recognizing the important role that the international community, particularly States involved in the deployment of mines, can play in assisting mine clearance in affected countries through the provision of necessary maps and information and appropriate technical and material assistance to remove or otherwise render ineffective existing minefields, mines and booby-traps,
10. Calls upon Member States, especially those that have a capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby-traps and other devices in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 52/173, 18 December 1997, preamble and § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
Recognizing the important role that the international community, particularly States involved in the deployment of mines, can play in assisting mine clearance in affected countries through the provision of necessary maps and information and appropriate technical and material assistance to remove or otherwise render ineffective existing minefields, mines, and booby traps,
11. Calls upon Member States, especially those that have the capacity to do so, to provide necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps and other devices in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/26, 31 December 1998, preamble and § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly called upon “all parties, in particular those of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), to clear the area forthwith of all landmines and booby-traps and to work with the relevant international bodies to this end”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 25 February 1999, § 12, voting record: 122-3-34-26, Against: Belarus, India and Russian Federation. Abstaining: Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Jamaica, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Peru, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.)
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its deep concern at the tremendous humanitarian problem caused by the presence of mines and other unexploded devices that have serious and lasting social and economic consequences for the populations of mine-infested countries and constitute an obstacle to the return of refugees and other displaced persons, to humanitarian aid operations and to reconstruction and economic development, as well as to the restoration of normal social conditions,
Recognizing the important role that the international community, particularly States involved in the deployment of mines, can play in assisting mine clearance in mine-affected countries through the provision of necessary maps and information and appropriate technical and material assistance to remove or otherwise render ineffective existing minefields, mines and booby traps,
15. Emphasizes in this regard the importance of recording the location of mines, of retaining all such records and making them available to concerned parties upon cessation of hostilities, and welcomes the strengthening of the relevant provisions in international law;
16. Calls upon Member States, especially those that have the capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps and other devices in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/191, 17 December 1999, preamble and §§ 15–16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan and the situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security, the UN General Assembly:
Remains deeply concerned about the problem of millions of anti-personnel landmines and unexploded ordnance, which constitutes a great danger for the civilian population and a major obstacle for the return of refugees and displaced populations and for the resumption of agricultural and other economic activities, the provision of humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on international assistance to and cooperation with The Alliance for the Sustainable Development of Central America, the UN General Assembly:
Recognizes the efforts and achievements relating to mine clearance in Central America, and calls upon the relevant organs of the United Nations system, the Organization of American States, as well as the international community, to continue providing the material, technical and financial support needed by the Central American Governments to complete mine-clearance, mine-awareness and victim assistance activities in the region, in conformity with the relevant resolutions of the United Nations and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/117, 17 December 2003, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon Member States especially those that have the capacity to do so, to provide the necessary information and technical, financial and material assistance, as appropriate, and to locate, remove, destroy or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps and other devices, in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/127, 19 December 2003, § 22, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN General Assembly welcomed “the progress made by the Government of Cambodia to eradicate anti-personnel landmines” and encouraged “the continuing efforts of the Government and the international community to tackle” this issue. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/191, 22 December 2003, III(1), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the implementation of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, the UN General Assembly,
Reaffirming its determination to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, which kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians and especially children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement,
Believing it necessary to do the utmost to contribute in an efficient and coordinated manner to facing the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world and to assure their destruction,
6. Renews its call upon all States and other relevant parties to work together to promote, support and advance the care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration of mine victims, mine risk education programmes and the removal of anti-personnel mines and stockpiles throughout the world and the assurance of their destruction. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/84, 3 December 2004, preamble and § 6, voting record: 157-0-22-12.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the implementation of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its determination to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, which kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians and especially children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement,
Believing it necessary to do the utmost to contribute in an efficient and coordinated manner to facing the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world and to assure their destruction,
6. Renews its call upon all States and other relevant parties to work together to promote, support and advance the care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration of mine victims, mine risk education programmes and the removal and destruction of anti-personnel mines placed or stockpiled throughout the world. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/80, 8 December 2005, preamble and § 6, voting record: 158-0-17-16.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States, in particular those that have the capacity to do so, as well as the United Nations system and relevant organizations and institutions involved in mine action, as appropriate, to provide:
(d) Necessary information and technical, financial and material assistance to locate, remove, destroy and otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps, other devices and explosive remnants of war, in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/97, 8 December 2005, § 2(d), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on goodneighbourliness, stability and development in South-Eastern Europe, the UN General Assembly:
Recognizes the seriousness of the problem of anti-personnel mines and explosive remnants of war in some parts of South-Eastern Europe, welcomes in this context the efforts of the countries in the region and of the international community in support of mine action, and encourages States to join and support these efforts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/53, 6 December 2006, § 14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the implementation of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, the UN General Assembly,
Reaffirming its determination to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, which kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians, including children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement,
Believing it necessary to do the utmost to contribute in an efficient and coordinated manner to facing the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world and to assure their destruction,
6. Renews its call upon all States and other relevant parties to work together to promote, support and advance the care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration of mine victims, mine risk education programmes and the removal and destruction of anti-personnel mines placed or stockpiled throughout the world. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/84, 6 December 2006, preamble and § 6, voting record: 161-0-17-14.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling with satisfaction the adoption and the entry into force of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and its amended article 1, and the Protocol on Non-Detectable Fragments (Protocol I), the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II) and its amended version, the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III) and the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV),
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/100, 6 December 2006, preamble and §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on international assistance for the economic rehabilitation of Angola, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses its appreciation to the international community, the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, and the governmental and non-governmental organizations that are participating in humanitarian assistance programmes in Angola, including mine-action activities, and appeals for their continued contribution to humanitarian mine-action activities in a manner complementary to that of the Government. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/219, 20 December 2006, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Recognizing the progress achieved, while nonetheless remaining deeply concerned about the problem of millions of anti-personnel landmines and explosive remnants of war, which constitute a great danger for the population, …
14. Welcomes the progress achieved through the Mine Action Programme for Afghanistan, and supports the Government of Afghanistan in its efforts to meet its responsibilities under the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, in line with the Millennium Development Goals, to cooperate fully with the Mine Action Programme coordinated by the United Nations and to eliminate all known or new stocks of anti-personnel landmines. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, preamble and § 14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the implementation of the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming its determination to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, which kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians, including children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement,
Believing it necessary to do the utmost to contribute in an efficient and coordinated manner to facing the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world and to assure their destruction,
6. Renews its call upon all States and other relevant parties to work together to promote, support and advance the care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration of mine victims, mine risk education programmes and the removal and destruction of anti-personnel mines placed or stockpiled throughout the world. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/41, 5 December 2007, preamble and § 6, voting record: 164-0-18-10.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling with satisfaction the adoption and the entry into force of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and its amended article 1, and the Protocol on Non-Detectable Fragments (Protocol I), the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II) and its amended version, the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III), the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV), and the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V),
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/57, 5 December 2007, preamble and §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance in mine action, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States, in particular those that have the capacity to do so, as well as the United Nations system and relevant organizations and institutions involved in mine action, as appropriate, to provide:
(d) Necessary information and technical, financial and material assistance to locate, remove, destroy and otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines, booby traps, other devices and explosive remnants of war, in accordance with international law, as soon as possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/99, 17 December 2007, § 3(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Expresses grave concern at the devastating consequences and destabilizing effects of the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel land-mines on Cambodian society, encourages the Government of Cambodia to continue its support and efforts for the removal of these mines, and welcomes the intention of the Government of Cambodia to ban all anti-personnel land-mines. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/54, 19 April 1996, § 22, adopted without a vote
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon “[t]he United Nations, its Member States and specialized agencies, non-governmental organizations and the Bretton Woods institutions to intensify their assistance, in particular in … mine clearing and rehabilitation of basic infrastructure”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 8(p), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the UN Commission on Human Rights welcomed “progress made by the Government of Cambodia towards removing all anti-personnel landmines … and encourages the continuing efforts of the Government of Cambodia and the international community to tackle these issues”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/79, 25 April 2003, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All States and relevant United Nations bodies to continue to support national and international mine action efforts, including through financial contributions, mine awareness programmes, mine clearance, victim assistance and child-centred rehabilitation, taking note of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, and welcomes the positive effects on children of concrete legislative and other measures with respect to anti-personnel mines, and also taking note of the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Amended Protocol II) to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and the implementation of these instruments by those States that become parties to them. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/86, 25 April 2003, § 42(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All States and relevant United Nations bodies to continue to support national and international mine action efforts, including through financial contributions, assistance to victims and social and economic reintegration, mine awareness programmes, mine clearance and childcentred rehabilitation, recalling the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of AntiPersonnel Mines and on Their Destruction, and welcomes the positive effects on children of concrete legislative and other measures with respect to antipersonnel mines, and also recalling the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Amended Protocol II) to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and the implementation of these instruments by those States that become parties to them.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, § 44(d), voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon “[t]he United Nations, its Member States and specialized agencies, non-governmental organizations and the Bretton Woods institutions to intensify their assistance and to enhance their projects, in particular in … mine clearing and rehabilitation of basic infrastructures”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, § 11(g), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All States and relevant United Nations bodies to continue to support national and international mine action efforts, including through financial contributions, assistance to victims and social and economic reintegration, mine awareness programmes, mine clearance and childcentred rehabilitation. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/44, 19 April 2005, § 39, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon “[t]he United Nations, nongovernmental organizations and the Bretton Woods institutions to speed up the implementation of their projects, in particular in the fields of … mine clearance and rehabilitation of basic infrastructures”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, § 8(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Secretary-General
In 1997, in a report on assistance in mine clearance, the UN Secretary-General noted that the UN had developed quite an extensive mine-clearance programme, but that a more precise global assessment of the mine problem was needed in order to tackle the issue properly. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on Assistance in Mine Clearance, UN Doc. A/52/679, 11 December 1997, §§ 107–111.
No data.
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
A draft text submitted by Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, which elaborated upon an earlier proposal made at the Lugano Conference, dealt with the problems created by landmines and “other devices”. A number of measures were suggested, including the compulsory recording of pre-planned minefields. 
CDDH, Proposal entitled “The Regulation of the Use of Land-Mines and Other Devices” submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons by Denmark, France, Netherlands and United Kingdom, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/213 within CDDH/IV/226, pp. 588–591.
The proposal was positively received by the States present and was explicitly supported by the Federal Republic of Germany and Libya. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.30, 26 May 1976, p. 308 (Federal Republic of Germany); Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.40, 19 May 1977, p. 411 (Libya).
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
A proposal was introduced by Austria, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, which provided that the use of remotely delivered mines was prohibited unless “each such mine is fitted with a neutralizing mechanism” and “they are used within the combat zone”. 
CDDH, “Draft article on the Use of Land Mines and the Use of Certain Explosive and Non-Explosive Devices” submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons by Austria, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/222 within CDDH/IV/226, p. 593.
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
Austria, Denmark, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom submitted a proposal to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH which provided that parties to a conflict “shall record the location of (a) all pre-planned minefields laid by them; and (b) all areas in which they have made large-scale and pre-planned use of explosive or non-explosive devices”. The final part of the section on recording required parties to retain these records and “the location of all recorded minefields, mines and explosive or non-explosive devices remaining in territory controlled by an adverse Party shall be made public after the cessation of active hostilities”. 
CDDH, Proposal submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons by Austria, Denmark, France, Mexico, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, Working Group Document CDDH/IV/GT/4*, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/408/Rev. 1, pp. 544–546.
UN Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons
In 1980, the Secretariat of the 1979–1980 UN Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons issued a note concerning the recording and publication of minefields, mines and booby-traps commenting on the draft Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and stating:
The accurate recording of the location of minefields and related weapons is only one aspect of the obligation which should be imposed on the parties in order to ensure the protection of a United Nations force or mission … The recording should not only cover the boundaries of the fields but also the number, type and pattern of distribution of the mines, as well as details of any anti-lifting devices attached to them. 
UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Second Session, Geneva, 15 September–10 October 1980, Note by the Secretariat on the Draft Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, UN Doc. A/CONF.95/CW/4, 15 September 1980.
UN Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons
The Final Report of the 1979–1980 UN Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons submitted to the UN General Assembly stated in connection with Article 3 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons:
The parties must take whatever measures are open to them to protect civilians wherever they are … The parties may, if they wish, assist in this process by providing, either unilaterally or by mutual agreement, or through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, information about the location of minefields, mines and booby traps. 
UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Second Session, Geneva, 15 September–10 October 1980, Final Report of the Conference to the UN General Assembly, Doc. A/CONF.95/15, 27 October 1980, p. 9.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution on work on international humanitarian law in armed conflicts at sea and on land in which it urged all States to become parties to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and its Protocols “as early as possible so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence”. It noted “the dangers to civilians caused by mines, booby-traps and other devices employed during an armed conflict and the need for international co-operation in this field consistent with Article 9 of Protocol II attached to the 1980 Convention”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. VII, § B(2) and (5).
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995)
The 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995 adopted a resolution on the protection of civilians in armed conflict in which it urged
all States and competent organizations to take concrete action to increase their support for mine-clearance efforts in affected States, which will need to continue for many decades, to strengthen international co-operation and assistance in this field and, in this regard, to provide the necessary maps and information and appropriate technical and material assistance to remove or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines and booby traps, in accordance with international law. 
26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, Res. II, § G(h).
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1999)
In a resolution adopted on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions in 1999 on the contribution of parliaments to ensuring respect for and promoting international humanitarian law, the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference urged
States that produce or use this pernicious weapon [antipersonnel landmines], … to provide financial and technical assistance for (i) de-mining efforts, especially in heavily mined areas, (ii) victim assistance programmes, including rehabilitation and retraining activities, and (iii) mine awareness activities to reduce the risk of accidents.  
102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Berlin, 10–15 October 1999, Resolution on the contribution of parliaments to ensuring respect for and promoting international humanitarian law on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, § 15.
No data.
ICRC
In 1995, in a position paper on landmines, the ICRC stated that “certain essential minimum steps must be taken to protect civilians and facilitate mine clearance”, including the prohibition of “all mines which are not easily detectable”. 
ICRC, Position Paper No. 1 Landmines and Blinding Weapons: From Expert Group to the Review Conference, February 1995, reprinted in Louis Maresca and Stuart Maslen (eds.), The Banning of Anti-Personnel Landmines, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, p. 330.
Council of Delegates (1995)
At its Geneva Session in 1995, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on anti-personnel landmines in which it encouraged “all measures to alleviate the suffering of victims and to remove mines already in place”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Geneva Session, 1–2 December 1995, Res. 10, § 2.
ICRC
In 1996, in a statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, the ICRC welcomed the improvements that had been made in the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, including: the extension of the Protocol to non-international conflicts; clear assignment of responsibility for mine clearance; and requirements that the location of all mines be recorded. 
ICRC, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/51/PV.8, 18 October 1996, p. 9.
Council of Delegates (1999)
At its Geneva Session in 1999, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on the Movement strategy on landmines in which it approved the Movement Strategy on Landmines. One of the core elements of the strategy was to
cooperate with mine-clearance organizations according to humanitarian priorities, by developing mine-awareness activities and providing medical assistance to clearance teams, in accordance with the Guidelines on Red Cross/Red Crescent involvement in mine-clearance activities, adopted at the 1997 session of the Council of Delegates. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Geneva Session, 29–30 October 1999, Res. 10, § 1.
Africa Watch
In 1998, in a report on violations of the laws of war by both sides in Angola, Africa Watch stated:
It is prohibited to use landmines near a civilian object, even if it contains military objectives, without any precautions, markings or other warnings or if such devices do not self-destruct or are not removed after their military purpose has been served. 
Africa Watch, Angola: Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides, New York, April 1998, p. 58.