Practice Relating to Rule 80. Booby-Traps

Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 2 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
2. “Booby-trap” means any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure, and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act”.
6. “Recording” means a physical, administrative and technical operation designed to obtain, for the purpose of registration in the official records, all available information facilitating the location of minefields, mines and booby-traps. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 2(2) and (6).
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 3 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. This Article applies to:
(b) booby-traps;
4.All feasible precautions shall be taken to protect civilians from the effects of weapons to which this Article applies. Feasible precautions are those precautions which are practicable or practically possible taking into account all circumstances ruling at the time, including humanitarian and military considerations. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 3.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 4 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. This Article applies to:
(b) booby-traps;
2. It is prohibited to use weapons to which this Article applies in any city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians in which combat between ground forces is not taking place or does not appear to be imminent, unless either:
(a) they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective belonging to or under the control of an adverse party; or
(b) measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, for example, the posting of warning signs, the posting of sentries, the issue of warnings or the provision of fences. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 4.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 6 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. Without prejudice to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict relating to treachery and perfidy, it is prohibited in all circumstances to use: (a) any booby-trap in the form of an apparently harmless portable object which is specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material and to detonate when it is disturbed or approached, or (b) booby-traps which are in any way attached to or associated with:
(i) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
(ii) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(iii) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(iv) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation;
(v) children's toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(vi) food or drink;
(vii) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots;
(viii) objects clearly of a religious nature;
(ix) historic monuments, works of art or places or worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples;
(x) animals or their carcasses.
2. It is prohibited in all circumstances to use any booby-trap which is designed to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 6.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. The parties to a conflict shall record the location of: … all areas in which they have made large-scale and pre-planned use of booby-traps.
2. The parties shall endeavour to ensure the recording of the location of all other … booby-traps which they have laid or placed in position.
3. All such records shall be retained by the parties who shall:
(a) immediately after the cessation of active hostilities:
(i) take all necessary and appropriate measures, including the use of such records, to protect civilians from the effects of … booby-traps; and either
(ii) in cases where the forces of neither party are in the territory of the adverse party, make available to each other and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations all information in their possession concerning the location of … booby-traps in the territory of the adverse party; or
(iii) once complete withdrawal of the forces of the parties from the territory of the adverse party has taken place, make available to the adverse party and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations all information in their possession concerning the location of … booby-traps in the territory of the adverse party;
(b) when a United Nations force or mission performs functions in any area, make available to the authority mentioned in Article 8 such information as is required by that Article;
(c) whenever possible, by mutual agreement, provide for the release of information concerning the location of minefields, mines and booby traps, particularly in agreements governing the cessation of hostilities. 
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 7.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 8 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons stipulates:
1.When a United Nations force or mission performs functions of peacekeeping, observation or similar functions in any area, each party to the conflict shall, if requested by the head of the United Nations force or mission in that area, as far as it is able:
(a) remove or render harmless all … booby-traps in that area;
(b) take such measures as may be necessary to protect the force or mission from the effects of … booby-traps while carrying out its duties; and
(c) make available to the head of the United Nations force or mission in that area, all information in the party’s possession concerning the location of … booby-traps in that area.
2.When a United Nations fact-finding mission performs functions in any area, any party to the conflict concerned shall provide protection to that mission except where, because of the size of such mission, it cannot adequately provide such protection. In that case it shall make available to the head of the mission the information in its possession concerning the location of … booby-traps in that area. 
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 8.
Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 9 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
After the cessation of active hostilities, the parties shall endeavour to reach agreement, both among themselves and, where appropriate, with other States and with international organizations, on the provision of information and technical and material assistance – including, in appropriate circumstances, joint operations – necessary to remove or otherwise render ineffective minefields, mines and booby-traps placed in position during the conflict.  
Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 9.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 1(2) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
This Protocol shall apply, in addition to situations referred to in Article I of this Convention, to situations referred to in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. This Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 1(2).
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 2(4) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons defines a booby-trap as “any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure, and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act”. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 2(4).
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 3 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
2. Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict is, in accordance with the provisions of this Protocol, responsible for all … booby-traps … employed by it and undertakes to clear, remove, destroy or maintain them as specified in Article 10 of this Protocol.
3. It is prohibited in all circumstances to use any … booby-trap … which is designed or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering.
5. It is prohibited to use mines, booby-traps or other devices which employ a mechanism or device specifically designed to detonate the munition by the presence of commonly available mine detectors as a result of their magnetic or other non-contact influence during normal use in detection operations.
10. All feasible precautions shall be taken to protect civilians from the effects of weapons to which this Article applies. Feasible precautions are those precautions which are practicable or practically possible taking into account all circumstances ruling at the time, including humanitarian and military considerations. These circumstances include, but are not limited to:
(a) the short- and long-term effect of mines upon the local civilian population for the duration of the minefield;
(b) possible measures to protect civilians (for example, fencing, signs, warning and monitoring);
(c) the availability and feasibility of using alternatives; and
(d) the short- and long-term military requirements for a minefield.
11. Effective advance warning shall be given of any emplacement of mines, booby-traps and other devices which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 3.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 7 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. Without prejudice to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict relating to treachery and perfidy, it is prohibited in all circumstances to use booby-traps and other devices which are in any way attached to or associated with:
(a) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
(b) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(c) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(d) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation;
(e) children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(f) food or drink;
(g) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots;
(h) objects clearly of a religious nature;
(i) historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; or
(j) animals or their carcasses.
2. It is prohibited to use booby-traps or other devices in the form of apparently harmless portable objects which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material.
3. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 3, it is prohibited to use weapons to which this Article applies in any city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians in which combat between ground forces is not taking place or does not appear to be imminent, unless either:
(a) they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective; or
(b) measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, for example, the posting of warning sentries, the issuing of warnings or the provision of fences. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 7.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 9 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. All information concerning … booby-traps … shall be recorded in accordance with the provisions of the Technical Annex.
2. All such records shall be retained by the parties to a conflict, who shall, without delay after the cessation of active hostilities, take all necessary and appropriate measures, including the use of such information, to protect civilians from the effects of … booby-traps … in areas under their control.
At the same time, they shall also make available to the other party or parties to the conflict and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations all such information in their possession concerning … booby-traps … laid by them in areas no longer under their control; provided, however, subject to reciprocity, where the forces of a party to a conflict are in the territory of an adverse party, either party may withhold such information from the Secretary-General and the other party, to the extent that security interests require such withholding, until neither party is in the territory of the other. In the latter case, the information withheld shall be disclosed as soon as those security interests permit. Wherever possible, the parties to the conflict shall seek, by mutual agreement, to provide for the release of such information at the earliest possible time in a manner consistent with the security interests of each party.
3. This Article is without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 10 [Removal of booby-traps and international cooperation] and 12 [Protection from the effects of booby-traps] of this Protocol. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 9.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 10 of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
1. Without delay after the cessation of active hostilities, all … booby-traps … shall be cleared, removed, destroyed or maintained in accordance with Article 3 and paragraph 2 of Article 5 of this Protocol.
2. High Contracting Parties and parties to a conflict bear such responsibility with respect to … booby-traps … in areas under their control.
3. With respect to … booby-traps … laid by a party in areas over which it no longer exercises control, such party shall provide to the party in control of the area pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article, to the extent permitted by such party, technical and material assistance necessary to fulfil such responsibility.
4. At all times necessary, the parties shall endeavour to reach agreement, both among themselves and, where appropriate, with other States and with international organizations, on the provision of technical and material assistance, including, in appropriate circumstances, the undertaking of joint operations necessary to fulfil such responsibilities. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 10.
Amendment to Article 1 of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
In 2001, States parties to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons decided to amend Article 1 of the Convention, governing its scope. This amendment states:
1. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall apply in the situations referred to in Article 2 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims, including any situation described in paragraph 4 of Article 1 of Additional Protocol I to these Conventions.
2. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall also apply, in addition to situations referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, to situations referred to in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence, and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts.
3. In case of armed conflicts not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each party to the conflict shall be bound to apply the prohibitions and restrictions of this Convention and its annexed Protocols. 
Amendment to Article 1 of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons), Geneva, 21 December 2001.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 6 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 6.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.5 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.5.
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 6.2 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin states that the UN force is prohibited from using certain conventional weapons, such as booby-traps. 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 6.2.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) reproduces the content of Articles 2(2) and (4), 3, 4, 6 and 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, §§ 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.23 and 4.24(2).
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states:
The primary concern with the employment of … booby traps is that they could be disturbed by innocent parties. Their use is permitted if they can be confined to areas where only lawful combatants would encounter them. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 316.
The Guide also states:
Booby traps … may not be directed against civilians under any circumstances and they may not be used indiscriminately. Indiscriminate use is placement of such weapons which:
a.is not on, or directed at, a military objective; or
b.employs a method or means of delivery which cannot be directed at a specific military objective; or
c.may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 937.
The Guide adds:
There are also restrictions on the use of … booby traps … These weapons may not be used in any city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians in which combat between ground forces is not taking place or does not appear to be imminent, unless either:
(a) they are placed on or in the vicinity of a military objective belonging to or under the control of an enemy; or
(b) measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, e.g. posting of warning signs or sentries, issue of warnings or provision of fences. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 939.
The Guide further states:
941. The use of the following types of booby traps is prohibited:
a.any booby traps in the form of an apparently harmless portable object which is specifically designed and constructed (prefabricated) to contain explosive material and to detonate when it is disturbed or approached or,
b.booby traps which are in any way attached to or associated with:
(1) internationally recognized protective emblems and signs or signals;
(2) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(3) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(4) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation;
(5) children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(6) food or drink;
(7) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots;
(8) objects clearly of a religious nature;
(9) historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; and
(10) animals or their carcasses.
942. The location of … areas where there is use of booby traps is to be recorded. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, §§ 941 and 942.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
All feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of … booby traps … They must not be directed at civilians nor may they be used indiscriminately. It is indiscriminate to place them so that they are not on or not directed at a military objective, to use them as a means of delivery which cannot be directed at a military target, or to place them so that they may be expected to cause excessive collateral damage, that is injury, loss or damage to civilians which is excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 421.
The manual further repeats the prohibitions contained in Article 6 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 427.
The manual adds: “When booby-traps are not prohibited, those that are used must not be designed to cause unnecessary injury or suffering.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 428.
The manual also states: “All feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of … booby-traps … They must not be directed at civilians nor may they be used indiscriminately.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 421.
The manual further states:
Booby traps … must not be used in areas containing civilian concentrations if combat between ground forces is neither imminent nor actually taking place unless they are placed on, or in the vicinity, of an enemy military objective or there are protective measures for civilians such as warning signs, sentries, fences or other warnings to civilians. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 422.
Lastly, the manual provides:
The location of … areas in which there has been large scale and pre-planned use of booby-traps must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other … booby-traps so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 423.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
4.36 … [A]ll feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of mines, booby traps and similar devices. They must not be directed at civilians nor may they be used indiscriminately. It is indiscriminate to place them so that they are not on or not directed at a military objective, to use a means of delivery which cannot be directed at a military target, or to place them so that they may be expected to cause excessive collateral damage, that is injury, loss or damage to civilians which is excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
4.37 Booby traps and similar devices must not be used in areas containing civilian concentrations if combat between ground forces is neither imminent nor actually taking place unless they are placed on, or in the vicinity, of an enemy military objective or there are protective measures for civilians such as warning signs, sentries, fences or other warnings to civilians.
4.38 The location of all pre-planned minefields and areas in which there has been large scale and pre-planned use of booby traps must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other minefields, mines and booby traps so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 4.36–4.38.
The LOAC Manual further states:
4.41 Booby traps are objects that are designed to injure or kill and which explode when a person approaches or disturbs an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act.
4.42 Booby traps that appear to be apparently harmless portable objects which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material are prohibited. In particular they should not be attached to or associated with:
• internationally recognised protective emblems;
• corpses, casualties or the sick;
• burial, cremation sites or graves;
• medical facilities, equipment, supplies or transportation;
• children’s toys or objects designed for feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
• food or drink;
• kitchen utensils or appliances (except those in military establishments, locations or supply depots);
• objects of a religious nature;
• historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; or
• animals or their carcasses.
4.43 Where booby traps are not prohibited, those that are used must not be designed to cause unnecessary injury or suffering.
Other devices
4.44 “Other devices” are manually emplaced munitions and devices designed to kill, injure or damage and which are activated either remotely or by time delay. Restrictions on the use of these other devices are as for landmines and booby traps. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 4.41–4.44.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983), under the heading “Mines and traps (booby traps)”, states that they “must only be used against military objectives”. It further states:
Traps looking like portable inoffensive objects are prohibited.
It is also prohibited to attach traps to or associate them with:
1) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
2) sick, wounded or dead persons;
3) burial sites;
4) medical material, medical installations, etc.;
5) children’s toys, children’s food and children’s clothes;
6) food or drink;
7) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, pp. 38–39.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Military Instructions (1992) states: “All means and methods of warfare are allowed, except for the ones which are prohibited or restricted by the international law of war.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Instructions on the Implementation of the International Law of War in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Gazette of ABiH, No. 2/92, 5 December 1992, Item 5, § 1.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states:
The use of certain weapons is totally prohibited [such as] … traps which contain an explosive charge and which detonate if one moves them or touches them [and] … which have excessive effects … [B]ooby-traps and other explosive devices may be used in certain circumstances (e.g. if they are attached to a military objective [and] if measures are taken to protect the civilian population). 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 33; see also Part I bis, p. 93.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) provides that it is prohibited to use booby-traps of a nature to cause superfluous injuries (1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Article 6(2)), such as “perforation, impaling, crushing, poisoning, strangulation”. It also prohibits the use of booby-traps in the form of apparently harmless portable objects for daily use, such as food, or those associated with the sick, wounded or dead. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 123, § 441.1(c).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006), under the heading “The Weapons of Warfare Subject to International Rules”, quotes Article 2 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 269, § 631
The manual further states with regard to the use of mines, booby-traps and other devices:
The only restrictions concern use directed against civilian populations. All rules must be scrupulously observed so that their use in a situation of armed conflict does not cause victims amongst the civilian populations. …
[There are] no general restrictions (for reasons of military imperatives) for the use of such weapons against combatants, except for booby-traps which cause superfluous injuries … by causing wounding or death by perforation, impalement, crushing, poisoning or strangulation.
It is also prohibited to use booby-traps which resemble objects commonly used by the civilian population, or which are attached to or associated with sick wounded, [or] dead persons [or] … objects [that include] … treaty-based emblems [internationally recognized protective emblems], food or drink, etc.
Protocol II … (as modified on 3 May 1996) modifies the [earlier] version by obliging the parties to a conflict to remove both anti-vehicle mines and anti-personnel mines and to take additional measures to protect the civilian population against the dangers which they pose. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 270, § 631; see also p. 323.
Canada
Canada’s Rules of Engagement for Operation Deliverance (1992) states: “Unattended means of force, including booby traps … are not authorised.” 
Canada, Canadian Joint Force Somalia: Rules of Engagement Operation Deliverance, completed on 11 December 1992, reprinted in James M. Simpson, Law Applicable to Canadian Forces in Somalia 1992/93. A study prepared for the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Ottawa, 1997, Appendix, pp. 73–80, § 28.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “Explosive booby-traps are not to be employed as, or used as, a substitute for antipersonnel mines. Where booby-traps are lawfully used, they must not cause unnecessary injury or suffering.”  
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-4, § 40.
The manual provides an exhaustive list of prohibited objects to which booby-traps must not be attached. It states:
Booby traps and other devices, attached to or associated with the following objects, are prohibited:
(a) internationally recognized protective emblems and signs;
(b) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(d) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(d) medical facilities, equipment, supplies or transportation;
(e) children’s toys or objects designed for feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(f) food or drink;
(g) kitchen utensils or appliances (except those in military establishment, locations or supply depots);
(h) objects of a religious nature;
(i) historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; or
(j) animals or their carcasses. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-4, § 38.
The manual adds: “It is prohibited to use booby-traps … in the form of apparently harmless portable objects which are specifically designed and construed to contain explosive material.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-4, § 39.
The manual also lists some restrictive rules about the use of booby-traps:
All feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of … booby traps. They must not be directed at civilians nor may they be used indiscriminately. It is indiscriminate to:
(a) place … booby traps so that they are not on or not directed at a legitimate target;
(b) use a means of delivery for … booby traps that cannot be directed at a legitimate target; and
(c) place … booby traps so that they may be expected to cause collateral civilian damage that is excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-5, § 44.
The manual further states:
Booby traps … must not be used in areas containing civilian concentrations if combat between ground forces is neither imminent nor actually taking place unless: (a) they are placed on, or in the vicinity of, an enemy military objective; or (b) measures are taken to protect civilians (e.g. warning signs, sentries, fences or other warnings to civilians). 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-5, § 45.
According to the manual: “The location of … areas in which there has been large scale and pre-planned use of booby traps must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other … booby traps so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-5, § 46.
Lastly, the manual states:
It is prohibited to use … booby traps that employ a mechanism or device specifically designed to detonate the munition by the presence of commonly available mine detectors as a result of their magnetic or other non-contact influence during normal use in detection operations. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 5-5, § 47.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) provides: “Booby traps are lawful but can only be used in very limited circumstances, and in particular must be directed only at military objectives.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 3, § 7.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001), in its chapter entitled “Restrictions on the use of weapons”, provides constraints on the use of booby-traps and other devices:
1. A “booby trap” is any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure, and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act. “Other Devices” means manually placed munitions and devices including improvised explosive devices designed to kill, injure or damage and which are activated manually, by remote control or automatically after a lapse of time.
2. Booby traps and other devices, attached to or associated with the following objects, are prohibited:
a. internationally recognized protective emblems and signs;
b. sick, wounded or dead persons;
c. burial or cremation sites or graves;
d. medical facilities, equipment, supplies or transportation;
e. children’s toys or objects designed for feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
f. food or drink;
g. kitchen utensils or appliances (except those in military establishments, locations or supply depots);
h. objects of a religious nature;
i. historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; or
j. animals or their carcasses.
3. It is prohibited to use booby trap[s] or other devices in the form of apparently harmless portable object[s] which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material.
4. Explosive booby traps are not to be employed or used as a substitute for anti-personnel mines. Where booby traps are lawfully used, they must not cause unnecessary injury or suffering. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 522.
The manual further states with regard to the authorized use of booby-traps:
4. All feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of … booby traps and similar devices. They must not be directed at civilians nor may they be used indiscriminately. It is indiscriminate to:
a. place … booby traps so that they are not on or not directed at a legitimate target;
b. use a means of delivery for … booby traps that cannot be directed at a legitimate target; and
c. place … booby traps so that they may be expected to cause collateral civilian damage that is excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
5. Booby traps and similar devices must not be used in areas containing civilian concentrations if combat between ground forces is neither imminent nor actually taking place unless:
a. they are placed on, or in the vicinity of, an enemy military objective; or
b. measures are taken to protect civilians (for example, warning signs, sentries, fences or other warnings to civilians).
6. The location of all … areas in which there has been large scale and pre-planned use of booby traps must be recorded. A record should also be kept of all other … booby traps so that they may be disarmed when they are no longer required.
7. It is prohibited to use … booby traps or other devices that employ a mechanism or device specifically designed to detonate the munition by the presence of commonly available mine detectors as a result of their magnetic or other non-contact influence during normal use in detection operations. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 523.4–7.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) provides: “Booby traps are lawful but can only be used in very limited circumstances, and in particular must be directed only at military objectives.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 3, § 7.
Canada
Canada’s Use of Force Manual (2008), in its Glossary, defines “booby traps” as: “Any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act.” 
Canada, Use of Force for CF Operations, Canadian Forces Joint Publication, Chief of the Defence Staff, B-GJ-005-501/FP-001, August 2008, Glossary, p. GL-1.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) prohibits the use of “booby-traps”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 79.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders):
II.2.2. Booby-traps and other devices
A “booby-trap” is any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act. The expression “other devices” means manually emplaced munitions and devices, including improvised exploding devices, designed to kill, injure or damage and which are activated manually, by remote control or automatically after a lapse of time. …
Booby-traps and other devices linked or associated with the following objects are prohibited:
- internationally recognized protective signs and emblems;
- sick, wounded or dead persons;
- burial or cremation sites or graves;
- medical transportation, medical supplies, medical equipment and medical facilities;
- children’s toys or other objects designed for the feeding, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
- food or drink;
- kitchen utensils or appliances (except those in military supply depots, military locations or establishments);
- objects for religious worship;
- historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples;
- animals or their carcasses.
It is prohibited to use booby-traps and other devices in the form of apparently harmless portable objects which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material. …
Explosive booby-traps must not be employed or used as substitutes for anti-personnel mines. If booby-traps are used legitimately, they must not cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 55–56.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) states:
Booby traps … are not unlawful, provided they are not designed to cause unnecessary suffering. Devices that are designed to simulate items likely to attract and injure non-combatants … are prohibited. Attaching booby traps to protected persons or objects, such as the wounded and sick, dead bodies, or medical facilities and supplies, is similarly prohibited. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 9.5.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) prohibits the use of booby-traps which are associated with: wounded and dead persons; protective emblems, signs or signals; toys or other objects designed for children; food or drink; objects clearly of a religious nature; works of art; and animals or their carcasses. 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, § 4.6.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) provides: “The use of booby-traps is permitted only on condition that they are laid outside areas where civilians are concentrated and that they are directed against military targets.” 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 6.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) quotes Articles 2(2) and 6 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and specifies: “The use of booby-traps is permitted only on condition that they are laid outside areas where civilians are concentrated and that they are directed against military targets.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, pp. 96 and 55.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states: “It is prohibited in all circumstances to use any booby-traps in the form of an apparently harmless portable object.” It refers to the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. It also prohibits:
booby-traps which are in any way attached to or associated with internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals, sick, wounded or dead persons, burial or cremation sites or graves, medical facilities, medical transportation, medical equipment or medical supplies, food or drink, objects of a religious nature, cultural objects and children’s toys, and all other objects related to children, animals or their carcasses.
The manual further prohibits the use of “booby-traps designed to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering”, again with reference to the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 415.
The manual adds: “This prohibition does not apply to fixed demolition appliances and portable demolition devices lacking harmless appearances.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 416.
The manual further provides: “The location of … booby-traps shall be recorded: the parties to the conflict shall retain these records and whenever possible, by mutual agreement, provide for their publication.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 417.
Germany
Germany’s IHL Manual (1996) states:
International humanitarian law prohibits the use of a number of means of warfare which are of a nature to violate the principle of humanity and to cause unnecessary suffering, e.g. … explosive traps, when used in the form of an apparently harmless portable object, e.g. disguised as children’s toys. 
Germany, ZDv 15/1, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, DSK VV230120023, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, June 1996, § 305.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Laws of War (1998) states: “Within the framework of the [1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], it was decided to prohibit the exposure of the civilian population to booby traps and booby-trapped objects.” It adds:
The Protocol enumerates the objects and places where booby-trapping is severely and absolutely forbidden:
1. Innocent-looking objects (transistors, televisions)
2. Objects bearing international protection signs (a cross, crescent or red Magen David, U.N. emblems, etc.) or tied to them
3. Wounded, sick or dead, as well as interment or cremation sites. The booby trapping of the wounded or dead conflicts with the duty prescribed by the laws of war to administer treatment to the wounded and to see to the proper interment of the dead. Therefore, it was also prohibited to abuse the special treatment accorded them.
4. Hospitals, clinics, medical equipment, medical transports
5. Objects connected with children (toys, clothes, food, care utensils etc.)
6. Food, drink, eating utensils (except for eating utensils and preparation equipment in army facilities)
7. Objects connected with religious ritual
8. Historical sites, objets d’art or ritual articles, constituting the cultural or religious heritage of a people
9. Animals and their carcasses
In any event, the laws of war ban the use of a booby-trap designed to cause needless damage and suffering (also in cases where it is permitted to use booby-traps against combatants). 
Israel, Manual Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, pp. 15–16.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) states:
Booby traps. These include devices that explode when touched, and they were used extensively during the Vietnam war. Booby traps are not prohibited for use against combatants but they contain elements that are in opposition to the principles of the rules of warfare, such as the fact that it is impossible to direct them to a defined target. It has therefore been decided in the context of the CCW Convention [1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] to prevent the exposure of the civilian population to booby-traps. The protocol lists items and places that are strictly prohibited from being booby-trapped:
- innocent-looking devices (transistor radios, televisions)
- devices bearing international defence symbols (the red cross, crescent or star of David, the UN symbol, etc.) or those connected therewith
- the wounded, sick or dead, burial sites or crematoria. The booby-trapping of the wounded or corpses conflicts with the existing duty under the rules of warfare to offer treatment to the wounded and provide suitable burial for the dead (see below), and there is a ban on exploiting the duty to treat them with special care
- hospitals, clinics, medical equipment, medical vehicles
- devices connected with children (toys, clothes, food, childcare items, etc.)
- food and drink (with the exception of equipment for preparing food at military establishments)
- items connected with religious ritual
- historic sites and art or ritual objects that constitute the cultural or religious heritage of a people
- animals and their carcasses
In every case, the rules of warfare forbid the use of an explosive booby-trap for the purpose of causing unnecessary damage and suffering (even in cases in which the use of booby-traps against combatants is permitted). 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, pp. 15–16.
The manual further states that “[i]t is prohibited to use booby-traps designed to harm the civilian population”. 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 36.
The Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) is a second edition of the Manual on the Laws of War (1998).
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) prohibits the use of booby-traps which are
in any way attached to or associated with internationally recognised protective emblems, signs or signals; sick, wounded or dead persons; burial or cremation sites or graves; medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation; children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children; food or drinks; kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots; objects clearly of a religious nature; historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; animals or their carcasses.
The manual further provides that booby-traps and other devices may only be used (except those quoted previously) in populated areas “when they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective belonging to or under the control of the enemy; or when measures are taken to protect civilian persons (e.g. warning signs, sentries, issue of warnings, provision of fences)”. Lastly, it states: “The location shall be recorded of: … areas where large scale and pre-planned use is made of booby-traps, other … booby-traps, when the tactical situation permits.” 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, pp. 3–5.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands cites the prohibitions contained in Article 6 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. IV-6/IV-10.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
0434. A “booby-trap” is a device or substance designed, made or applied to kill or to injure. It functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object, or performs an apparently safe act. An example of an apparently safe act is opening a booby-trapped door.
0435. As the suffix “trap” would suggest, a booby-trap by definition is not necessarily explosive. For example, a pitfall trap with vertical bamboo spikes set in the ground also fits the definition of a booby-trap.
0436. Such a booby-trap is also prohibited on the principle of unnecessary suffering. “Other devices” means munitions placed by hand and devices designed to kill, injure or damage and triggered by remote control, or automatically after a certain time lapse.
0443. The use of booby-traps in the form of an apparently harmless portable object, specially designed to contain explosives and to explode when touched or approached, is forbidden. This means prefabricated booby-traps. It is also forbidden to use booby-traps in conjunction with:
- internationally recognized protected emblems (the red cross emblem, for example);
- the sick, wounded or dead;
- burial grounds, crematoria or graves;
- medical facilities, equipment, stocks or vehicles;
- toys or other items specially intended for children;
- food or drink;
- kitchen ware (except that in military installations);
- items of clear religious significance;
- historical monuments, etc.;
- live or dead animals.
0448. Furthermore, use of booby-traps and other devices is prohibited in any city, town, village or other territory where civilians are concentrated, in which combat between ground forces is not taking place, or does not appear to be imminent. This prohibition does not apply if booby-traps and other devices are placed on, or in the immediate vicinity of, a military objective, or if measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, for example by setting up barriers. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0434–0436, 0443 and 0448.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
It is prohibited to use weapons causing unnecessary suffering or excessive injury, or that are indiscriminate. This means that … anti-personnel mines and booby traps … are forbidden. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1038.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) restricts the use of booby-traps. It refers expressly to and reproduces the content of Articles 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. It adds: “All feasible efforts will be made to record the location of all areas where there is a large-scale use of booby-traps.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 514.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states that “booby traps” are prohibited weapons. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 31.b.(2).(g).
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states that “booby traps” are prohibited weapons. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 32(b)(2)(g), p. 248.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual also states:
Booby trap means any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure, and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act.
Manually produced devices designed to kill, injure or cause damage and which can be detonated from a distance or through automatic delayed action. There are prohibitions and limitations regarding their use. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 395.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) prohibits the use of weapons that are by nature indiscriminate. It refers to the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 6(h).
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
The following shall be prohibited to use in the course of combat operations:
- mines, booby-traps or other devices specially designed to detonate the munition by the presence of mine detectors as a result of their magnetic or other non-contact influence during normal use in detection operations;
- booby-traps which are placed outside a military objective and in any way attached to, or associated with: the internationally recognized protective emblems (signs or signals); sick, wounded persons or dead bodies; burial or cremation sites, graves; medical facilities, equipment, supplies or transport; children’s toys or objects specially designed for children; food or drink; kitchen utensils or appliances (except those in military units); objects of a clearly religious nature; historic monuments, works of art or places of worship; animals or their carcasses;
- self-made booby-traps in the form of apparently harmless objects. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 9.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) states that “there are severe limitations on the use of booby-traps” and that “most uses” of booby-traps are prohibited. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, pp. 19 and 45.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) does not prohibit booby-traps as such. It does, however, state that the main concern is whether indiscriminate use endangers the civilian population. When employing booby-traps, it says, the military must therefore consider what or who is the likely target. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, Article 34(f)(iv).
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
Prohibited Weapons. The following weapons have been prohibited:
(5) … Booby Traps. … Booby Traps may only be used when placed in close proximity to military objects; their exact location is recorded, warning signs posted and when the tactical situation demands them. Booby Traps, which are attached or associated with any internationally recognised protective symbol, sign or signal, the sick, wounded or dead persons, burial or cremation sites, medical facilities, medical equipment or supplies or medical transport, children’s toys or articles associated with children, food and drink, kitchen utensils or appliances (except in military establishments), religious objects, historic monuments, works of art or places of worship and animals or their carcasses (Protocol accepted in 1980). 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 56(f)(i); see also § 56(f)(iv) (on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) makes reference to Articles 3, 6 and 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons as the principal body of law concerning the restriction and prohibition of the use of booby-traps. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, §§ 2.4.c.(2) and 3.2.a.(4).
It also states:
Independent of the type of target, its location, the kind of military operation, the given mission or any other circumstances, it is prohibited to use this type of weapon [i.e., among others, booby traps] … wherever its location is indiscriminate … wherever it cannot be guided towards a specific military target and wherever there is reason to believe that it will cause disproportionate collateral damage. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, § 3.2.a.(3).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) makes reference to Articles 2, 3, 6 and 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons as the principal body of law concerning the restriction and prohibition of the use of booby-traps. It also states:
Regardless of the type of target to be attacked, the place in which it is located, the type of military operation, the assigned mission or any other circumstance, the use of this type of weapon [i.e., among others, booby traps] is prohibited … when their placement is indiscriminate … [or] which employs a method or means of delivery which cannot be directed at a specific military objective or which may be expected to cause excessive collateral damage. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 3.2.c.
The manual further states: “All ‘feasible precautions’ must be taken to protect civilians from the effects of … booby-traps … ”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 2.4.c.(2).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) states that booby-traps cannot be “used against civilian populations or individual civilians, which is in full agreement with [the 1997 Additional Protocol I] (Art. 51)”. It adds: “Should it be necessary to use booby-traps against objectives within populated areas, special restrictions on delivery exist to protect the civilian population.” It further states:
During the conflicts of recent years it has been possible to discern an increasing use of booby-traps. It has become common to use booby-traps even against persons and objects already afforded protection under earlier conventions … This has led to an increased terror effect in warfare, but with little or no military significance.
The manual refers to Articles 6 and 7 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.3.2, pp. 80–81.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Military Manual (1984) states: “It is prohibited to use a booby-trap which functions unexpectedly when one moves or touches an apparently harmless object.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre, Manuel 51.7/III dfi, Armée suisse, 1984, p. 11.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states:
It is forbidden to use booby-traps wherever they can be expected directly to endanger the physical integrity and the lives of civilians. They must not be set up in a perfidious manner, that is be attached or connected in some way to protective signs or signals, protected persons, animals, food or protected installations.
It refers to the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 23(b).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Teaching Manual (1986) provides: “It is prohibited to use booby-traps which can be triggered unexpectedly.” It gives the example of a transistor radio. 
Switzerland, Droit des gens en temps de guerre, Programme d’instruction fondé sur le Manuel 51.7/III “Lois et coutumes de la guerre”, Cours de base pour recrues de toutes les armes 97.2f, Armée suisse, 1986, pp. 19–22.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Aide-Memoire on the Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict (2005) states:
Rule 8
I remain fair:
- I shall deploy neither anti-personnel mines, poison nor booby traps[.] 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Rule 8.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
16.1 Prohibited means of warfare
228 Prohibited are:
2 anti-personnel mines and booby-traps;*
(* = Convention not yet ratified by all States)
229 The production, stockpiling, import, export, transit and use of such means of combat are notably prohibited. 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 228(2) and 229.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states that the following means of warfare is prohibited:
… booby-traps which are in any way attached to or associated with: internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals, as well as with other apparently harmless objects (e.g. wounded or dead persons, medical equipment, children’s toys and so forth). 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.3.3.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981), under the heading “Future Developments”, considers the possibility of a treaty imposing “restrictions on the use of booby-traps”.  
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 11, p. 40, § 4(b).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
6.7. The use of booby-traps is permitted provided certain conditions are complied with. First, they must be directed against combatants and may not under any circumstances be directed against civilians. Secondly, indiscriminate use is prohibited. That means that the method used, or the circumstances, must be such that there is a reasonable prospect that only combatants will become victims of the booby-traps and that the risk to civilians does not outweigh the military advantage of laying booby-traps. Care has to be taken to ensure that civilians do not become the unwitting victims of booby-traps. So, thirdly, feasible precautions must be taken to protect civilians from their effects. Feasible precautions are those which “are practicable or practically possible taking into account all circumstances ruling at the time, including humanitarian and military considerations”. Further prohibitions of, or restriction on the use of, booby-traps are set out in sub-paragraphs 6.7.3. to 6.7.7.
6.7.1. A booby-trap is “any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure, and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act”. For example, in the case of a booby-trapped doorway, opening the door would be an apparently safe act with respect to the door.
6.7.2. A military logistic installation that is being abandoned in a hurry during a withdrawal could be booby-trapped, but with signs to that effect posted on the perimeter of the installation as a warning to civilians not to enter it.
Prohibitions and restrictions on use of booby-traps
6.7.3. Where combat between ground forces is neither taking place nor appears imminent, booby-traps may not be used at all in populated areas unless either:
a. “they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective;” or
b. “measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, for example, the posting of warning [signs, the posting of] sentries, the issue of warnings or the provision of fences.”
6.7.4. “It is prohibited to use booby-traps in the form of apparently harmless portable objects which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material”. This prohibition relates to booby-traps made to look like watches, personnel audio players, cameras and the like. This is to prevent the production of large quantities of dangerous objects that can be scattered around and picked up by civilians, especially children. It does not prohibit, subject to paragraph 6.7.5 the booby-trapping of existing items of that sort.
6.7.5. It is also prohibited in all circumstances to use booby-traps “attached to or associated with”:
a. “internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals”;
b. “sick, wounded or dead persons”;
c. “burial or cremation sites or graves”;
d. “medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation”;
e. “children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children”;
f. “food or drink”;
g. “kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots”;
h. ‘objects clearly of a religious nature’;
i. “historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples”;
j. ‘animals or their carcasses.’
6.7.6. It is also prohibited in all circumstances to use any booby-trap which is designed to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering. Although these would be prohibited under the guiding principle set out at the beginning of this chapter, the drafters of this provision had in mind booby-traps specifically designed to cause a cruel or lingering death, their purpose being to intimidate through terror.
6.7.7. It is further prohibited to use booby-traps which are designed to be detonated by mine detectors.
Recording
6.7.8. Recording the location of booby-traps is required. This not only protects civilians but also protects one’s own or allied troops and also enables booby-traps to be deactivated as soon as they are no longer required.
6.7.9. For details of the making of records, the use of records, the protection of United Nations forces or missions and the removal of booby-traps, see the corresponding provisions in respect of landmines in paragraph 6.14.6. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 6.7–6.7.9.
The manual further states:
The Amended Mines Protocol [the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] contains detailed provisions on the clearance of mines and booby-traps after the cessation of active hostilities. Basically states are responsible for devices they have emplaced and for the areas under their control. There are provisions for international exchanges of information and co-operation in this respect. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 6.14.10.
In its chapter on the application of the law of armed conflict during peace-support operations, the manual states:
Insofar as a party to an armed conflict is not subject to a more extensive prohibition or restriction on the use of landmines, the Mines Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Conventional Weapons [the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] requires it to take certain steps to protect United Nations forces from mines and booby-traps. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 14.14.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states:
Mines in the nature of booby-traps are frequently unlawfully used, such as when they are attached to objects under the protection of international law, e.g., wounded and sick, dead bodies and medical facilities. Also objectionable are portable booby-traps in the form of fountain pens, watches and trinkets which suggest treachery and unfairly risk injuries to civilians likely to be attracted to the objects. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 6-6(d).
United States of America
The US Rules of Engagement for Operation Desert Storm (1991) states:
Booby traps may be used to protect friendly positions or to impede the progress of enemy forces. They may not be used on civilian personal property. They will be recovered or destroyed when the military necessity for their use no longer exists. 
United States, Desert Storm – Rules of Engagement, Pocket Card, US Central Command, January 1991, reprinted in Operational Law Handbook, International and Operational Law Department, The Judge Advocate General’s School, United States Army, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1995, pp. 8-7 and 8-8, § E.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) states:
Booby traps … are not unlawful, provided they are not designed to cause unnecessary suffering or employed in an indiscriminate manner… . Attaching booby traps to protected persons or objects, such as the wounded and sick, dead bodies, or medical facilities and supplies, is similarly prohibited. Belligerents are required to record the location of booby traps … in the same manner as land mines. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 9.6.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states:
Booby traps and other delayed-action devices are not unlawful, provided they are not designed to cause unnecessary suffering or employed in an indiscriminate manner. … Attaching booby traps to protected persons or objects, such as the wounded and sick, dead bodies, or medical facilities and supplies, is similarly prohibited. Belligerents are required to record the location of booby traps and other delayed-action devices in the same manner as land mines. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 9.6.
Belgium
Belgium’s Law on Arms and Ammunition (1933), as amended to 2006, provides: “[The following] arms shall be considered as prohibited: … booby-traps … or similar devices.” 
Belgium, Law on Arms and Ammunition, 1933, as amended on 18 May 2006, Article 3(1).
The Law further provides:
3. … The use, stockpiling, acquisition and transfer of … booby-traps … or similar devices by the State or public administrations is prohibited.
4. The foregoing prohibition does not apply to the use, stockpiling, sale, acquisition and transfer of such weapons for the purpose of contributing to the training and knowledge maintenance of specialists and military officers taking part in operations aimed at risk minimization in mined areas, demining, or effective destruction of the said weapons.
5. The State or public administrations are required to destroy the existing stockpiles of … booby-traps … or similar devices within three years. 
Belgium, Law on Arms and Ammunition, 1933, as amended to 2006, Article 22(3), (4) and (5).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons (2006) provides:
For the purposes of the present law and its implementing decrees, “antipersonnel landmines and booby-traps or similar devices” are considered as … any devices placed on, under or near a surface area, and designed or adapted to be exploded or detonated by the mere presence, proximity or contact of a person, whether or not equipped with an anti-handling device intended to protect the mine and which is part of, linked to, attached to or placed under the mine and that activate when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine. 
Belgium, Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons, 2006, Article 2(3).
The Law further provides: “[The following] arms shall be considered as prohibited: … booby-traps … or similar devices.” 
Belgium, Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons, 2006, Article 3(1).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Estonia
Under Estonia’s Penal Code (2001), “use of … booby-traps, i.e. explosives disguised as small harmless objects,” is a war crime. 
Estonia, Penal Code, 2001, § 103.
Hungary
Under Hungary’s Criminal Code (1978), as amended in 1998, employing “booby-traps” as defined in Article 2 of the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons is a war crime. 
Hungary, Criminal Code, 1978, as amended in 1998, Section 160/A(3)(b)(2).
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Conventional Weapons Act (2001) provides:
No one is allowed to use or transfer a weapon that falls under any of the following categories:
… booby-traps … made to detonate resulting from the magnetism of a mine-destruction device or other cause without physical contact of person or device during detection operation with standard mine detection devices available in Korea. 
Republic of Korea, Conventional Weapons Act, 2001, Article 3.
The Act further prohibits the use of certain booby-traps
which are attached to or associated with the following persons, things, or places:
1. Emblems, signs or signals protected under international laws including military flags, Red Cross emblems, civilian protective force emblems,
2. Sick, wounded or dead persons,
3. Cremation or burial sites or graves,
4. Medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation,
5. Children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children,
6. Food or drink,
7. Kitchen utensils or appliances not in the military unit, base or supply depot facilities,
8. Objects obviously used for religious purposes,
9. Historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of human beings, or
10. Animals or their carcasses. 
Republic of Korea, Conventional Weapons Act, 2001, Article 4.
The Act also provides: “The commander of the military unit that emplaces … booby-traps … must take all necessary measures including advance warning so as to prevent damage to the life, body, and property of the civilians residing in vicinity.” 
Republic of Korea, Conventional Weapons Act, 2001, Article 6.
Lastly, the Act provides:
1. The commander of the military unit that emplaced … booby-traps … must record and maintain the following information on the emplaced field:
a. Precise location and boundary of the emplaced area;
b. Type, number, emplacing method, type of fuse and life time of the emplaced … booby-traps …, and
c. Location of every emplaced … booby-trap …
2. The commander of the emplacing unit must manage the information which was recorded and maintained as per the paragraph 1 in accordance with the Military Secret Protection Act. 
Republic of Korea, Conventional Weapons Act, 2001, Article 8.
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on Cooperation with the ICC (2006) states:
26.2. Persons and objects affected by the war crimes set out in the present provision are persons and objects which international law protects in international or internal armed conflict.
26.3. The following are war crimes:
44. Using … booby-traps and other similar devices against the civilian population or protected persons or objects in violation of the provisions of international law. 
Uruguay, Law on Cooperation with the ICC, 2006, Article 26.2 and 26.3.44.
Colombia
In 1995, in a ruling on the constitutionality of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated with respect to the prohibition on the use of weapons of a nature to cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury:
Although none of the treaty rules expressly applicable to internal conflicts prohibits indiscriminate attacks or the use of certain weapons, the Taormina Declaration consequently considers that the bans (established partly by customary law and partly by treaty law) on the use of … booby-traps … apply to non-international armed conflicts, not only because they form part of customary international law but also because they evidently derive from the general rule prohibiting attacks against the civilian population. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-225/95, Judgment, 18 May 1995, § 23.
Austria
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Austria stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Austria, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 27 July 1998.
Belgium
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Belgium declared: “[T]he provisions of Protocol II as amended which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Belgium, Interpretative declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 10 March 1999.
Canada
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Canada stated: “It is understood that the provisions of Amended Protocol II shall, as the context requires, be observed at all times.” 
Canada, Statements of understanding made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 26 June 1998, § 1.
China
Upon signature of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, China stated:
The Protocol [to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices fails to lay down strict restrictions on the use of such weapons by the aggressor on the territory of his victim and to provide adequately for the right of a state victim of an aggressor to defend itself by all necessary means. 
China, Declaration made upon signature of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 14 September 1981, § 3.
Denmark
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Denmark stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Denmark, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 30 April 1997.
Egypt
In 1974, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the representative of Egypt stated:
14. It was generally agreed that time-delay weapons such as … booby traps, often placed far from the combat areas, could injure civilians as well as combatants and were therefore indiscriminate. Moreover, such devices generally exploded close to the victims, causing grave injuries; they also slowed up the evacuation of the sick and wounded from mined areas, thus increasing their suffering. His delegation called for prohibition of the use of weapons of that category.
15. Booby traps, often disguised as harmless devices such as pens or transistor radios, exposed civilians as well as combatants to the danger of injury from explosion and should therefore be banned. 
Egypt, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.6, 22 March 1974, p. 49, §§ 14–15.
Egypt
According to the Report on the Practice of Egypt, Egypt considers that, owing to their drastic effects, some weapons, such as delayed-action weapons and booby-traps, should be prohibited in any circumstances. 
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 3.4.
Finland
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Finland stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Finland, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 3 April 1998.
France
Upon ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, France stated:
With reference to the scope of application defined in article 1 of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons, … it will apply the provisions of the Convention and its three Protocols [I, II and III] to all armed conflicts referred to in articles 2 and 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. 
France, Reservations made upon ratification of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 4 March 1988.
France
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, France stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
France, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 23 July 1998.
Germany, Federal Republic of
In 1976, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the Federal Republic of Germany supported a proposal restricting the use of booby-traps. 
Germany, Federal Republic of, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.30, 26 May 1976, p. 308, § 13.
Germany
In 1987, a member of the German Parliament condemned the use of booby-traps by Russian forces in Afghanistan. He stated: “The USSR, in Afghanistan, uses so called butterfly-bombs against children, which the children mistake to be toys because of their small size and their slowly floating down from the sky.” The speaker continued: “This war against children is a shame.” His speech met with the approval of the majority of the members of parliament. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Statement by a Member of Parliament, Dr. Todenhöfer, 11 December 1987, Plenarprotokoll 11/50, p. 3570.
Germany
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Germany stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Germany, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 2 May 1997.
Greece
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Greece declared: “It is understood that the provisions of the protocol shall, as the context requires, be observed at all times.” 
Greece, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 20 January 1999.
India
At the Third Preparatory Committee for the Second Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 2001, India indicated that it “fully supported the idea of expanding the scope of the [Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] to cover armed internal conflicts”. 
India, Statement of 24 September 2001 at the Third Preparatory Committee for the Second Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Geneva, 24–28 September 2001.
India
According to the Report on the Practice of India, in India there is “a ban and restriction on the use of … certain booby traps”. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Answers to additional questions on Chapter 3.4.
Indonesia
According to the Report on the Practice of Indonesia, Indonesia has prohibited the use of certain booby-traps. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 3.4.
Ireland
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Ireland stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Ireland, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 27 March 1997.
Israel
Upon accession to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Israel stated:
With reference to the scope of application defined in article 1 of the Convention, the Government of the State of Israel will apply the provisions of the Convention and those annexed Protocols to which Israel has agreed [I, II and III] to become bound to all armed conflicts involving regular forces of States referred to in article 2 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, as well as to all armed conflicts referred to in article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. 
Israel, Declarations and understandings made upon accession to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 22 March 1995, § (a).
Italy
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Italy stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Italy, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 13 January 1999.
Jordan
The Report on the Practice of Jordan states that Jordan does not use, manufacture or stockpile booby-traps and it does not plan to do so in the future. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 3.4.
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
In 1977, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya supported the proposal restricting the use of booby-traps submitted by Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. 
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.40, 19 May 1977, p. 411, § 38.
Liechtenstein
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Liechtenstein stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol II which by their contents or nature may also be applied in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Liechtenstein, Declaration upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 19 November 1997.
Netherlands
In 1992, during a debate in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, the Netherlands implied that universal adherence to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons would give it effect in internal conflicts. 
Netherlands, Statement before the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.1/47/PV.26, 4 December 1992, p. 21.
Netherlands
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the Netherlands declared: “[T]he provisions of the Protocol which, given their content or nature, can also be applied in peacetime, must be observed in all circumstances.” 
Netherlands, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 25 March 1999, § 1.
Netherlands
The Report on the Practice of the Netherlands states that the Netherlands is of the opinion that the use of “booby traps connected with the emblem of the Red Cross, wounded or dead persons, medical goods or children’s toys is prohibited”.  
Report on the Practice of the Netherlands, 1997, Chapter 3.4.
Pakistan
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Pakistan stated: “[T]he provisions of the Protocol must be observed at all times, depending on the circumstances.” 
Pakistan, Declarations made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 9 March 1999, § 3.
Russian Federation
At the International Conference on the Protection of Victims of War in Geneva in 1993, the Russian Federation declared that, in order to protect the civilian population against indiscriminate weapons, booby-traps should be completely banned in internal conflicts. 
Russian Federation, Statement by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Andrey Kozyrev, at the International Conference on the Protection of Victims of War, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993.
South Africa
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, South Africa stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
South Africa, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 26 June 1998.
Sweden
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Sweden stated: “[T]he provisions of the amended Protocol which by their contents or nature may be applied also in peacetime, shall be observed at all times.” 
Sweden, Declaration made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 16 July 1997.
United States of America
In 1976, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the United States welcomed proposals by other States to restrict the use of booby-traps and stated: “It was clearly desirable to place certain restrictions on the use of land-mines and other devices, including booby-traps.” It added that the United States “welcomed and shared the concern evidenced in the various proposals for the protection of the civilian population against the effects of mines and similar devices, and believed that those proposals constituted a good basis for the formulation of an effective agreement”. 
United States, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.29, 25 May 1976, p. 300, §§ 34–36.
United States of America
Upon ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the United States declared:
With reference to the scope of application defined in article 1 of the Convention, … the United States will apply the provisions of the Convention, Protocol I, and Protocol II to all armed conflicts referred to in articles 2 and 3 common to the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims of August 12, 1949. 
United States, Declaration made upon ratification of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 24 March 1995.
United States of America
Upon ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the United States stated:
The United States understands that article 6(1) of the Protocol II [to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] does not prohibit the adaptation for use as booby-traps of portable objects created for a purpose other than as a booby-trap if the adaptation does not violate paragraph (1)(b) of the article. 
United States, Statements of understanding made upon ratification of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 24 March 1995.
United States of America
Upon acceptance of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the United States declared:
(A) the prohibition contained in Article 7(2) of the Amended Mines Protocol [1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] does not preclude the expedient adaptation or adaptation in advance of other objects for use as booby-traps or other devices;
(B) a trip-wired hand grenade shall be considered a “boob-trap” under Article 2(4) of the Amended Mines Protocol and shall not be considered a “mine” or an “anti-personnel mine” under Article 2(1) or Article 2(3), respectively; and
(C) none of the provisions of the Amended Mines Protocol, including Article 2(5), applies to hand grenades other than trip-wired hand grenades. 
United States, Statements of understanding made upon acceptance of Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 24 May 1999, § (6)(A)–(C).
Zimbabwe
According to the Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, in Zimbabwe it is military practice not to use booby-traps. 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 3.5.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Cyprus, the UN Security Council called upon the military authorities on both sides “to clear all … booby-trapped areas inside the buffer zone without further delay, as requested by UNFICYP”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1062, 28 June 1996, § 6(c), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1980 on the UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly welcomed the successful conclusion of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and its Protocols and commended the Convention and the three annexed Protocols to all States “with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 35/153, 12 December 1980, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1981 on the UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling the successful conclusion of the United Nations Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, which resulted in a Convention and three Protocols, adopted by the Conference on 10 October 1980,
1. Urges those States which have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to sign and ratify the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible so as to obtain its entry into force, and ultimately its universal adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 36/93, 9 December 1981, preamble and § 1, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1982 on the UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling with satisfaction the adoption, on 10 October 1980, of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects,
1. Urges those States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols annexed thereto, as early as possible, so as to obtain their entry into force and, ultimately, their universal adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 37/79, 9 December 1982, preamble and § 1, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1983 on the UN Conference on Prohibitions or Restrictions of Use of Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States which have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto, as early as possible, so as to obtain ultimately universal adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 38/66, 15 December 1983, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1984 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 39/56, 12 December 1984, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1985 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 40/84, 12 December 1985, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1986 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 41/50, 3 December 1986, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1987 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 42/30, 30 November 1987, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1988 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 43/67, 7 December 1988, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1990 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 45/64, 4 December 1990, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1991 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 46/40, 6 December 1991, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States that have not yet done so to exert their best endeavours to become parties to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols annexed thereto as early as possible, as well as successor States to take appropriate action so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 47/56, 9 December 1992, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Desirous of reinforcing international co-operation in the area of prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons, in particular for the removal of … booby-traps,
3. Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately access to this instrument will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/79, 16 December 1993, preamble and § 3, voting record: 169-0-3-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately access to this instrument will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/79, 15 December 1994, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and its Protocols and upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately access to these instruments will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/74, 12 December 1995, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and its Protocols, and upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately adherence to these instruments will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/49, 10 December 1996, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
2. Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols thereto, and in particular to amended Protocol II, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to this instrument at an early date, and calls upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately adherence to these instruments will be universal.
3. Calls, in particular, upon the States parties to the Convention to express their consent to be bound by the amended Protocol II with a view to its entry into force as soon as possible, and, pending its entry into force, to respect and ensure respect for its substantive provisions to the fullest extent possible. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 52/42, 9 December 1997, §§ 2–3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
2. Welcomes the adherence to the amended Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II) by twenty-one States and its entry into force on 3 December 1998, and calls, in particular, on all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocol;
5. Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols thereto, and particularly to amended Protocol II, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to this instrument at an early date, and calls upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately adherence to these instruments will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/81, 4 December 1998, §§ 2 and 5, adopted without a vote
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Welcoming the additional ratifications and acceptances of or accessions to the Convention, as well as the ratifications and acceptances of or accessions to amended Protocol II and Protocol IV,
1. Welcomes the entry into force on 3 December 1998 of the amended Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II), and calls, in particular, upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocol;
3. Urgently calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention [on Certain Conventional Weapons] and the Protocols thereto, and in particular to the amended Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II), with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to this instrument at an early date, and calls upon successor States to take appropriate measures so that ultimately adherence to these instruments will be universal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/58, 1 December 1999, preamble and § III(1) and (3), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly recalled with satisfaction “the decision by the Second Review Conference, on 21 December 2001, to extend the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non- international character”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/69, 8 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/107, 3 December 2004, §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/93, 8 December 2005, §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling with satisfaction the adoption and the entry into force of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and its amended article 1, and the Protocol on Non-Detectable Fragments (Protocol I), the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II) and its amended version, the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III) and the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV),
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/100, 6 December 2006, preamble and §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling with satisfaction the adoption and the entry into force of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and its amended article 1, and the Protocol on Non-Detectable Fragments (Protocol I), the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices (Protocol II) and its amended version, the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III), the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV), and the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V),
1. Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to take all measures to become parties, as soon as possible, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and the Protocols thereto, as amended, with a view to achieving the widest possible adherence to these instruments at an early date, and so as to ultimately achieve their universality;
2. Calls upon all States parties to the Convention that have not yet done so to express their consent to be bound by the Protocols to the Convention and the amendment extending the scope of the Convention and the Protocols thereto to include armed conflicts of a non-international character. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/57, 5 December 2007, preamble and §§ 1–2, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1986, in a report on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the booby-trapping of children’s toys. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1986/24, 17 February 1986, §§ 88–89 and 119.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In 1985, in a report on the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly noted that “children of all ages … have been the victims of … ‘booby-trapped toys’”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Report on the deteriorating situation in Afghanistan, Doc. 5495, 15 November 1985, p. 7.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly invited,
in particular, the governments of the member states of the Council of Europe, of the states whose parliaments enjoy or have applied for special guest status with the Assembly, of the states whose parliaments enjoy observer status, namely Israel, and of all other states to:
b.ratify, if they have not done so, … the United Nations Convention of 1980 on the prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons and its protocols …
j.promote extension of the aforesaid United Nations Convention of 1980 to non-international armed conflicts, and inclusion in its provisions of effective procedures for verification and regular inspection. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 1085, 24 April 1996, § 8b and j.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on respect for IHL and support for humanitarian action in armed conflicts, the OAU Council of Ministers invited “all States that have not yet become party to the … [1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons], to consider, or reconsider, without delay the possibility of doing so in the near future”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1526 (LX), 6–11 June 1994, § 6.
OAS General Assembly
In two resolutions adopted in 1994 and 1996, the OAS General Assembly urged all member States to accede to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. 
OAS, General Assembly, Res. 1270 (XXIV-O/94), 10 June 1994, § 1; Res. 1408 (XXVI-O/96), 7 June 1996, § 1.
Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH
In the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom submitted a proposal building on an earlier proposal from the Conference of Government Experts on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons in Lugano in 1976 entitled “The Regulation of the Use of Land-Mines and Other Devices”. Article 5 (“Prohibitions on the Use of Certain Explosive and Non-Explosive Devices”) read:
1. It is forbidden in any circumstance to use any apparently harmless portable object (other than an item of military equipment or supplies) which is specifically designed and constructed to obtain explosive material and to detonate when it is disturbed or approached.
2. It is forbidden in any circumstances to use any explosive or non-explosive device or other material which is deliberately placed to kill or injure when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act and which is in any way attached to or associated with:
(a) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
(b) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(c) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(d) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transport; or
(e) children’s toys.
3. It is forbidden in any circumstances to use any non-explosive device or any material which is deliberately placed to kill or injure when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act and which is designed to kill or injure by stabbing, impaling, crushing, strangling, infecting or poisoning the victim. 
Denmark, France, Netherlands and United Kingdom, Article 5 of the proposal entitled “The Regulation of the Use of Land-Mines and Other Devices” submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/213 within CDDH/IV/226, pp. 590–591.
Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH
Mexico, Switzerland and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia submitted a draft article on booby-traps to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, which summarized previous proposals from the Conference of Government Experts on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons in Lugano in 1976. The draft article provided, inter alia:
2. Booby-traps may only be used when they are placed inside or outside military objects. The civilian population in the proximity of such a site shall be given warning of danger.
3. It is prohibited in any circumstances to attach or connect booby-traps to the dead, sick or wounded, to first aid installations, equipment and supplies, to children’s toys or to objects of current use among the civilian population. 
Mexico, Switzerland and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Draft article entitled “Booby-traps” submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/209 within CDDH/IV/226, p. 583.
Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH
Venezuela presented a proposal concerning booby-traps to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, which read:
2. Booby traps may only be used when they are placed inside or outside clearly defined military objectives. In all cases, the civilian population in the proximity of booby traps shall be given warning of the danger.
3. It shall be prohibited in all circumstances to set or place booby traps on the dead, wounded or sick, on installations, vehicles or equipment used for relief purposes, on children’s toys or on objects of common or domestic use for the civilian population. 
Venezuela, Draft article entitled “Booby traps” submitted to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/212 within CDDH/IV/226.
In 1976, during discussions in the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Venezuela stated that, regardless of its own proposal restricting the use of booby-traps, it “was willing to support the proposal” made by Mexico, Switzerland and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on the same issue. 
Venezuela, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/SR.28, 20 May 1976, p. 291, § 29.
Preparatory Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
At the Preparatory Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1978, Australia, Austria, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom submitted a similar proposal to one presented during the CDDH. However, the authors returned to using the expression “booby-trap” instead of “explosive or non-explosive device”. 
Austria, Denmark, France, Mexico, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, Proposal submitted at the Preparatory Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./L.9, 12 September 1978 and A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./L.9/Add.1, 13 September 1978; see also the proposal by the same States submitted at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/408/Rev.1, Appendix II, Working Group Document CDDH/IV/GT/4, p. 546, § 6.
Mexico advocated “limitation of the use of … booby-traps to military targets and their immediate surroundings, with effective precautions to protect civilians”. 
Preparatory Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./I/SR.3, 4 September 1978, pp. 3–4.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution in which it urged all States to become parties to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and its Protocols “as early as possible so as ultimately to obtain universality of adherence”. It noted “the dangers to civilians caused by … booby-traps … employed during an armed conflict and the need for international co-operation in this field consistent with Article 9 of Protocol II attached to the 1980 Convention”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. VII, §§ B(2) and B(5).
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995)
The 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995 adopted a resolution in which it urged “all States which have not yet done so to become party to the [1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] and in particular to its Protocol II on landmines[, booby-traps and other devices], with a view to achieving universal adherence thereto” and underlined “the importance of respect for its provisions by all parties to armed conflict”. 
26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, Res. II, § G(g).
Meeting of Governmental Experts to Prepare the First Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
In 1994, at the Third Session of the Meeting of Governmental Experts prior to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Review Conference, France and Germany advocated a total ban on the use of booby-traps. Their proposal provided a revision of Article 6 of the draft (1996) Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons as follows:
1. It is prohibited to [develop, manufacture, stockpile] use [or transfer, directly or indirectly]:
–the booby-traps [defined in article 2, paragraph 2 of this Protocol] and …
2. The States Parties undertake to destroy weapons to which this article applies and which are in their ownership and possession. 
France and Germany, Proposal submitted to the Meeting of Governmental Experts to Prepare the First Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Third Session, Geneva, 8–19 August 1994, UN Doc. CCW/CONF.I/GE/CRP.2/Rev.1, 28 June 1994, Geneva, 8–19 August 1994.
No data.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that:
The use of any booby-trap in the form of an apparently harmless portable object which is specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material and to detonate when it is disturbed or approached, is prohibited.
The use of any booby-trap which is designed to cause superfluous or unnecessary suffering is prohibited.
The use of booby-traps which are in any way attached or associated with the following persons or objects is prohibited:
(a) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
(b) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(c) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(d) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation;
(e) children’s toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health, hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(f) food or drink;
(g) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military supply depots;
(h) objects clearly of a religious nature;
(i) historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples; or
(j) animals or their carcasses.
… Booby-traps … may be used in populated areas:
a) when they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective belonging to or under the control of the enemy; or
b) when measures are taken to protect civilians persons (e.g. warning signs, sentries, issue of warnings, provision of fences).
The location shall be recorded of:
b) areas where large-scale and pre-planned use is made of booby-traps. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, §§ 921–923 and 928–929.
Americas Watch
In 1986, in a report on the use of landmines in the conflicts in El Salvador and Nicaragua, Americas Watch listed the following uses of booby-traps among those that “should be prohibited in the conduct of hostilities in both countries”:
1. Their direct use against individual or groups of unarmed civilians where no legitimate military objective, such as enemy combatants or war material, is present. Such uses of these weapons are indiscriminate.
2. The direct use against civilian objects, i.e., towns, villages, dwellings or buildings dedicated to civilian purposes where no military objective is present. Such weapons’ use is also indiscriminate.
4. The use of … booby-traps in or near a civilian locale containing military objectives which are deployed without any precaution, markings or other warnings, or which do not self-destruct or are not removed once their military purpose has been served. Such uses are similarly indiscriminate. 
Americas Watch, Land Mines in El Salvador and Nicaragua: The Civilian Victims, New York, December 1986, pp. 100–101.
[emphasis in original]
Institute of International Humanitarian Law
The Rules of International Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities in Non-international Armed Conflicts, adopted in 1990 by the Council of the Institute of International Humanitarian Law, state:
In application of the general rules listed in section A above, especially those on the distinction between combatants and civilians and on the immunity of the civilian population, … booby-traps … may not be directed against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians, nor used indiscriminately.
The prohibition of booby-traps listed in Article 6 of that Protocol II extends to their use in non-international armed conflicts, in application of the general rules on the distinction between combatants and civilians, the immunity of the civilian population, the prohibition of superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering, and the prohibition of perfidy.
To ensure the protection of the civilian population referred to in the previous paragraphs, precautions must be taken to protect them from attacks in the form of … booby-traps. 
Institute of International Humanitarian Law, Rules of International Humanitarian Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities in Non-international Armed Conflicts, Rule B4, IRRC, No. 278, 1990, p. 399.