Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy

Additional Protocol I
Article 37(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with the intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 37(1). Article 37 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.39, 25 May 1977, p. 103.
Additional Protocol II (draft)
Article 21(1) of the draft Additional Protocol II submitted by the ICRC to the CDDH provided: “Acts inviting the confidence of the adversary with intent to betray that confidence are deemed to constitute perfidy.” 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. I, Part Three, Draft Additional Protocols, June 1973, p. 39.
However, this proposal was deleted from the draft Article 21 adopted in Committee III of the CDDH. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XV, CDDH/407/Rev.1, 17 March–10 June 1977, p. 502.
Lieber Code
Article 15 of the 1863 Lieber Code provides:
Military necessity admits … of such deception as does not involve the breaking of good faith either positively pledged, regarding agreements entered into during the war, or supposed by the modern law of war to exist. Men who take up arms against one another in public war do not cease on this account to be moral beings, responsible to one another and to God. 
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Order No. 100 by President Abraham Lincoln, Washington D.C., 24 April 1863, Article 15.
Lieber Code
Article 16 of the 1863 Lieber Code provides: “Military necessity … admits of deception, but disclaims acts of perfidy.” 
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Order No. 100 by President Abraham Lincoln, Washington D.C., 24 April 1863, Article 16.
Oxford Manual
Article 4 of the 1880 Oxford Manual states that belligerents “are to abstain especially … from all perfidious … acts”. 
The Laws of War on Land, adopted by the Institute of International Law, Oxford, 9 September 1880, Article 4.
Oxford Manual of Naval War
Article 15 of the 1913 Oxford Manual of Naval War states: “Methods … which involve treachery are forbidden.” 
The Laws of Naval War Governing the Relations between Belligerents, adopted by the Institute of International Law, Oxford, 9 August 1913, Article 15.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 6 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 6.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.5 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.5.
San Remo Manual
Paragraph 111 of the 1994 San Remo Manual states:
Perfidy is prohibited. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead it to believe that it is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. 
Louise Doswald-Beck (ed.), San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994, Prepared by international lawyers and naval experts convened by the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995, § 111.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides that “the use of ruses and stratagems of war shall be legitimate as long as they do not imply the recourse to treason or to perfidy”, which are violations of the principle of good faith. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 1.017.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states:
Those acts are perfidious, which, relying on the good faith of an adversary with the intention to betray him, lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law …
The prohibition of employing perfidious methods does not include stratagems. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 1.05(2) and (3).
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides:
Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, leading him to believe that he is entitled or obliged to accord protection under the rules of international law, with an intent to betray that confidence. Perfidious conduct is outlawed by LOAC and therefore, either a person who engages or a commander who orders or acquiesces in perfidious conduct may be prosecuted. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 502; see also § 826 (naval warfare) and § 902 (land warfare).
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Perfidy is forbidden. Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, thus leading that adversary to believe that there is an entitlement, or an obligation, to accord protection provided under LOAC, with an intent to betray that confidence. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 703.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
Perfidy is forbidden. Acts which constitute perfidy are those inviting the confidence of an adversary, thus leading that adversary to believe that there is an entitlement, or an obligation, to accord protection provided under the LOAC, with an intent to betray that confidence. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.3.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states: “Perfidious acts are acts which abuse the confidence of the adversary so that he thinks he is facing a friend or a situation protected by the law of war.” 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 32.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Officers (1994) provides that acts of perfidy are prohibited. It describes perfidy as “ruses aimed at neutralizing the enemy (capturing, injuring or killing him) by leading him to believe that he has an obligation to respect a rule of humanitarian law”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Manuel d’Instruction pour Officiers, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 1994, Part I, Title II, p. 34.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers defines perfidy as “any act intended to deceive or abuse the enemy’s confidence by inviting him to afford humanitarian protection and to respect a humanitarian rule”. 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 19, footnote (1).
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) states: “It is prohibited to use perfidy.” It adds: “Perfidy … consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection.” 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule III, p. 13.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states that “[p]erfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 32.
The Regulations also states that “[p]rohibited methods of combat … [include] perfidy”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 53; see also Part I bis, p. 2.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “Perfidy is condemned … by the Law of War.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 149, § 531.1.
The manual describes perfidy as “claiming an international protection with an intent to betray the enemy”. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 30, § 131 and p. 89, § 222.
The manual also provides the same definition of perfidy as that contained in Article 37(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 63, § 234.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) provides that “perfidy is … prohibited by the law of armed conflict”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 59, § 251; see also =p. 85, § 341 and p. 323.
The manual adds:
Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 183, § 494.A; see also . p. 103, § 371 and p. 147, § 431.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states:
Acts inviting the confidence of adversaries and leading them to believe that they are entitled to protection or are obliged to grant protection under the LOAC, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 6-2, § 8 (land warfare), p. 7-2, § 16 (air warfare) and pp. 8-10 and 8-11, § 80 (naval warfare).
[emphasis in original]
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) provides: “Perfidy is a war crime.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 10, § 10.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states that the concept of chivalry “refers to the conduct of armed conflict in accordance with certain recognized formalities and courtesies”. It adds that “the concept of chivalry is reflected in specific prohibitions such as those against dishonourable or treacherous conduct and against misuse of enemy flags or flags of truce.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 202.7.
In its chapters on land warfare, air warfare and naval warfare, the manual provides:
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture adversaries by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of adversaries and leading them to believe that they are entitled to protection or are obliged to grant protection under the LOAC, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, §§ 603.1 (land warfare), 706.1 (air warfare) and 857.1 (naval warfare).
[emphasis in original]
Canada
Rule 10 of Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) states: “Perfidy is a war crime.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 10, § 10.
In the lesson plan for that rule, perfidy is defined as:
Acts inviting the confidence of adversaries and leading them to believe that they are entitled to protection or are obliged to grant protection under the Law of Armed Conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection (e.g., firing on a member of an opposing force who comes forward under the protection of a white flag). 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Chapter 3, Lesson Plan for Rule 10, TP6.
[emphasis in original]
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 3 (Instruction for non-commissioned officers studying for the level 1 and 2 certificates and for future officers of the criminal police): “Perfidy, in contrast [to a ruse of war], means committing a hostile act under the cover of legal protection.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 3: Formation pour l’obtention du Brevet d’Armes No. 1, du Brevet d’Armes No. 2 et le stage d’Officier de Police Judiciaire (OPJ), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter III, Section 1.
Colombia
Under Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999), the instructor must explain what perfidy is, i.e., “conduct which is prohibited by International Humanitarian Law”. 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 31.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
The principle of limitation determines permitted means and prohibited means.
- What are the prohibited means and methods of warfare?
- perfidy.
NB:
Perfidy is different from a ruse of war and is condemned by the law of war. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 15–16.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
II.1. Ruses of war
… Ruses of war are permitted. …
… On the other hand, IHL prohibits recourse to perfidy with the aim to kill, injure or capture an enemy.
Regarded as perfidy is any act which appeals to the good faith of the enemy, with the intention to deceive him, and with the aim of making him believe that he is entitled to receive, or has the obligation to give, protection provided by the rules of IHL. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 41.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual further provides:
I.2. Unlawful tactics
I.2.1. Perfidy
It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary and leading him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the LOAC, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. In other words, perfidy consists in acts of hostility under the cover of legitimate protection. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 48.
Croatia
Croatia’s LOAC Compendium (1991) lists perfidy as a prohibited method of warfare. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 40.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy.” 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, § 46.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) states:
The use of unlawful deceptions is called “perfidy”. Acts of perfidy are deceptions designed to invite the confidence of the enemy to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protected status under the law of armed conflict, with the intent to betray that confidence. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 12.1.2.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) prohibits perfidy. It does not define “perfidy” as such, but states: “It is forbidden to feign a protected status to invite the confidence of the enemy.” 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, § 4.4.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) prohibits the recourse to perfidy. 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 3.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) states:
Contrary to ruses of war, treachery is prohibited by the law of armed conflicts when it leads to the use of perfidious means, i.e. inviting the good faith of the adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to receive, or the obligation to accord, the protection provided for by the law of armed conflict. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 123.
The manual considers that perfidy is a prohibited method of warfare. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 85.
It also incorporates the definition of perfidy contained in Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 123; see also p. 93.
The manual also states: “There are two elements which constitute perfidy: a fraudulent intention to kill, injure or capture an enemy, and a will to invite his good faith. When a perfidious act causes the death or serious physical injury to the adversary, it constitutes a war crime.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 94; see also p. 85.
Germany
Germany’s Soldiers’ Manual (1991) defines perfidious acts as those “by which the adversary is induced to believe that there is a situation affording protection under public international law, so that he may be attacked by surprise”.  
Germany, Taschenkarte, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, Bearbeitet nach ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, Zentrum Innere Führung, June 1991, p. 2.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “Perfidy is prohibited. The term ‘perfidy’ refers to acts misleading the adverse party to believe that there is a situation affording protection under international law.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 472; see also § 1018 (naval warfare).
Germany
Germany’s Soldiers’ Manual (2006) states that perfidious acts are those “by which the adversary is induced to believe that there is a situation affording protection under public international law, so that he may be attacked by surprise”. 
Germany, Druckschrift Einsatz Nr. 03, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, Erarbeitet nach ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, DSK SF009320187, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, R II 3, August 2006, p. 2.
Greece
The Hellenic Navy’s International Law Manual (1995) provides:
Acts designed to lead the adversary to believe that he is obliged to adhere to and respect certain rights of the enemy protected by international law, in order to exploit and take advantage of the confidence of the adversary, constitute perfidy. 
Greece, International Law Manual, Hellenic Navy General Staff, Directorate A2, Division IV, 1995, Chapter 5, § 4.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) considers perfidy as a “prohibited method” of warfare. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 64.
The manual states that perfidy is “to falsely claim protected status, thereby inviting the confidence of the enemy”. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 63.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Laws of War (1998) states:
The distinction between stratagem (which is allowed) and perfidious or treacherous means is that the latter are defined as acts designed to cause the enemy to think that it is entitled to the protection extended by the law of war, or to create a situation in which the enemy is obliged to trust the adversary with the intent of betraying that trust. 
Israel, Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, p. 56.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) states:
The distinction between trickery (which is permitted) and betrayals of trust or treachery is that the latter are defined as acts designed to cause the enemy to think that it is entitled to the protection of the rules of war or to create a situation in which it is obliged to put its trust in the opposing side through the intention to betray such trust. 
Israel, Rules of Warfare on the Battlefield, Military Advocate-General’s Corps Command, IDF School of Military Law, Second Edition, 2006, p. 35.
The Manual on the Rules of Warfare (2006) is a second edition of the Manual on the Laws of War (1998).
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 46.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) defines perfidy as “tricking an enemy into believing that he is entitled to, or is required to be given, protection under international law, with intent to betray that confidence”. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, p. 7.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) provides: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status thereby inviting the confidence of the enemy.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 6-O, § 14.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states:
The underlying idea of this body of law [i.e. IHL] is to humanize war. The three main principles established to this end are:
C. means of warfare involving perfidy, that is, those that are contrary to military honour, are prohibited. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 372(C).
The manual also states: “It is prohibited to: … kill or wound by means of treachery.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 389(A).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides:
Treacherous behaviour (also known as perfidy) is … prohibited … Treacherous behaviour consists of acts which are intended to deceive the enemy in order for him to believe that he is faced with a situation which is protected by the humanitarian law of war … Treacherous means misusing the protection given by the law of war. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. IV-1 and IV-2.
Netherlands
Under the Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands, “treachery means misusing the protection provided by the law of war”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-36.
According to the Handbook, it is a prohibited method of warfare “to perform treacherous acts”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands lists “honesty and good faith” as one of five “generally accepted principles of the humanitarian law of war”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0221 and 0223; see also § 0405, p. 39 and § 1028.
The manual prohibits “[t]reacherous action” and “[a]ction in breach of good faith”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 34.
The manual further states:
There is a narrow borderline between perfidy and ruses of war. Acts of treachery (also called perfidy) are, however, forbidden. Ruses of war may be used. The exact wording of the rule is that it is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. An act of perfidy takes place when an adversary is led to believe that he is protected under the humanitarian law of war. Put more simply, it is forbidden to kill or wound an enemy by treachery. Perfidy also means misuse of the protection conferred by the humanitarian law of war, for example misuse of the emblem of the Red Cross. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0413.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states: “Perfidious action is prohibited.”  
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1042.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states that the use of methods and means which “violate the principles of humanitarian treatment or of honesty and good faith” must be avoided. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1216.
In the same chapter, the manual further provides:
The principle of honesty and good faith holds an important place in peace operations. In army legal literature, this principle can be traced back to the fundamental principles of peace operations, namely transparency, impartiality and mutual respect. Methods such as perfidious action … are prohibited. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1217.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides:
Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with the intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy … The definition of perfidy codifies customary law. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 502(5), including footnote 2 (land warfare); see also § 713(2) (naval warfare) and § 611(2) (air warfare).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) states:
A commander in his desire to fulfil his mission shall not mask his intentions and action from the enemy so as to induce the enemy to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests. Thus, to be consistent with the law of war, deceptions shall follow the distinction between permitted ruses and prohibited perjury [perfidy]. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 42.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Manual on the Laws of War provides that stratagems and ruses of war “are permissible provided they do not involve treachery”. 
Nigeria, The Laws of War, by Lt. Col. L. Ode PSC, Nigerian Army, Lagos, undated, § 14.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states that “a distinction must be made between ruses of war (permitted) and perfidy (prohibited)”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.e.(1).
The manual further states: “Perfidy is a hostile act carried out under the cover of legal protection.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 27.e.(9).
The manual defines the term “perfidy” as: “Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead it to believe that it is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 135.c.
The manual defines the term “treachery” as: “The term used in the law of armed conflict to forbid killing or wounding individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army by betraying the confidence of an adversary.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 135.c.
In the context of air warfare, the manual states:
Perfidy is always illegal.
Perfidy is prohibited without any kind of qualification identifying it with any particular type of warfare. In other words, it is prohibited to engage in hostile acts, regardless of the military advantage they may secure, that are designed to betray the enemy’s good will. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Annex 9, Glossary of Terms.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states that “a distinction must be made between ruses of war (permitted) and perfidy (prohibited).” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 28(e)(1), p. 238.
The manual further states: “Perfidy is a hostile act carried out under the cover of legal protection.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 28(e)(2), p. 239.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual defines “perfidy” as: “Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead it to believe that it is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 411; see also § 126(c), p. 319.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual defines “treachery” as: “The term used in the law of armed conflict to forbid killing or wounding individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army by betraying the confidence of an adversary.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 416.
In the context of air warfare, the manual states:
Perfidy is always illegal.
Perfidy is prohibited without any kind of qualification identifying it with any particular type of warfare. In other words, it is prohibited to engage in hostile acts, regardless of the military advantage they may secure, that are designed to betray the enemy’s good will. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 156(b), p. 339.
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Military Law Manual (1996) provides that resort to perfidy is prohibited. 
Republic of Korea, Military Law Manual, 1996, p. 88.
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Operational Law Manual (1996) states that perfidy against humanitarian principles is not permitted. 
Republic of Korea, Operational Law Manual, 1996, p. 135.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) considers that perfidy is a prohibited method of warfare. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 5(e).
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “The prohibited methods of warfare include … resorting to perfidy.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation , Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 7.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “It is not permissible to attempt to deceive the enemy by abusing the LOAC or misusing the various protections it affords … Such actions are referred to as ‘perfidy’ and constitute grave breaches of the LOAC.” 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 34(c).
South Africa
South Africa’s Medical Services Military Manual prohibits perfidy. 
South Africa, Medical Services Military Manual – Humanitarian Law, South African Medical Service Academy in Voortrekkerhoogte, s.d, § 39.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states: “It is not permissible to attempt to deceive the enemy by abusing the LOAC or misusing the various protections it affords. … Such actions are referred to as ‘perfidy’ and constitute grave breaches of the LOAC.” 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 56(c).
Spain
Spain’s Field Regulations (1882) provides that perfidy is not permitted. 
Spain, El Reglamento para el Servicio de Campaña, 4 January 1882, § 862.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides the same definition of perfidy as the one contained in Article 37(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 3.3.b.(1); see also § 7.3.c.
The manual further states: “Perfidy consists in committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 5.3.c.
The manual also states: “It is prohibited to feign a protected status by inviting the confidence of the enemy.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.8.e.(1).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) provides the same definition of perfidy as that contained in Article 37(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 2.3.b.(3); see also, §§ 3.3.b.(1) and 7.3.c.
The manual further states that perfidy “is defined as a hostile act committed under the cover of legal protection”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 5.3.c.
The manual also states with regard to combatants who commit acts of perfidy:
Combatants who employ methods of warfare that involve pretending to be a civilian or wearing signs, emblems or uniforms that protect them from attacks in order to approach their objective without danger are considered war criminals, regardless of whether they are entitled to prisoner-of-war status or not, and must be tried under criminal law if captured. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 7.3.a.(8).(e).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) considers that the prohibition of perfidy as contained in Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I is part of customary international law. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 2.2.3, p. 18.
The manual states:
Sweden and several other countries wished the [prohibition of perfidy] to be inserted in Additional Protocol II as well, since perfidy is probably equally common in internal conflicts. The majority were against this, however, the main reason being that, in conflicts of this type, particular difficulties may arise in determining exactly what may be considered perfidy.
The concept of perfidy, or perfidious conduct which is a more adequate expression, is defined as acts inviting the confidence of an adversary giving the acting party a legally protected status. This protection is abused in order to kill, injure or capture the adversary’s soldiers. Perfidy thus means that one party deliberately and on false grounds invites the confidence of the other in order then to betray this confidence by acts of violence. It should be added that perfidy, as defined in Article 37 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol I], refers to acts against persons, but does not include sabotage or the destruction of property …
Only where protected status is employed for killing, injuring or capturing the adversary is the act considered as perfidy …
Accusations of perfidy are always judged to be extremely grave, since a crime against Article 37 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol I] shall according to the bases of Additional Protocol I be viewed as a grave breach of international humanitarian law. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.2.1.1.b, pp. 28–30.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states: “Ruses of war based on treachery and perfidy are prohibited.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 39(1).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
15.2 Prohibited methods of warfare
223 Misuse of a distinctive sign and the feigning of protected status are prohibited in any place and at any time. Examples: … using the white flag to feign surrender and then opening fire on the approaching enemy … . 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, § 223.
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) states: “It is prohibited to use perfidy.” The manual adds: “Perfidy … consists of committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection.” 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule III, p. 13.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
1.2.44. “Perfidy” means hostile actions under cover of the right to protection in order to achieve military advantage.
1.3.2. The following methods of warfare shall be prohibited:
- deceit of an adversary by means of perfidy. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, §§ 1.2.44 and 1.3.2.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) states:
Good faith, as expressed in the observance of promises, is essential in war, for without it hostilities could not be terminated with any degree of safety short of the total destruction of one of the contending parties.
The borderline between legitimate ruses and forbidden treachery has varied at different times, and it is difficult to lay down hard and fast rules in the matter. Many of the doubtful cases, however, which arose at a time when, from the nature of their weapons, troops could only engage at close range, can now seldom or never occur. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, §§ 308 and 310.
The manual also notes, in connection with the requirements to be granted the status of combatant, that irregular troops “should have been warned against the employment of treachery”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 95.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states that treachery “means tricking an enemy into believing that he is entitled to, or required to give, protection under international law, with intent to betray that confidence”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 4, p. 12, § 2(a); see also Annex A, p. 46, § 4.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Perfidy is defined as “acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence.” 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 5.9.1.
In its chapter on maritime warfare, the manual states:
Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead it to believe that it is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, constitute perfidy. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 13.83.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the manual states:
The definition of perfidy in paragraph 5.9.1 [relating to international armed conflicts, quoted above] may also be used as guidance as to the meaning of “treachery” in internal armed conflicts. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 15.12.1.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) states:
The line of demarcation between legitimate ruses and forbidden acts of perfidy is sometimes indistinct … It would be an improper practice to secure an advantage of the enemy by deliberate lying or misleading conduct which involves a breach of faith, or when there is a moral obligation to speak the truth …
Treacherous or perfidious conduct in war is forbidden because it destroys the basis for a restoration of peace short of the complete annihilation of one belligerent by the other. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 50.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states:
Perfidy or treachery involves acts inviting the confidence of the adversary that he is entitled to protection or is obliged to accord protection under international law, combined with intent to betray that confidence … Like ruses perfidy involves simulation, but it aims at falsely creating a situation in which the adversary, under international law, feels obliged to take action or abstain from taking action, or because of protection under international law neglects to take precautions which are otherwise necessary … In addition, perfidy tends to destroy the basis for restoration of peace and causes the conflict to degenerate into savagery. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 8-3(a).
United States of America
The US Instructor’s Guide (1985) notes: “The law of war prohibits treacherous acts.” 
United States, Instructor’s Guide – The Law of War, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, April 1985, p. 8.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) states:
The use of unlawful deceptions is called “perfidy”. Acts of perfidy are deceptions designed to invite the confidence of the enemy to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protected status under the law of armed conflict, with the intent to betray that confidence. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 12.1.2.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states:
The use of unlawful deceptions is called “perfidy”. Acts of perfidy are deceptions designed to invite the confidence of the enemy to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protected status under the law of armed conflict, with the intent to betray that confidence. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 12.1.2.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) prohibits perfidy and defines it as “confidence-betraying ruses”. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, §§ 104 and 108.
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Iraq
Iraq’s Law of the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal (2005) identifies the following as a serious violation of the laws and customs of war applicable in international armed conflicts: “Killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to a hostile nation or army”. 
Iraq, Law of the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, 2005, Article 13(2)(L).
With regard to non-international armed conflict, the Law identifies “killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary” as a serious violation of the laws and customs of war. 
Iraq, Law of the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal, 2005, Article 13(4)(I).
Ireland
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 37(1), is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan’s Emblem Law (2000) provides:
Recourse to perfidy means inviting, with intent to deceive him, the good faith of the adversary to lead him to believe that he was entitled to receive, or obliged to accord, the protection provided for under the rules of international humanitarian law. 
Kyrgyzstan, Emblem Law, 2000, Article 10.
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code(1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108(b).
Republic of Moldova
The Republic of Moldova’s Emblem Law (1999) defines “perfidious use” as “acts inviting the confidence of an adversary, with intent to betray it, to lead him to believe that he was entitled to, or was obliged to accord, protection provided for under the rules of international humanitarian law”. 
Republic of Moldova, Emblem Law, 1999, Article 17(2).
Somalia
Somalia’s Military Criminal Code (1963) states:
Anyone who, in violation of the law and international agreements, treacherously uses violence against a person belonging to the enemy State, shall be punished by imprisonment for 1 to 15 years, if the act has resulted in personal harm, and by life imprisonment if the act has resulted in death. 
Somalia, Military Criminal Code, 1963, Article 361.
Senegal
Senegal’s Law on the Utilization and Protection of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Emblems (2005) states:
Resorting to perfidy means appealing, with the intention to mislead, to the good faith of the adversary in order to make him believe that he has the right to receive or the obligation to accord the protection envisaged by the rules of international humanitarian law. 
Senegal, Law on the Utilization and Protection of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Emblems, 2005, Article 11.
Germany
In 2010, in the Chechen Refugee case, Germany’s Federal Administrative Court was called upon to decide whether a Russian refugee claimant from Chechnya had to be excluded from refugee protection because there were serious reasons for considering that he had committed a war crime in Chechnya in 2002 by killing two Russian soldiers and taking a Russian officer hostage. The Court stated: “In some cases, unlawful perfidy and lawful ruses of war are difficult to distinguish”. 
Germany, Federal Administrative Court, Chechen Refugee case, Judgment, 16 February 2010, § 37.
Israel
In its judgment in the Public Committee against Torture in Israel case in 2006, Israel’s High Court of Justice stated:
In general, combatants and military objectives are legitimate targets for military attack. Their lives and bodies are endangered by the combat. They can be killed and wounded. However, not every act of combat against them is permissible, and not every military means is permissible. Thus, for example, they can be shot and killed. However, “treacherous killing” and “perfidy” are forbidden (see DINSTEIN, at p. 198). 
Israel, High Court of Justice, Public Committee against Torture in Israel case, Judgment, 14 December 2006, § 23.
Algeria
During the Algerian war of independence, the use by Algerian combatants of perfidious methods of warfare was prohibited. Perfidy was understood to mean methods that aggravated suffering without having a direct effect on the issue of the struggle. The Report on the Practice of Algeria notes, however, that there were instances in which acts considered to be perfidious were committed, but it concludes that such acts were rare and that they did not affect a general line of conduct of proscribing perfidy. 
Report on the Practice of Algeria, 1997, Chapter 2.4, referring to El Moudjahid, Vol. 1, p. 16.
Chile
At the CDDH, Chile stated that it had abstained from voting on draft Article 21 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II (which was dropped in the final text) because it found the wording too vague. However, it agreed that the prohibition of perfidy as established in the 1977 Additional Protocol I should also be included in the protocol relative to non-international conflicts. 
Chile, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XV, CDDH/III/SR.59, 10 May 1977, p. 217, § 47.
Colombia
The Report on the Practice of Colombia refers to a draft internal working paper in which the Colombian Government stated that perfidy was prohibited under IHL. 
Report on the Practice of Colombia, 1998, Chapter 4.1, referring to Presidential Council, Proposal of the Government to the Coordinator Guerrillerra Simón Bolívar to humanise war, Draft Internal Working Paper, Part entitled “El Derecho Internacional Humanitario”, § 5.
Iraq
According to the Report on the Practice of Iraq, perfidy and treachery are absolutely prohibited. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Chapter 2.4.
In the reply by the Iraqi Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, mentioned in the report, reference is made to Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Reply by the Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, July 1997, Chapter 2.4.
Peru
At the CDDH, Peru deplored the elimination of numerous articles and paragraphs in the final version of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, especially the one relating to the prohibition of perfidy. 
Peru, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.56, 8 June 1977, p. 226, § 161.
Philippines
The Report on the Practice of the Philippines notes that officers of the Philippine armed forces make the distinction between ruses of war and acts of perfidy, adding that US military manuals are usually followed. 
Report on the Practice of the Philippines, 1997, Interview with a naval officer, 5 March 1997, Chapter 2.4.
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated: “The Government forces are also bound to respect customary IHL rules relating to the prohibited methods and means of warfare including … perfidy”. 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 76.
Switzerland
In 2005, in a report in response to a parliamentary postulate on private security and military companies, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated: “International humanitarian law also limits the conduct of military operations permissible under international law. … Certain methods such as perfidiousness … are excluded.” 
Switzerland, Report by the Swiss Federal Council on Private Security and Military Companies, 2 December 2005, section 5.3.1, pp. 45–46.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Means and methods of warfare
Even in war not everything is allowed. Various means and methods are prohibited, including Perfidy, …
Perfidy
International humanitarian law prohibits killing, injuring or capturing an adversary by resorting to perfidy. Acts of perfidy include any form of deception designed to win the confidence of an adversary and lead him to believe that he is entitled or obliged to accord protection under the rules of international humanitarian law, with the intention of betraying that confidence. An example of perfidy is to falsely lay claim to protected status through the misuse of signs or emblems and feigning incapacitation on the grounds of injuries or sickness. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, pp. 29 and 34.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
A training video on IHL produced by the UK Ministry of Defence describes as “complicated” the difference between ruses and treachery. 
United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence, Training Video: The Geneva Conventions, 1986, Report on UK Practice, 1997, Chapter 2.4.
United States of America
In 1991, in response to an ICRC memorandum on the applicability of IHL in the Gulf region, the US Department of the Army stated that its practice was consistent with the definition and prohibition of perfidy contained in Article 37 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
United States, Letter from the Department of the Army to the legal adviser of the US Army forces deployed in the Gulf region, 11 January 1991, § 8(J), Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 2.8.
United States of America
In 1992, in its final report to Congress on the conduct of the Gulf War, the US Department of Defense stated:
Perfidy is prohibited by the law of war. Perfidy is defined in Article 37(1) of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] as:
Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the law [of war], with intent to betray that confidence …
Perfidious acts are prohibited on the basis that perfidy may damage mutual respect for the law of war, may lead to unnecessary escalation of the conflict, may result in the injury or death of enemy forces legitimately attempting to surrender or discharging their humanitarian duties, or may impede the restoration of peace …
However, there does not appear to have been any centrally directed Iraqi policy to carry out acts of perfidy. The fundamental principles of the law of war applied to Coalition and Iraqi forces throughout the war. 
United States, Department of Defense, Final Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, 10 April 1992, Appendix O, The Role of the Law of War, ILM, Vol. 31, 1992, p. 632.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
In 1991, in a document entitled “Examples of violations of the rules of international law committed by the so-called armed forces of Slovenia”, the Ministry of Defence of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia included the following example: “Faithless behaviour. Throughout the overall armed conflict members of the so-called armed forces of Slovenia have applied faithless and perfidious behaviour.” 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Ministry of Defence, Examples of violations of the rules of international law committed by the so-called armed forces of Slovenia, 10 July 1991, § 5.
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International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
In the interlocutory appeal in the Tadić case in 1995, the ICTY referred specifically to a case of perfidy to illustrate that general principles of customary international law in areas relating to methods of warfare applicable in international armed conflicts had evolved to be applied in non-international armed conflicts as well. 
ICTY, Tadić case, Interlocutory Appeal, 2 October 1995, § 125.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that perfidy consists of “committing a hostile act under the cover of a legal protection”. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 408.
ICRC
At the CE (1972), the ICRC stated, with regard to a certain number of articles, including the article on perfidy, that it was “anxious to maintain the same kind of arrangements with respect to international and to non-international armed conflicts”. 
ICRC, Statement at the CE (1972), Report on the Work of the Conference, Vol. I, p. 104, § 2.384.
ICRC
In a working paper on war crimes submitted in 1997 to the Preparatory Committee for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, the ICRC included “perfidy”, when committed in an international or a non-international armed conflict, in its list of war crimes to be subject to the jurisdiction of the Court. 
ICRC, Working paper on war crimes submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, New York, 14 February 1997, §§ 2(vi) and 3(xiv).
International Institute of Humanitarian Law
The Rules of International Humanitarian Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities in Non-international Armed Conflicts, adopted in 1990 by the Council of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, defines perfidy in the context of non-international armed conflicts as “acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable to non-international armed conflicts, with intent to betray that confidence”. 
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Rules of International Humanitarian Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities in Non-international Armed Conflicts, Rule A4, IRRC, No. 278, pp. 390–391.