Practice Relating to Rule 56. Freedom of Movement of Humanitarian Relief Personnel

Note: For practice concerning the safety and protection from attack of humanitarian relief personnel and objects used for humanitarian relief operations, see Rules 31 and 32 respectively.
Additional Protocol I
Article 71(3) and (4) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
Each party in receipt of relief consignments shall, to the fullest extent practicable, assist the relief personnel … carrying out their relief mission. Only in case of imperative military necessity may the activities of the relief personnel be limited or their movements temporarily restricted.
Under no circumstances may relief personnel exceed the terms of their mission under this Protocol. In particular they shall take account of the security requirements of the Party in whose territory they are carrying out their duties. The mission of any personnel who do not respect these conditions may be terminated. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 71(3) and (4). Article 71 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 245.
Hague Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles
In the 1991 Hague Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles, the Presidents of the six republics of the former Yugoslavia reminded all fighting units of their obligation to apply the fundamental principle according to which “all Red Cross personnel and medical personnel assisting civilian populations and persons hors combat must be granted the necessary freedom of movement to achieve their tasks”. 
Statement on Respect for Humanitarian Principles, signed by the Presidents of the Six Republics of the former Yugoslavia, The Hague, 5 November 1991.
CSCE Code of Conduct
Paragraph 19 of the 1994 CSCE Code of Conduct provides that the participating States “will cooperate in support of humanitarian assistance to alleviate suffering among the civilian population, including facilitating the movement of personnel and resources dedicated to such tasks”. 
The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted at the 91st Plenary Meeting of the Special Committee of the CSCE Forum for Security Co-operation, Budapest, 3 December 1994, incorporated as Decision IV in the CSCE Budapest Document, Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era, Doc. RC/1/95, corrected version of 21 December 1994, § 19.
N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance
Article 7 of the 2004 N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance states:
The Parties guarantee the freedom of movement to the personnel participating in assistance activities, including evaluation of needs, humanitarian assistance distribution and follow-up, that will help to reach people in need of humanitarian assistance without delay. The Government of the Republic of Sudan will, particularly, facilitate trips of the humanitarian personnel to, from and within Darfur. 
Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, annexed to the N’Djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, Article 7.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (2003), as amended in 2004, states:
Whoever … unlawfully confines, keeps confined or in some other manner deprives an internationally protected person of the freedom of movement, or restricts it in some way, with the aim to force him or some other person to do or to omit or to bear something, or perpetrates some other violence against such a person or his liberty … shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of between one and ten years. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, as amended in 2004, Article 192(1).
Italy
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
Delegates [of the International Committee of the Red Cross] must be provided with full assistance in carrying out their tasks: in this regard, every combatant shall act in accordance with the orders received from his own Commanding Officer. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 243.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
The parties to a conflict must allow and facilitate the passage of all relief consignments, equipment and personnel. The party which allows passage may prescribe conditions for execution of the relief actions, such as control by it or by a protecting power. Relief actions may also be carried out both by States and by non-governmental organizations. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0819.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states that limitations on the activities and movement of relief personnel are possible only in case of imperative military necessity. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 2.4.(c).5.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “The activities and movements of relief personnel to transport relief consignments may be limited in cases of ‘imperative military necessity’.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 2.4.c.(5).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Relief personnel may, where necessary, accompany relief consignments, “subject to the approval of the Party in whose territory they will carry out their duties”. They are entitled to respect and protection and parties are under an obligation to assist them “to the fullest extent practicable”. Only “imperative military necessity” can justify any limitation on their activities or restriction of movement, which must in any event be temporary. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.13.
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Occupied Territories (2008) states:
Limitation of Free Movement in the Occupied Territories
2. Citizens of foreign countries and persons without citizenship shall be prohibited to enter the Occupied Territories from any other directions except the ones specified in Paragraph 1 of this Article [Zugdidi and Gori municipalities]; violation of this requirement shall lead to punishment under the criminal law of Georgia.
4. The prohibition and respective responsibility prescribed by Paragraph 2 of this Article shall not be extended to:
b) Persons providing immediate humanitarian assistance in the Occupied Territories in order to ensure the right to life of the population, in particular, by providing the population with food, medication and emergency supplies.
5. Persons defined in Paragraph 4 of this Article shall be required to notify the Government of Georgia of the time of entry to and departure from the Occupied Territories, prior to entry into the Occupied Territories from the prohibited directions or, in case of failure to do so, to notify [the Government of Georgia] within a reasonable period of time after entry. Persons defined in Paragraph 4 (b) shall also be required to submit information on the assistance provided to the population. 
Georgia, Law on Occupied Territories, 2008, Article 4(2), (4)(b) and (5).
Ireland
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 71(3) and (4), is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108(b).
No data.
Belgium
In 2007, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the humanitarian situation in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa, the representative of Belgium stated, with reference to Somalia:
The security situation and bureaucratic and other obstacles are hindering … the movement of humanitarian workers in Somalia. In that context, Belgium appeals to the Somali authorities to do everything they can to facilitate the access to humanitarian assistance. 
Belgium, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on the “Humanitarian situation in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa”, 21 May 2007, p. 18.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Following an attack on an ICRC convoy carrying medical supplies in Sarajevo in May 1992, which led to the death of an ICRC delegate, the Presidency of the Republika Srpska of Bosnia and Herzegovina ordered all combatants to provide secure conditions and the freedom of movement necessary for personnel from the ICRC and other humanitarian organizations. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Order issued by the President, 22 August 1992; Order issued by the President, 3 April 1994; see also Appeal by the Presidency, Pale, 7 June 1992.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
In 1991, in a “Statement regarding the need for the respect of the norms of international humanitarian law in the armed conflicts in Yugoslavia”, the Federal Executive Council of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia insisted on “the need to ensure freedom of movement for all Red Cross representatives and medical personnel who are assisting the civilian population behind the front lines”. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Federal Executive Council, Statement regarding the need for the respect of the norms of international humanitarian law in the armed conflicts in Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 31 October 1991.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on humanitarian assistance to Somalia, the UN Security Council called upon “all parties, movements and factions, in Mogadishu in particular, and in Somalia in general, to … guarantee [the] complete freedom of movement [of humanitarian organizations] in and around Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 746, 17 March 1992, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the establishment of a UN Operation in Somalia, the UN Security Council reiterated its call for the guarantee of “complete freedom of movement [of personnel of humanitarian organizations] in and around Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 751, 24 April 1992, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties guarantee the … full freedom of movement of … members of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 819, 16 April 1993, § 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that all parties ensure the complete freedom of movement of UNPROFOR personnel and others engaged in the delivery of humanitarian assistance. 
UN Security Council, Res. 998, 16 June 1995, § 1, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties to the conflict and others concerned in Angola take all necessary measures … to guarantee the … freedom of movement of humanitarian supplies throughout the country”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1075, 11 October 1996, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council called upon all those concerned in the region “to ensure … the … freedom of movement of all international humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1078, 9 November 1996, § A-5, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council called upon all concerned in the region “to cooperate fully with … humanitarian agencies and to ensure the … freedom of movement of their personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1080, 15 November 1996, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on Liberia, the UN Security Council demanded that the factions “facilitate the freedom of movement of … international organizations and agencies” delivering humanitarian assistance. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1083, 27 November 1996, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that “the parties respect the … freedom of movement of SFOR and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1088, 12 December 1996, § 23, voting record: 18-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Angola, the UN Security Council called upon the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation, and in particular the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), “to guarantee unconditionally the … freedom of movement of all United Nations and international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1173, 12 June 1998, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
The Security Council reiterated this call in a subsequent resolution adopted a few weeks later. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1180, 29 June 1998, § 5, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council demanded that “all Afghan factions and, in particular the Taliban, do everything possible to assure the … freedom of movement of the personnel of the United Nations and other international and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1193, 28 August 1998, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation in Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that “the Government of Angola and UNITA [União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola] guarantee unconditionally the … freedom of movement of … all United Nations and international humanitarian personnel, including those providing assistance, throughout the territory of Angola”.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1202, 15 October 1998, § 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Angola, the UN Security Council called on the Government of Angola and in particular the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) “to guarantee unconditionally the … freedom of movement of all international humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1213, 3 December 1998, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on children and armed conflicts, the UN Security Council underscored “the importance of the … freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel to the alleviation of the impact of armed conflict on children”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1261, 25 August 1999, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council emphasized “the need for combatants to ensure the … freedom of movement of … personnel of international humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1265, 17 September 1999, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council reiterated “its call to all parties concerned, including non-State parties, to ensure the … freedom of movement of … personnel of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1296, 19 April 2000, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on Afghanistan, the UN Security Council stressed that the Taliban “must provide guarantees for the … freedom of movement for … humanitarian relief personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1333, 19 December 2000, § 13, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon the Government of Liberia and all parties, particularly the LURD [Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy] and other armed rebel groups, to ensure unimpeded and safe movement for the personnel of United Nations humanitarian agencies and non-governmental organizations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1478, 6 May 2003, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN Security Council:
Requests all Ivorian parties to cooperate with MINUCI in the execution of its mandate, to ensure the freedom of movement of its personnel throughout the country and the unimpeded and safe movement of the personnel of humanitarian agencies, and to support efforts to find safe and durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1479, 13 May 2003, § 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the protection of United Nations personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirming the obligation of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel to observe and respect the laws of the country in which they are operating, in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations, and underlining the importance for humanitarian organizations to uphold the principles of neutrality, impartiality and humanity in their humanitarian activities,
4. Urges all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1502, 26 August 2003, preamble and § 4, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council:
11. Requests all parties to cooperate fully with the deployment and operations of ONUB, in particular by ensuring the safety and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as the personnel of humanitarian, development and aid organizations, throughout the territory of Burundi;
12. Recalls resolution 1502 of 26 August 2003, reaffirms the obligation of all parties to comply fully with the rules and principles of international humanitarian law applicable to them related to the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and also urges all those concerned to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance as set forth in applicable international humanitarian law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1545, 21 May 2004, §§ 11–12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council urged “the Government of Sudan and the rebel groups to facilitate this humanitarian relief by allowing unfettered access for humanitarian supplies and workers, including across Sudan’s borders with Chad and Libya by land and by air as may be required”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1564, 18 September 2004, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council underlined “that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1582, 28 January 2005, § 28, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council called upon “all Afghan and international parties to continue to cooperate with UNAMA in the implementation of its mandate and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its staff throughout the country”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1662, 23 March 2006, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council underlined “that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel” and called on both sides “to fulfil their obligations in this regard”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1666, 31 March 2006, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council underlined “that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel” and called on both sides “to fulfil their obligations in this regard”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1716, 13 October 2006, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
21. Stresses the importance for all, within the framework of humanitarian assistance, of upholding and respecting the humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence;
22. Urges all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to civilians in need of assistance in situations of armed conflict, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, §§ 21–22, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning Iraq, the UN Security Council:
Urging all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1770, 10 August 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Underlines that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement throughout the zone of conflict of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel and calls on both sides to fulfil their obligations in this regard and to extend full cooperation to UNOMIG and the CIS peacekeeping force. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1781, 15 October 2007, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President on the situation in Croatia, the UN Security Council reminded the parties, and in particular the Croatian Government, “that they have an obligation to respect United Nations personnel [and] to ensure their … freedom of movement at all times”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/38, 4 August 1995, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President on the situation in Tajikistan, the UN Security Council called upon the parties to the conflict in Tajikistan “to ensure the … freedom of movement of the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/14, 29 March 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President on the situation in Tajikistan, the UN Security Council expressed “its concern at the restrictions placed upon UNMOT by the parties” and called upon them, in particular the Government of Tajikistan, “to ensure the … freedom of movement of the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/25, 21 May 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council stressed that the international community’s ability to assist in the conflict in Georgia depended on “the full cooperation of the parties, especially the fulfilment of their obligations regarding the … freedom of movement of international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/43, 22 October 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council called on all parties in the Great Lakes region “to ensure the … freedom of movement of all international humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/44, 1 November 1996, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Great Lakes Region, the UN Security Council demanded that the parties ensure the “freedom of movement of all … humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/5, 7 February 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on the situation in Tajikistan, the UN Security Council called upon the parties “to ensure … the freedom of movement of the personnel of the United Nations … and other international personnel in Tajikistan”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/6, 7 February 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council called upon the Somali factions “to ensure the … freedom of movement of all humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/8, 27 February 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on the situation in Angola, the UN Security Council called upon both parties and the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) in particular “to ensure the freedom of movement … of international humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/39, 23 July 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President on the situation in Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that the Government of Angola, and in particular the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), “guarantee unconditionally the … freedom of movement of all … international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/14, 22 May 1998, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In July 1998, in a statement by its President on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council urged all Afghan factions “to cooperate fully with … international humanitarian organizations” and called upon them, in particular the Taliban, “to take all necessary steps to ensure the … freedom of movement of such personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/22, 14 July 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In August 1998, in a statement by its President on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council urged all Afghan factions “to cooperate fully with … international humanitarian organizations” and called upon them, in particular the Taliban, “to take the necessary steps to assure the … freedom of movement of such personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/24, 6 August 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2000, in a statement by its President on the humanitarian aspects of maintaining peace and security, the UN Security Council reiterated its call for combatants “to ensure the … freedom of movement of … humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2000/7, 13 March 2000, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council is deeply concerned by slogans and declarations of hate, in particular those addressed against the personnel of the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI), and urges all the Ivorian actors to refrain from any action or statement, especially in the media, which put at risk the security of United Nations personnel and, more globally, the process of national reconciliation. The Security Council recalls the obligation of all Ivorian actors, in particular the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, to cooperate fully in the deployment and operations of UNOCI, which is there at the request of the Government, in particular by guaranteeing the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations personnel. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/17, 25 May 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the UN Security Council stated:
… The Council calls on all parties, in accordance with the provisions of resolution 1502 (2003), to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/18, 25 May 2004, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council underlines the importance of safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and assistance to civilians in armed conflict in accordance with international law. The Security Council reiterates its call to all parties to armed conflict, including non-State parties, to take all necessary measures to ensure security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/46, 14 December 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2007, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council:
The Security Council demands that all parties in Somalia comply fully with international humanitarian law, protect the civilian population, and guarantee complete, unhindered and secure access for humanitarian assistance. It demands that the relevant authorities do all they can in this regard, in particular to facilitate the free movement of aid and humanitarian workers throughout Somalia and when entering or leaving Somalia. The Council also urges the wider region to help facilitate the cross-border provision of aid to Somalia, across land borders or via air- and sea-ports. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2007/13, 30 April 2007, p. 1.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN General Assembly demanded that “all parties to the conflict ensure complete … freedom of movement for the International Committee of the Red Cross”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 46/242, 25 August 1992, § 9, voting record: 136-1-5-37.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly called upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to guarantee the “complete freedom of movement” of personnel of the United Nations and its specialized agencies and of non-governmental organizations throughout Somalia.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/30 G, 13 December 1996, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly called upon all parties to ensure freedom of movement within Kosovo of personnel belonging to the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission. It also called upon the Yugoslav authorities “to grant … free and unaccompanied movement within Kosovo for all humanitarian aid workers”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 9 December 1998, §§ 3 and 17, voting record: 122-3-34-26.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly strongly condemned “any act or failure to act which obstructs or prevents humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel from discharging their humanitarian functions”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/192, 17 December 1999, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Urges the Transitional Administration and local authorities to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations and humanitarian personnel, as well as their safe and unimpeded access to all affected populations, and to protect the property of the United Nations and of humanitarian organizations, including non-governmental organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly expressed deep concern about “the Israeli policy of closure and the severe restrictions, including curfews, imposed on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods, throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/99, 9 December 2003, preamble, voting record: 150-6-19-16.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to the Palestinian people, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of ensuring the free passage of aid to the Palestinian people and the free movement of persons and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/113, 17 December 2003, § 10, voting record: 170-0-2-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Security Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia.
9. Calls upon all Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/115, 17 December 2003, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the conflict:
To protect human rights and to respect international humanitarian law, in particular by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians, as well as United Nations and associated personnel, and the unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all of the affected population throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/196, 22 December 2003, § 4(k), voting record: 81-2-91-17.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to the Palestinian people, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of ensuring the free passage of aid to the Palestinian people and the free movement of persons and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/56, 2 December 2004, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly expressed deep concern about “the Israeli policy of closure and the severe restrictions, including curfews, that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/124, 10 December 2004, preamble, voting record: 149-7-22-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 concerning the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the conflict:
To respect international humanitarian law, in particular on the protection of civilians by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians and United Nations and associated personnel, and the unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all of the affected population throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1265 (1999) of 17 September 1999 and 1296 (2000) of 19 April 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/207, 20 December 2004, § 5(i), voting record: 76-2-100-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling the statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia,
9. Calls upon all Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/218, 22 December 2004, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Urges the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to take all possible steps to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations, development and humanitarian personnel, as well as their safe and unhindered access to all affected populations, and to protect the property of the United Nations and of development or humanitarian organizations, including nongovernmental organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/32 B, 30 November 2005, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the policies of closure and severe restrictions, including curfews, that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, which have had a grave impact on the socio-economic situation of the Palestine refugees and have greatly contributed to the dire humanitarian crisis facing the Palestinian people,
Deeply concerned about the continuing imposition of restrictions on the freedom of movement of the Agency’s staff, vehicles and goods, and the harassment and intimidation of the Agency’s staff, which undermine and obstruct the work of the Agency, including its ability to provide its essential services, notably its education, health and relief and social services,
11. Calls upon Israel particularly to cease obstructing the movement of the staff, vehicles and supplies of the Agency and to cease the levying of extra fees and charges, which affect the Agency’s operations detrimentally. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/102, 8 December 2005, preamble and § 11, voting record: 159-6-3-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly expressed deep concern about “the Israeli policy of closure and the severe restrictions, including curfews, that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/107, 8 December 2005, preamble, voting record: 148-7-17-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to the Palestinian people, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of ensuring the free passage of aid to the Palestinian people and the free movement of persons and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/126, 15 December 2005, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
To respect international humanitarian law, in particular on the protection of civilians, and to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians and United Nations and associated personnel, and the unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all of the affected population throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1265 (1999) of 17 September 1999 and 1296 (2000) of 19 April 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/170, 16 December 2005, § 5 (e), voting record: 102-3-67-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling the statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia,
10. Urges the Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and non-governmental organizations, as well as all other humanitarian personnel, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/219, 22 December 2005, preamble and § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly expressed grave concern at:
The imposition of various travel restrictions on United Nations and other international organizations undertaking to enable access for the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all parts of Myanmar, and notes the related withdrawal of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/233, 23 December 2005, § 2(j), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly urged the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to “ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations, development and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/18, 28 November 2006, § 6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses deep concern about the Israeli policy of closure and the severe restrictions, including curfews and the permit regime, that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods, throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the consequent negative impact on the socio-economic situation of the Palestinian people, which remains that of a dire humanitarian crisis. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/25, 1 December 2006, preamble, voting record: 157-7-10.-18
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the policies of closure and severe restrictions that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, as well as the continued construction of the wall, contrary to international law, in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, which have had a grave impact on the socio-economic situation of the Palestine refugees and have greatly contributed to the dire humanitarian crisis facing the Palestinian people,
Deeply concerned about the continuing imposition of restrictions on the freedom of movement of the Agency’s staff, vehicles and goods, and the harassment and intimidation of the Agency’s staff, which undermine and obstruct the work of the Agency, including its ability to provide its essential basic and emergency services,
13. Calls upon Israel particularly to cease obstructing the movement of the staff, vehicles and supplies of the Agency and to cease the levying of extra fees and charges, which affect the Agency’s operations detrimentally. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/114, 14 December 2006, preamble and § 13, voting record: 169-6-8-9.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the Israeli policy of closure and the severe restrictions, including curfews and the permit regime, that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods, throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the consequent negative impact on the socio-economic situation of the Palestinian people, which remains that of a dire humanitarian crisis,
9. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power … to ease the severe closures and restrictions on movement;
13. Stresses the need for respect for the unity and territorial integrity of all of the Occupied Palestinian Territory and for guarantees of the freedom of movement of persons and goods within the Palestinian territory, including the removal of restrictions on movement into and from East Jerusalem, and the freedom of movement to and from the outside world. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/119, 14 December 2006, preamble and §§ 9 and 13, voting record: 157-9-14-12.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to the Palestinian people, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of ensuring the free passage of aid to the Palestinian people and the free movement of persons and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/135, 14 December 2006, § 12, voting record: 159-0-7-26.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the continuing Israeli policy of closures and severe restrictions on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods, via imposition of crossing closures as well as of checkpoints and a permit regime throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the consequent negative impact on the socio-economic situation of the Palestinian people, which remains that of a dire humanitarian crisis,
Concerned about the continued establishment of Israeli checkpoints in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and the transformation of several of these checkpoints into structures akin to permanent border crossings inside the Occupied Palestinian Territory, which are severely impairing the territorial contiguity of the Territory and severely undermining efforts and aid aimed at rehabilitating and developing the Palestinian economy,
9. Stresses the need for a speedy end to the reoccupation of Palestinian population centres, inter alia, by easing movement and access, including by the removal of checkpoints within the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and the need for respect and preservation of the territorial unity, contiguity and integrity of all of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem;
12. Stresses the need … to allow for the opening of all crossings into and out of the Gaza Strip for humanitarian supplies … 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/83, 10 December 2007, preamble and §§ 9, and 12, voting record: 161-7-5-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 concerning assistance to the Palestinian people, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of ensuring the free passage of humanitarian aid to the Palestinian people and the free movement of persons and goods”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/93, 17 December 2007, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the policies of closure and severe restrictions that continue to be imposed on the movement of persons and goods and the continued construction of the wall, contrary to international law, in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, which have gravely impacted the socio-economic situation of the Palestine refugees and have greatly contributed to the dire humanitarian crisis facing the Palestinian people,
Deeply concerned about the continuing imposition of restrictions on the freedom of movement and access of the Agency’s staff, vehicles and goods, and the harassment and intimidation of the Agency’s staff, which undermine and obstruct the work of the Agency, including its ability to provide its essential basic and emergency services,
13. Calls upon Israel particularly to cease obstructing the movement and access of the staff, vehicles and supplies of the Agency and to cease the levying of extra fees and charges, which affect the Agency’s operations detrimentally. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/104, 17 December 2007, preamble and § 13, voting record: 170-6-3-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing deep concern about the Israeli policy of closures, severe restrictions, and a permit regime that obstruct the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian personnel and goods, throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and about the consequent violation of the human rights of the Palestinian people and negative impact on their socio-economic situation, which remains that of a dire humanitarian crisis. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/109, 17 December 2007, preamble, voting record: 156-7-11-18.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in East Timor, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of Indonesia “to guarantee … the free movement of international personnel”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1999/S-4/1, 27 September 1999, § 5(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties to the conflict “to ensure the safety and freedom of movement of United Nations personnel and the unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all affected populations. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/15, 17 April 2003, § 4(j), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights reiterated “the need for safety, security and free movement of all United Nations and associated personnel, as well as of all foreign and local personnel of humanitarian organizations”.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/77, 25 April 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All parties throughout Somalia to protect and facilitate the work of United Nations personnel, humanitarian relief workers, human rights defenders and representatives of non-governmental organizations and of the international media, and to guarantee all persons involved in humanitarian action freedom of movement throughout the country and safe and unhindered access to civilians in need of protection and humanitarian assistance. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 8(l), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all those concerned, as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Regulations of 18 October 1907 annexed to the Hague Convention IV concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and the United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/55, 20 April 2004, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All parties throughout Somalia to facilitate the delivery of muchneeded humanitarian assistance and to protect and facilitate the work of United Nations personnel, humanitarian relief workers, human rights defenders and representatives of nongovernmental organizations and of the international media, and to guarantee all persons involved in humanitarian action freedom of movement throughout the country and safe and unhindered access to civilians in need of protection and humanitarian assistance. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, § 12(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties:
To protect human rights and to respect international humanitarian law, in particular by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians, and that of United Nations personnel and associated personnel, as well as free access for humanitarian personnel to all affected population groups throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/84, 21 April 2004, § 4(g), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all those concerned, as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions, of 12 August 1949, and the Regulations of 18 October 1907 annexed to the Hague Convention IV concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and the United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/46, 19 April 2005, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon all parties to “guarantee also to all persons involved in humanitarian action, including international media, their complete freedom of movement and safe and unhindered access to civilians in need of protection and humanitarian assistance throughout the country”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, § 9(a), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties
To protect human rights and to respect international humanitarian law, in particular by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians, as well as free access for humanitarian personnel to all affected population groups throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/85, 21 April 2005, § 5(d), adopted without a vote.
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ICRC
In an appeal issued in 1979 with respect to the conflict in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, the ICRC appealed to all the parties to “allow the freedom of movement necessary to all Red Cross personnel seeking to bring relief to the civilian population in the war-affected areas”. 
ICRC, Conflict in Southern Africa: ICRC appeal, 19 March 1979, § 5, IRRC, No. 209, 1979, p. 88.
ICRC
In an appeal issued in 1991, the ICRC enjoined the parties to the conflict in Yugoslavia “to allow all Red Cross staff and medical personnel the freedom of movement they need to assist the civilian population”. 
ICRC, Appeal in behalf of civilians in Yugoslavia, Geneva, 4 October 1991.
ICRC
In a press release issued in 1992, the ICRC enjoined the parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina “to allow all Red Cross staff and medical personnel the freedom of movement they need to assist the civilian population”. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1705, Bosnia and Herzegovina: ICRC calls for protection of civilians, 10 April 1992.
ICRC
In two press releases issued in 1992, the ICRC enjoined the parties to the conflict in Afghanistan to allow all Red Cross and Red Crescent staff and other medical personnel the freedom of movement they needed to assist the civilian population. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1712, Afghanistan: ICRC appeals for compliance with humanitarian rules, 5 May 1992; Press Release No. 1726, Afghanistan: New ICRC appeal for compliance with humanitarian rules, 14 August 1992.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, the ICRC stated: “All Red Cross personnel and medical personnel assisting the civilian population and persons hors de combat shall be allowed whatever freedom of movement they require.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, 8 June 1994, § III, IRRC, No. 320, 1997, p. 504.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise in the Great Lakes region, the ICRC stated: “The freedom of movement necessary for all Red Cross personnel and medical personnel called upon to assist the civilian population and persons hors de combat shall be safeguarded.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise, Geneva, 23 June 1994, § III, reprinted in Marco Sassòli and Antoine A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War? , ICRC, Geneva, p. 1309.
DRC Pledge of Commitment
In 2008, the armed groups party to the DRC Pledge of Commitment, “deeply deploring the insecurity that has prevailed for a long time in the province of North Kivu, causing massive displacements of populations and enormous suffering of civilians as well as massive violations of human rights”, made the commitment to strictly observe “rules of international humanitarian law and human rights law, notably … [to] create conditions favourable to the provision of humanitarian assistance and emergency aid to the civilian population.” 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Preamble and Article III, §§ 15.