Practice Relating to Rule 36. Demilitarized Zones

Karachi Agreement
Under paragraph D of the 1949 Karachi Agreement, India and Pakistan agreed that “no troops shall be stationed from south of Minimarg to the cease-fire line”. 
Karachi Agreement Establishing a Cease-fire Line in the State of Jammu and Kashmir concluded between India and Pakistan, Karachi, 27 July 1949, § d.
Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article I(6) and (10) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement stipulates that neither side shall execute any hostile act within, from, or against the established demilitarized zone and that the total number of military personnel from each side allowed to enter the zone cannot exceed 1,000 persons at one time under any circumstance. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article I(6) and (10).
Disengagement Agreement between Israel and Syria
The 1974 Disengagement Agreement between Israel and Syria created a demilitarized zone on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights. This agreement is subject to international supervision. 
Separation of Forces Agreement between Israel and Syria, Geneva, 31 May 1974.
Additional Protocol I
Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
2. The agreement [to establish a demilitarized zone] shall be an express agreement, may be concluded verbally or in writing, either directly or through a Protecting Power or any impartial humanitarian organization, and may consist of reciprocal and concordant declarations. The agreement may be concluded in peacetime, as well as after the outbreak of hostilities, and should define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the demilitarized zone and, if necessary, lay down the methods of supervision.
3. The subject of such an agreement shall normally be any zone which fulfils the following conditions:
a) all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
b) no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
c) no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and
d) any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.
The Parties to the conflict shall agree upon the interpretation to be given to the conditions laid down in sub-paragraph d) and upon persons to be admitted to the demilitarized zone other than those mentioned in paragraph 4.
4. The presence, in this zone, of persons specially protected under the Conventions and this Protocol, and of police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 3. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 60. Article 60 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.42, 27 May 1977, p. 215.
Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt
The 1979 Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt created a demilitarized zone in the Sinai, subject to international supervision. Egyptian civilian police are allowed to operate in the demilitarized zone set up pursuant to the agreement. 
Treaty of Peace between the Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Washington, D.C., 26 March 1979.
Agreement on Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Žepa
Article 3 of the 1993 Agreement on Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Žepa provided that every military or paramilitary unit should either withdraw from the demilitarized zones or hand over their weapons. 
Agreement on Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Žepa, concluded between Lt. Gen. Ratko Mladić and Gen. Sefer Halilović, in the presence of Lt. Gen. Philippe Morillon, Sarajevo, 8 May 1993, Article 3.
Under Article 5, ammunition, mines, explosives and combat supplies in the demilitarized zones were to be handed over to UNPROFOR, under whose control the demilitarized zones were placed. 
Agreement on Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Žepa, concluded between Lt. Gen. Ratko Mladić and Gen. Sefer Halilović, in the presence of Lt. Gen. Philippe Morillon, Sarajevo, 8 May 1993, Article 5.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides for the possibility of establishing demilitarized zones and refers to the conditions set out for this purpose in Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.06.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
Demilitarised zones are areas in which, by express agreement between the parties to the conflict, military operations are not conducted. The aim of these zones is common to that of non-defended localities. The differences between the two areas relate to how they are established and their situation. A non-defended locality may be created by unilateral declaration, whereas a demilitarised zone is created by express agreement between the parties. From the commander’s point of view, protection granted to each zone is identical. Therefore, as long as sufficient notice is given of the zones and they are adequately marked, they are protected from attack. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 737.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
Demilitarised zones are areas in which, by express agreement between the parties to the conflict, military operations are not conducted. The aim of these zones is common to that of non-defended localities. The differences between the two areas relate to how they are established and their situation. A non-defended locality may be created by unilateral declaration, whereas a demilitarised zone is created by express agreement between the parties. From the commander’s point of view, protection granted to each zone is identical. Therefore, as long as sufficient notice is given of the zones and they are adequately marked, they are protected from attack. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 7.40; see also § 9.40.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “The civilian population of a State in conflict must be protected from the effects of war. This protection may be put into practice by … establishing demilitarized zones.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 20.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992), while defining demilitarized zones as zones where all military activities have ceased, states that conditions regarding demilitarized zones are established by an express agreement between the belligerents.  
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 20, § 227.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
Neutralized Geographical Zones: Neutral Space
1. Definition
A neutralized geographical zone can be established by mutual agreement between belligerents.
This refers to a demilitarized zone in which all war efforts must have ceased.
In this case, an express agreement … is signed between belligerents either in times of peace or after the opening of hostilities. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 280, § 642; see also p. 92, § 352.2, p. 94, § 352.27, p. 137, § 412.27 and p. 225, § 533.
The manual also states: “[Demilitarized Zones] are those zones in which all military activities have ceased, be it by virtue of agreement between the belligerents or by virtue of international conventions.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 137, § 412.27.
The manual further states under the heading “Responsibility for Acts or Omissions of which Subordinates Are Accused” that commanders may be responsible if their subordinates “profit from a truce in order to consolidate their positions … with respect to demilitarized zones”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 99, § 361; see also p. 141, § 421.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) requires an agreement between the parties to a conflict in order to establish a demilitarized zone. According to the manual, the conditions that must normally be satisfied by a demilitarized zone are the same as those listed in Article 60(3) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-11, §§ 115–116.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting:
1. It is prohibited for parties to a conflict to conduct military operations in or to attack an area that they have agreed to treat as a demilitarized zone.
2. A demilitarized zone must normally satisfy the following conditions:
a. all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
b. no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
c. no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and
d. any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.
3. The party in control of a demilitarized zone shall mark it, so far as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon by the adverse parties. Such signs shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on the demilitarized zone’s perimeter and on highways.
4. An area loses its status as a demilitarized zone where:
a. a party commits a violation of the conditions described above;
b. a party uses the demilitarized zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations where it has agreed not to do so; or
c. a party unilaterally revokes the status of an area as a demilitarized zone where it has agreed not to do so. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 457.1–4.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
IV.2. Protected zones
The law of armed conflicts makes provision for various protected zones or localities. It is important to know the raison d’être of these zones. These zones can have different names, but they always have two elements in common:
- to protect civilian and military victims against the effects of hostilities;
- to keep these victims separate, guaranteeing that there are no military objectives in the defined zones.
Thus, if the enemy respects the law, the victims run no risk of suffering from the effects of the hostilities. Attacks against these zones or localities are prohibited.
IV.7. Demilitarized zones
These zones are areas in which combat is excluded, established in order to protect the civilian population against attacks. They can be towns, villages, or even a stretch of land separating two enemy parties. They are created by an agreement concluded between the parties. All the military personnel, mobile weapons and mobile military equipment must be evacuated. Demilitarized zones must not be occupied, nor used in any manner whatsoever for military purposes. The party which is in control of such a zone must, so far as possible, mark its perimeter by such signs as may be agreed upon with the enemy. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 35 and 37.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
In order to protect the civilian population as a whole or particularly vulnerable persons (the sick, wounded, infirm, elderly, children, etc.), it is possible, by common agreement between the parties, to establish safety zones, both during the conflict (for example in the form of an “open town”), or “demilitarized zones” in time of peace. Such zones must not be attacked militarily. On the other hand, they must also no longer be defended against the advancing of the enemy. Their only objective is to ensure the physical survival of the population which is sheltered there. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 21–22.
[emphasis in original]
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
II.3.4. Demilitarized zones
A demilitarized zone must normally respect the following conditions:
- all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
- no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
- no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population;
- any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.
The Party which is in control of a demilitarized zone shall mark it, so far as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon with the other Party. These signs shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on the perimeter of the demilitarized zone and on roads. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 42–43.
Croatia
Croatia’s LOAC Compendium (1991) states that the following are not allowed in a demilitarized zone: a) the presence of combatants; b) the presence of mobile weapons; c) the presence of mobile military equipment; d) any act of hostility; and e) any activity related to the conduct of military operations. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 11.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states:
The prerequisites for establishing [a demilitarized zone] are equal to those applying to non-defended localities (Article 59 para. 2, 60 para. 3 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I). Demilitarized zones are created by an agreement concluded between the parties to the conflict either in peacetime or in case of conflict. It is prohibited for each party to the conflict to attack or occupy such zones (Article 60 para 1 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I). 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 461.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) states that the establishment of a demilitarized zone requires that there are “no combatants; no mobile weapons; no mobile military equipment; no hostile acts; no activity linked to the military effort”. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére , Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 23.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997), in a section entitled “Demilitarized Zones”, states:
These specific protected zones which are open to all non-combatants are regulated by an express agreement concluded verbally or in writing between the two Parties to the conflict. Such an agreement may be concluded in peacetime as well as after the outbreak of hostilities.
The conditions to be fulfilled by both demilitarized zones and non-defended localities are the same in practice. They are:
a) that all combatants as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment must be evacuated;
b) that no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
c) that no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and
d) that any activity linked to the military effort must cease. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 4, pp. 6-7.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) provides that the term “demilitarized zone” means a zone from which all combatants as well as all mobile weapons and military material have been evacuated, and in which fixed military establishments are not used for harmful purposes, no hostile act can be committed by the authorities and the population, and all activities linked to the military effort have ceased. It states that demilitarized zones are created by agreement between the parties concerned. 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 3-SO, § I.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands describes the establishment of demilitarized zones on the basis of Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. V-16/V-17, § 14.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
0554. It is prohibited for the parties to a conflict to extend their military operations to demilitarized zones. The parties to a conflict may agree to confer demilitarized status on a zone. Such agreement may be concluded verbally or in writing. It should describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the demilitarized zone and may lay down methods of supervision. A demilitarized zone may also be agreed between States in peacetime.
0555. Within a demilitarized zone no military activities may take place. The zone must remain uninvolved in military operations. The further conditions attached to demilitarized zone status are almost the same as for undefended localities:
- all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
- no hostile use may be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
- no hostile acts may be committed by the authorities or by the population;
- all activities linked to the military effort must have ceased.
These arrangements may be made more specific, by agreement.
0556. The presence of persons who enjoy special protection (e.g. civil defence personnel) and police units is not incompatible with the conditions laid down. The party in control of the demilitarized zone must mark it as well as possible with the agreed distinctive signs. These signs must be clearly visible and displayed specifically on boundaries and main roads. If one party breaches the set requirements in a significant area (e.g., uses the zone for military purposes), the zone then forfeits demilitarized status and the opposing party is released from the agreed obligations.
There are still no examples of demilitarized zones under AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I].
There are, however, demilitarized zones on the strength of other treaties and decrees. One example is the peace treaty between the Allies and Italy in 1947, whereby certain zones were designated as such. Under resolution 186 of the United Nations Security Council (1964), UNFICYP set up a demilitarized buffer zone in Cyprus on both sides of the original line of confrontation, to facilitate supervision. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0554–0556.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “The parties to a conflict may agree that a particular area shall constitute a demilitarized zone, in which case military operations may only be carried on in that area to the extent permitted by the agreement.” With respect to the rules and the procedure to be adopted in relation to the establishment of demilitarized zones, the manual refers to Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. It also notes that agreements establishing the zones may be oral or in writing, may be arranged either directly or through the medium of a protecting power or any impartial humanitarian organization, or may also arise by way of reciprocal and concordant declarations. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 412(4).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) notes that preplanned protected zones, including demilitarized zones, are established by agreement between belligerent parties or can be internationally recognized. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 43, § 14.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) defines the term “demilitarized zone” as:
Any zone fulfilling the following requirements:
a. all combatants, weapons and military equipment have been removed;
b. no hostile use is made of fixed military installations or establishments;
c. no acts of hostility are committed by the authorities or the population;
d. any activity linked to the military effort has ceased. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Annex 9, Glossary of Terms; see also § 100.f.
The manual further states:
When appropriate, special agreements should be made between the parties to the conflict or with neutral States in order to:
(a) locate certain areas ( … demilitarized zones) at a safe distance from military operations;
(e) permit the marking of … demilitarized zones with distinctive signs. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 25.b.(2)(a) and (e); see also §§ 27.h.(1).(c) and 104.c.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) defines “Demilitarized Zones” in its Glossary of Terms as:
Any zone fulfilling the following requirements:
a. all combatants, weapons and military equipment have been removed;
b. no hostile use is made of fixed military installations or establishments;
c. no acts of hostility are committed by the authorities or the civilian population;
d. any activity linked to the military effort has ceased. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 418.
The manual also states:
[The following] … zones shall be established by agreements between the parties to the conflict, or can be recognized internationally as:
(c) Demilitarized Zones. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 28(h)(c), p. 240–241.
The manual further states:
When appropriate, special agreements should be made between the parties to the conflict or with neutral States in order to:
(e) Allow the marking with distinctive emblems of … demilitarized zones. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 26(2)(e), p. 233; see also § 92(b)(5), p. 294.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
demilitarised zone is a zone from which, on agreement between the parties to the conflict, all combatants and mobile military objectives have been evacuated and the fixed military objectives located therein are not used for hostile purposes, the authorities and the population refrain from acts of hostility and any military activities are terminated. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) defines demilitarized zones as:
battle-free areas from which, on agreement between the parties to the conflict, military personnel, mobile military equipment and other military activities have been removed or ceased to protect the occupants from attack. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, pp. 28–29.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) notes that demilitarized zones are areas established by an agreement between the belligerents and designed to protect especially vulnerable sectors of the population from the effects of war. The manual refers to Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, §§ 1.3.e.(2) and 7.3.b.(5).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states that the zones in which military operations are not permitted include demilitarized zones. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 1.2.c.(2); see also § 7.3.b.(5).
The manual further states:
It is in the mutual interest of the parties to the conflict to establish protected areas where particularly vulnerable sectors of the population can be kept safe from the effects of war. In addition to those specifically provided for in the law of armed conflict, which are listed below, other protected areas can be organized through special agreements.
1.3.e.(2). Demilitarized zones
These are areas where military operations cannot be carried out and are accorded this status by express agreement of the parties to the conflict. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, §§ 1.3.e and 1.3.e.(2).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) refers to Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I as embodying “new provisions” on demilitarized zones. It stresses that, unlike non-defended localities, demilitarized zones cannot be established merely through a unilateral declaration; an agreement between the parties, made either before or during a conflict, is necessary. The manual adds:
Article 60 does not only imply prohibition of the setting-up of fixed defence establishments within [a demilitarized area] … [I]t is also prohibited to undertake military operations within the zone – always provided that the parties do not decide otherwise. A demilitarised zone shall not be open to occupation by the adversary, as in the case with non-defended localities.
The manual recalls that “the conditions required for a [demilitarized] area are the same as for non-defended localities”, with the only difference that the condition relating to activity supporting military operations “has been extended to apply to any activity connected with the military”. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.4.3, pp. 87–88.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states, with reference to Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, that demilitarized zones can be established by military commanders of the parties to the conflict. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 12(2).
The manual points out that demilitarized zones, as well as non-defended localities, may be established through specific reciprocal declarations and that a unilateral declaration is not sufficient to create them. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 32(2) and (4).
The conditions for the setting-up of a demilitarized zone are the same as for non-defended localities, namely: all combatants as well as mobile weapons and military equipment must be evacuated; no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments; no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; any activity in support of the military effort must cease; and the zone must be marked by distinctive signs. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 32(2).
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
“Demilitarized zone” means any zone from which all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, have been evacuated upon agreement of the parties to the armed conflict. No acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population of the zone.
Demilitarized zones shall be marked by signs agreed between parties to the armed conflict. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.49; see also § 1.2.51.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
5.39.1. To qualify as a demilitarized zone, the following conditions should usually be fulfilled:
a. “all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;”
b. “no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;”
c. “no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population;” and
d. any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.”
5.39.2. Demilitarized zones may only be set up by agreement between the parties to the conflict. Their precise status will depend on the terms of the agreement but, generally speaking, these zones will not be used by any party for the conduct of military operations. Their purpose is to protect the areas themselves, or the people in them, from hostilities or as refuges for the civilian population.
5.39.4. The agreement for the establishment of a demilitarized zone:
a. must be express;
b. but may be concluded orally or in writing;
c. may be made through direct contact with the opposing party or through a Protecting Power or an impartial humanitarian organization;
d. may consist of “reciprocal and concordant declarations”;
e. should “define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the demilitarized zone and, if necessary, lay down the methods of supervision”;
f. may specify conditions to be complied with or provide interpretation of terms, for example, on the meaning of “fixed military installations”, “acts of hostility”, “activity linked to the military effort” or “purposes related to the conduct of military operations”, or specify perimeter signs or specify who may be admitted to the demilitarized zone or as to what is to happen in the event of a breach of any of the conditions or if the fighting draws near to the zone.
5.39.5. The party controlling the demilitarized zone is responsible for marking it with agreed signs, especially on its perimeter and on highways.
5.39.6. “If the fighting draws near to a demilitarized zone, and if the Parties to the conflict have so agreed, none of them may use the zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations or unilaterally revoke its status.”
5.39.7. A material breach by one party of its obligations under sub-paragraphs 5.39.1 or 5.39.6 will release the other party from its obligations under the agreement but the zone will continue to benefit from any other protection available under international law. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 5.39.1–5.39.7; see also § 10.39.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the manual provides that (in addition to the prohibition on attacks against undefended localities) “[t]he other rules on protective zones applicable in international armed conflicts may be applied by analogy to internal armed conflicts”. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 15.25.2.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states: “Both the 1923 Draft Hague Rules [of Air Warfare] and the 1949 Geneva Conventions recognize the right of states, by agreement, to create safety zones or demilitarized zones.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 5-4(c).
United States of America
The US Air Force Commander’s Handbook (1980), in a section entitled “Neutralized and Demilitarized Zones”, provides:
By agreement, the parties to a conflict may establish certain zones where civilians, the sick and wounded, or other noncombatants may gather to be safe from attack.
A party to conflict cannot establish such a zone by itself; neutralized zones need only be respected if established by agreement between the parties, either oral or written, or by parallel declarations. Such an agreement may be concluded either before or during hostilities.
United States forces need not respect such a zone unless the United States has agreed to respect it. Even in an unrecognized zone, of course, only legitimate military objectives … may be attacked. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-34, Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Armed Conflict , Judge Advocate General, US Department of the Air Force, 25 July 1980, § 3-6(b).
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) contains provisions regarding the establishment of demilitarized zones, which mirror the conditions prescribed by the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 78.
Nicaragua
The Act Establishing the Demilitarized Zone, annexed to the 1990 Effective and Definitive Cease-fire Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan Resistance (1990), provides that “in the demilitarized zone, there shall be no artillery, no offensive troops of any kind, no militia and no paramilitary or security forces” and that “the police of the villages situated within the demilitarized zone shall be disarmed”. 
Nicaragua, Act Establishing the Demilitarized Zone, Effective and Definitive Cease-fire Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan Resistance, annexed to Note verbale dated 23 April to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/44/941-S/21272, 25 April 1990, Annex II, pp. 8–9, §§ 2 and 4.
No data.
Colombia
The Report on the Practice of Colombia notes that the government has ordered the demilitarization of certain regions of the country in order to enable a constructive dialogue to be developed concerning the demobilization and reintegration of armed opposition groups. Another purpose of these zones is to carry out humanitarian operations, such as the release of persons deprived of freedom. 
Report on the Practice of Colombia, 1998, Chapter 1.8.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In the framework of the 2008 DRC Pledge of Commitment signed by a number of armed groups, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), taking note of the pledge of the contracting parties and upon their request, undertook in conformity with the pertinent recommendations of the Conference on Peace, Stability and Development in the Provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu to “create a demilitarized zone to allow the deployment of, in particular, MONUC [UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo] observers, and to secure the return of displaced persons.” 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Article IV, § 4.
Kuwait
According to the Report on the Practice of Kuwait, the Kuwaiti Government considers that military troops or their materiel are barred from entering the demilitarized zone in northern Kuwait. This protection is ensured by representatives of the Ministry of the Interior, who are not allowed to enter the area with high-calibre weapons. Allegations of violations by the Iraqi party must be transmitted to UNIKOM for appropriate action. 
Report on the Practice of Kuwait, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Neutral territory/zone
Neutral territory is the territory of a State that is not party to a conflict and has chosen to remain neutral, either permanently or in relation to a given conflict.
Neutral territories are to be distinguished from neutral zones (neutralised zones, hospital and safety zones, and demilitarised zones) set aside within the territory of one or more parties to the conflict, for example to receive Wounded and sick as well as Civilians and non-combatants. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 31.
United States of America
The Report on US Practice considers that US opinio juris generally conforms to the rules and conditions prescribed in Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of
According to the Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, “the opinio iuris and the customary nature of rules relevant to the establishment of demilitarised zones in the FRY is absolutely clear”. 
Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President on the situation in Croatia, the UN Security Council denounced the continuing violation of the demilitarized status of Prevlaka. Referring, inter alia, to the movement of heavy weapons and of Croatian special police and the entry of a navy missile boat of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia into the demilitarized zone, the Security Council underlined its concern in this regard and called upon the parties to cease such violations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/23, 25 April 1997.
UN Secretary-General
In a report in 1990, the UN Secretary-General referred to complaints made to ONUCA by leaders of the Nicaraguan resistance concerning the continued presence of armed civilians and militia personnel in some of the demilitarized zones. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on ONUCA, UN Doc. S/21341, 4 June 1990, § 2.
UN Secretary-General
In a report concerning UNIKOM in 1997, the UN Secretary-General denounced a number of violations in the demilitarized zone on the Iraq-Kuwait border. He noted that 10 of the 14 ground violations were related to the presence of military and armed personnel in this zone. Insofar as air violations were concerned, they involved overflights by aircraft of types used by the coalition forces. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on UNIKOM, UN Doc. S/1997/255, 26 March 1997, § 4.
UN Secretary-General
In a 1998 report regarding UNCRO in Croatia, whose mandate included the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula, the UN Secretary-General considered the presence of Yugoslav troops in the north-western part of the demilitarized zone as the most significant long-standing violation in this area. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the UN Observer Mission in Prevlaka, UN Doc. S/1998/578, 26 June 1998, § 5.
No data.
No data.
No data.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “Preplanned protected zones are established by agreement between belligerent Parties … [including] … demilitarized zones”. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 418.
Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article I(6) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement provides: “Neither side shall execute any hostile act … against the demilitarised zone”. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article I(6).
Additional Protocol I
Article 60(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to extend their military operations to zones on which they have conferred by agreement the status of demilitarized zone, if such extension is contrary to the terms of this agreement. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 60(1). Article 60 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.42, 27 May 1977, p. 215.
Additional Protocol I
Article 60(7) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
If one of the Parties to the conflict commits a material breach of the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 6 [concerning the conditions to be fulfilled by a zone to be established as a demilitarized zone and the prohibition to use the zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations], the other Party shall be released from its obligations under the agreement conferring upon the zone the status of demilitarized zone. In such an eventuality, the zone loses its status but shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 60(7). Article 60 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.42, 27 May 1977, p. 215.
Additional Protocol I
Under Article 85(3)(d) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, “making … demilitarized zones the object of attack” is a grave breach of the Protocol. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 85(3)(d). Article 85 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.44, 30 May 1977, p. 291.
ILC Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind (1996)
Pursuant to Article 20(e)(iii) of the 1996 ILC Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, “[a]ttack, or bombardment, by whatever means, of … demilitarized zones” is a war crime. 
Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, adopted by the International Law Commission, reprinted in Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, 6 May–26 July 1996, UN Doc. A/51/10, 1996, Article 20(e)(iii).
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) prohibits attacks on demilitarized zones by any means whatsoever and states that the prohibition of such attacks subsists only as long as such zones comply with the conditions set out in Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.06.
The manual further qualifies attacks against demilitarized zones as grave breaches of IHL. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 8.03.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Generally, demilitarised zones are protected from attack.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 943; see also § 737 and Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 928.
The manual further provides that “making … demilitarised zones the object of attack” constitutes a grave breach or a serious war crime likely to warrant institution of criminal proceedings. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1315(k); see also Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 1305(k).
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Generally, demilitarised zones are protected from attack.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.44.
The manual further states:
[The 1977 Additional Protocol I] extends the definition of grave breaches to include the following … acts when committed wilfully, in violation of the relevant provisions of the protocol, and causing death or serious injury to body or health:
• making … demilitarised zones the object of attack. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) prohibits attacks on demilitarized zones. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule III, p. 12.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) lists “an attack against … demilitarized zones” as a violation of the law of war. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 46; see also Part I bis, pp. 68 and 115.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructors’ Manual (1992) mentions the duty to avoid hostilities from the air over demilitarized zones and emphasizes that, while these zones cannot be made the object of an attack, it is also prohibited to launch an attack from a demilitarized zone.  
Cameroon, Droit International Humanitaire et Droit de la Guerre, Manuel de l’Instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 113, § 423(1).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that in air operations “[demilitarized zones] must not be the object of bombardments, nor constitute the basis for launching attacks”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 259, § 614.
The manual further states that “an attack against … demilitarized zones” constitutes a grave breach of IHL. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, pp. 295–296, § 661.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “It is prohibited for parties to a conflict to conduct military operations in or to attack an area that they have agreed to treat as a demilitarized zone.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-11, § 115.
The manual further states that an area loses its status as a demilitarized zone if used “for purposes related to the conduct of military operations where it has agreed not to do so”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 4-11, § 118(b).
The manual considers that “making … demilitarized zones the object of attack” constitutes a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 16-3, § 16(d).
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting:
1. It is prohibited for parties to a conflict to conduct military operations in or to attack an area that they have agreed to treat as a demilitarized zone.
4. An area loses its status as a demilitarized zone where:
b. a party uses the demilitarized zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations where it has agreed not to do so. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 457.1 and 4.b.
In its chapter on “War crimes, individual criminal liability and command responsibility”, the manual provides that “making … demilitarized zones the object of attack” constitutes a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1608.2.d.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 3 (Instruction for non-commissioned officers studying for the level 1 and 2 certificates and for future officers of the criminal police): “The following prohibitions must be respected: … attacking or bombarding … demilitarized zones”. 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 3: Formation pour l’obtention du Brevet d’Armes No. 1, du Brevet d’Armes No. 2 et le stage d’Officier de Police Judiciaire (OPJ), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter III, Section 1.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that it is prohibited to attack “protected zones or areas”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 78.
The manual also states: “Military operations must be maintained at a distance from … demilitarized zones.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 93.
The manual further states that attacks on “demilitarized zones” are a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and thus a war crime. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 108.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
IV.2. Protected zones
The law of armed conflicts makes provision for various protected zones or localities. …
Attacks against these zones or localities are prohibited.
IV.7. Demilitarized zones
These zones are areas in which combat is excluded, established in order to protect the civilian population against attacks … Demilitarized zones must not be occupied, nor used in any manner whatsoever for military purposes. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 35 and 37.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
In order to protect the civilian population as a whole or particularly vulnerable persons … it is possible, by common agreement between the parties, to establish safety zones … Such zones must not be attacked militarily. On the other hand, they must also no longer be defended against the advancing of the enemy. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 21–22.
[emphasis in original]
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
II.3.4. Demilitarized zones
It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to lead military operations or attacks in an area which they have agreed to treat as a demilitarized zone.
A demilitarized zone must normally respect the following conditions:
- all combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
- no hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
- no acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population;
- any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.
An area loses its status as a demilitarized zone if:
- one Party breaches the conditions described above;
- one Party uses the demilitarized zone for purposes linked to the conduct of military operations if it has agreed not to do so;
- one Party unilaterally revokes the status of demilitarized zone of an area when it has agreed not to do so. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 42–43.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) imposes a duty to issue appropriate instructions when military activities are conducted near demilitarized zones, in order to ensure the protection of such zones. 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, Article 48.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states that the following “are currently considered as war crimes, … if committed against any person not or no longer participating in hostilities: … attacking … demilitarized zones”. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 50.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) provides that demilitarized zones established by agreement must not be attacked. 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 8.5.1.3.
France
In prohibiting attacks against demilitarized areas, France’s LOAC Manual (2001) is guided by Article 60(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 125.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (2001) provides that “it is prohibited for each party to the conflict to attack or occupy [demilitarized] zones”. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 461.
The manual points out that, if one of the parties to the conflict breaches the provisions concerning the conditions for the establishment of demilitarized zones, the zone in question will lose its special protection”. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 462.
The manual further provides that grave breaches of IHL are in particular “launching attacks against … demilitarized zones”. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 1209.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) states: “Commanders shall issue orders and/or instructions to regulate behaviour in the vicinity of protected zones.” 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 65.
The manual further states that such zones “shall be respected and be taken over without combat”. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 72.
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states:
Where protected zones or localities (… demilitarized zones …) have been agreed upon, the competent commanders shall issue instructions for action and behaviour near and towards such zones or localities. 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 47.
The manual also provides: “Protected zones shall be respected.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 70.
Italy
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) qualifies “indiscriminate attacks against … demilitarized zones” as war crimes. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 85.
Kenya
According to Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997), demilitarized zones are protected from “attack and military operations”. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 2, p. 13.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “The parties to the conflict are prohibited from extending their military operations to demilitarized zones.” It also states that “attacking … demilitarized zones” in violation of IHL constitutes a grave breach. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. V-16, § 14 and p. IX-5.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “It is prohibited for the parties to a conflict to extend their military operations to demilitarized zones.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0554.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states: “It is prohibited to attack demilitarized zones.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1036.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states: “Terms such as undefended places, demilitarized zones and neutralized territory … are sometimes described in peace operations as safe havens or safe areas.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1221.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states:
Any material breach of [the conditions for a zone to be established as a demilitarized zone] releases the other Party from its obligations under the agreement and the zone loses its special status. It shall, however, continue to enjoy the normal protection provided by the customary and treaty law of armed conflict. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 412(5).
The manual further states that “making … demilitarized zones the object of attack” constitutes a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1703(3)(d).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) states: “Preplanned protected zones are established by agreement between belligerent parties … [including] demilitarised zones”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 43, § 14.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “objects protected by international humanitarian law include … demilitarized zones … Attacks against such objects are prohibited by international humanitarian law with the exception of cases stipulated by this law.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) qualifies attacks against demilitarized zones as grave breaches of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 41.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) provides that “[a]ny attack on [a] demilitarised zone” is a grave breach of the law of armed conflict and a war crime. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 57.
Spain
According to Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996), demilitarized zones are areas in which military operations may not be carried out and against which attacks are prohibited. The manual refers to Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, §§ 4.5.b.(3)(b) and 7.3.b.(5).
The manual further states that “launching an attack against demilitarized zones” constitutes a war crime. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 11.8.b.(1).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states:
It is prohibited to extend military operations to zones on which the parties to the conflict have conferred by agreement the status of demilitarized zone, if such extension is contrary to the terms of the agreement.
If one of the parties commits an act of hostility in any such area or uses it for purposes relating to military operations, the other party is released from its obligations in this regard. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 4.5.b.(3).(b); see also § 7.3.b.(5).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) prohibits attacks on demilitarized zones by any means. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 32(1).
The manual considers that demilitarized zones lose their protected status as soon as they are improperly used for military purposes. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 32(4).
The manual further provides that “launching an attack against … demilitarized zones” constitutes a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 193(1)(d).
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) prohibits attacks on demilitarized zones. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule III, p. 12.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “Attacks against or hostilities within … demilitarized zones shall be prohibited.” 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.50; see also §§ 1.2.51 and 1.8.5.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to extend their military operations to zones on which they have conferred by agreement the status of demilitarized zone, if such extension is contrary to the terms of this agreement. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 5.39.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the manual provides that (in addition to the prohibition on attacks against undefended localities “[t]he other rules on protective zones applicable in international armed conflicts may be applied by analogy to internal armed conflicts”. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 15.25.2.
In its chapter on enforcement of the law of armed conflict, the manual notes:
Additional Protocol I extends the definition of grave breaches to include the following:
b. any of the following acts, when committed wilfully, in violation of the relevant provisions of the protocol, and causing death or serious injury to body or health:
(4) making non-defended localities and demilitarized zones the object of attack. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 16.25.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states:
Doubtless the creation of [safety or demilitarized] zones would be one of the most effective measures to enhance protection of one’s own civilian population, and if the conditions required to make a zone were fulfilled and maintained, virtually all civilian casualties would be avoided in this zone. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 5-4(c).
United States of America
The US Air Force Commander’s Handbook (1980), in a section entitled “Neutralized and Demilitarized Zones”, provides:
By agreement, the parties to a conflict may establish certain zones where civilians, the sick and wounded, or other noncombatants may gather to be safe from attack.
A party to conflict cannot establish such a zone by itself; neutralized zones need only be respected if established by agreement between the parties, either in oral or written, or by parallel declarations. Such an agreement may be concluded either before or during hostilities.
United States forces need not respect such a zone unless the United States has agreed to respect it. Even in an unrecognized zone, of course, only legitimate military objectives … may be attacked. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-34, Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Armed Conflict, Judge Advocate General, US Department of the Air Force, 25 July 1980, § 3-6(b).
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) provides: “An agreed demilitarized zone is also exempt from bombardment.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 8.5.1.3; see also § 8.6.2.2 (protected places and objects).
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states: “An agreed demilitarized zone is also exempt from bombardment.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 8.9.1.3.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1988) prohibits attacks against demilitarized zones. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, § 78.
Armenia
Under Armenia’s Penal Code (2003), “targeting … demilitarized zones” during an armed conflict constitutes a crime against the peace and security of mankind. 
Armenia, Penal Code, 2003, Article 390.3(4).
Australia
Australia’s Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 2002, provides that “a person who, in Australia or elsewhere, commits a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence”. 
Australia, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 2002, Section 7(1).
The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in 2002 and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act 1995.
Australia
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to war crimes that are grave breaches of 1977 Additional Protocol I:
268.98 War crimeattacking undefended places or demilitarized zones
A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator attacks one or more towns, villages, dwellings, buildings or demilitarized zones; and
(b) the towns, villages, dwellings or buildings are open for unresisted occupation; and
(c) the attack results in death or serious injury to body or health; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life. 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.98, p. 371.
Australia
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the list of war crimes of the Criminal Code grave breaches of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including “attacking … demilitarised zones”. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, § 268.98.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Criminal Code (1999) provides that “directing attacks against … demilitarized zones” constitutes a war crime in international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Azerbaijan, Criminal Code, 1999, Article 116(7).
Belarus
Belarus’s Criminal Code (1999) provides that it is a war crime to “direct attacks against demilitarized zones”. 
Belarus, Criminal Code, 1999, Article 136(2).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1993), as amended in 1999, provides that “making demilitarized zones the object of attack” constitutes a crime under international law. 
Belgium, Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1993, as amended in 1999, Article 1(3)(14).
Belgium
Belgium’s Penal Code (1867), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
24. making demilitarized zones … the object of attack or bombardment, by whatever means … 
Belgium, Penal Code, 1867, as amended on 5 August 2003, Chapter III, Title I bis, Article 136 quater, § 1(24).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law (1993), as amended in 2003, provides:
War crimes envisaged in the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions … and in the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … , as well as in Article 8(2)(f) of the [1998 ICC Statute], and listed below, … constitute crimes under international law and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the present title … :
14. making demilitarized zones … the object of attack or bombardment, by whatever means … 
Belgium, Law relating to the Repression of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 1993, as amended on 23 April 2003, Article 1 ter, § 1(14).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Under the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (1998), it is a war crime to order that “demilitarized zones be indiscriminately targeted” or to carry out such targeting. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation, Criminal Code, 1998, Article 154(2).
The Republika Srpska’s Criminal Code (2000) contains the same provision. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Criminal Code, 2000, Article 433(2).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (2003) contains the following war crimes provision:
Whoever, in violation of the rules of international law in time of war or armed conflict, orders or perpetrates any of the following acts:
b) Targeting indiscriminately … demilitarized zones;
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of not less than ten years or long-term imprisonment. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, Article 173(2)(b).
Canada
Canada’s Geneva Conventions Act (1985), as amended in 2007, provides: “Every person who, whether within or outside Canada, commits a grave breach [of the 1977 Additional Protocol I] … is guilty of an indictable offence.” 
Canada, Geneva Conventions Act, 1985, as amended in 2007, Section 3(1).
Cook Islands
The Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols Act (2002) of the Cook Islands punishes “any person who in the Cook Islands or elsewhere commits, or aids or abets or procures the commission by another person of, a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]”. 
Cook Islands, Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols Act, 2002, Section 5(1).
Croatia
Under Croatia’s Criminal Code (1993), “indiscriminate attacks affecting … demilitarized zones” are war crimes. 
Croatia, Criminal Code, 1993, Article 120(2).
Croatia
Croatia’s Criminal Code (1997), as amended to 2006, states that a war crime is committed by “whoever violates the rules of international law in time of war, armed conflict or occupation by ordering [or committing] an attack against … demilitarized zones”. 
Croatia, Criminal Code, 1997, as amended in June 2006, Article 158(2).
Cyprus
Cyprus’s Additional Protocol I Act (1979) punishes “any person who, whatever his nationality, commits in the Republic or outside the Republic any grave breach of the provisions of the Protocol, or takes part or assists or incites another person in the commission of such a breach”. 
Cyprus, Additional Protocol I Act, 1979, Section 4(1).
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended in 1999, provides for the punishment of “a commander who, contrary to the provisions of international law on means and methods of warfare, intentionally: … (b) leads an attack against a … demilitarized zone”. 
Czech Republic, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended in 1999, Article 262(2)(b).
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Military Penal Code (2002) provides:
Article 165
Crimes against humanity are grave violations of international humanitarian law committed against any civilian population before or during war.
Crimes against humanity are not necessarily linked to the state of war and can be committed not only between persons of different nationality, but even between subjects of the same State.
Article 166
The grave breaches listed hereafter, affecting, by action or omission, the persons and objects protected by the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977, constitute crimes against humanity, repressed according to the provisions of the present Code, without prejudice to more severe penal provisions provided by the ordinary Penal Code:
13. Making non-defended localities and demilitarized zones the object of attack;
Article 167
The offences contained in the preceding article are punished with penal servitude for life.
If those contained in points 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 to 14 of the same article lead to the death or cause grave injury to the physical integrity or health of one or several persons, the perpetrators are liable to the death penalty. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Military Penal Code, 2002, Articles 165–167.
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Estonia
Under Estonia’s Penal Code (2001), “an attack against … a demilitarized zone” is a war crime. 
Estonia, Penal Code, 2001, § 106.
Georgia
Under Georgia’s Criminal Code (1999), “making … demilitarized zones the object of attack” in an international or non-international armed conflict is a punishable crime. 
Georgia, Criminal Code, 1999, Article 411(1)(d).
Germany
Germany’s Law Introducing the International Crimes Code (2002) provides for the punishment of anyone who, “in connection with an international armed conflict or with an armed conflict not of an international character, … directs an attack by military means against … demilitarized zones”. 
Germany, Law Introducing the International Crimes Code, 2002, Article 1, § 11(1)(2).
Hungary
Under Hungary’s Criminal Code (1978), as amended in 1998, “a military commander who, in violation of the rules of international law concerning warfare, … takes offensive against … a weapon-free zone” commits a war crime. 
Hungary, Criminal Code, 1978, as amended in 1998, Section 160(b).
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that grave breaches of the 1977 Additional Protocol I are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act as amended, 1962, Section 3(1).
The Act adds that any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 60, is also a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act as amended, 1962, Section 4(1) and (4).
Jordan
Jordan’s Military Penal Code (2002) states that the following shall be deemed a war crime when committed in the event of armed conflict: “Intentionally directing attacks on … demilitarized zones”. 
Jordan, Military Penal Code, 2002, Article 41(a)(12).
Lithuania
Under Lithuania’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended in 1998, “a military attack against … a demilitarized zone” constitutes a war crime. 
Lithuania, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended in 1998, Article 337.
Netherlands
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, it is a crime, during an international armed conflict, to commit “the following acts, when they are committed intentionally and in violation of the relevant provisions of Additional Protocol (I) and cause death or serious injury to body or health: … making … demilitarized zones the object of attack”. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Article 5(2)(c)(iv).
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Geneva Conventions Act (1958), as amended in 1987, provides:
Any person who in New Zealand or elsewhere commits, or aids or abets or procures the commission by another person of, a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence. 
New Zealand, Geneva Conventions Act, 1958, as amended in 1987, Section 3(1).
Niger
According to Niger’s Penal Code (1961), as amended in 2003, “putting under attack … demilitarized zones” is a war crime. 
Niger, Penal Code as amended, 1961, Article 208.3(14).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108(b).
Norway
Norway’s Penal Code (1902), as amended in 2008, states: “Any person is liable to punishment for a war crime who in connection with an armed conflict … directs an attack … against demilitarised zones.” 
Norway, Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 2008, § 106(e).
Peru
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), in a chapter entitled “Crimes involving the use of prohibited methods in the conduct of hostilities”, states:
A member of the military or the police shall be punished with deprivation of liberty of not less than six years and not more than twenty-five years if, in a state of emergency and when the Armed Forces assume control of the internal order, he or she:
2. Attacks by any means civilian objects, provided that they are protected as such under International Humanitarian Law, in particular … demilitarized zones. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 91(2).
Rwanda
Rwanda’s Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) provides:
Article: 8
A war crime is one of the following acts, committed during armed conflicts against persons or property protected under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and its Additional Protocols I and II of 8 June 1977:
11° making duly agreed non-defended localities or demilitarized zones the object of attack, by whatever means;
Article: 9
Shall be punished by one of the following penalties any person having committed one of the war crimes provided for in Article 8 of this law:
1° the death penalty or life imprisonment where he has committed a crime provided for in point 1°, 2°, 3°, 9°, 11° or 16° of Article 8 of this law. 
Rwanda, Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Articles 8–9.
Serbia
Serbia’s Criminal Code (2005) states that ordering or committing an attack against “demilitarized zones”, in violation of international law, constitutes a war crime. 
Serbia, Criminal Code, 2005, Article 372(2).
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Geneva Conventions Act (2012) states:
2. Grave breaches of the [1949 Geneva] Conventions and the [1977] First [Additional] Protocol.
(1) A person of whatever nationality commits an offence if that person, whether within or outside Sierra Leone[,] commits, aids, abets or procures any other person to commit a grave breach specified in –
(e) … paragraph … 3 … of Article 85 of the First Protocol [on, inter alia, the grave breach of making non-defended localities and demilitarized zones the object of attack]. 
Sierra Leone, Geneva Conventions Act, 2012, Section 2(1)(e).
Slovakia
Slovakia’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended, provides for the punishment of “a commander who, contrary to the provisions of international law on means and methods of warfare, intentionally: … (b) leads an attack against a … demilitarized zone”. 
Slovakia, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended, Article 262(2)(b).
Slovenia
Under Slovenia’s Penal Code (1994), “a random attack … on demilitarized areas” is a war crime. 
Slovenia, Penal Code, 1994, Article 374(2).
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995) provides for the punishment of “anyone who, in the event of armed conflict, should … knowingly violate the protection due to … demilitarized zones … which are duly identified with signs or the appropriate distinctive signals”. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, Article 612(1).
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
1. Knowingly violating the protection owed to … demilitarized zones which are marked by the appropriate distinctive signs. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 25 November 2003, Article 612(1).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Military Criminal Code (1927), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states in a chapter entitled “War crimes”:
Art. 110
Articles 112–114 apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 112
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
c. … demilitarized zones that are not military objectives. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 110 and 112(1)(c).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states under the title “War crimes”:
Art. 264b
Articles 264d–264j apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 264d
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
c. … demilitarized zones that are not military objectives. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 264b and 264d (1)(c).
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Criminal Code (1998), in the section on “Serious violations of international humanitarian law”, provides for the punishment of “wilful breaches of norms of international humanitarian law committed in an international or non-international armed conflict, i.e. … making … demilitarized zones the object of attack”. 
Tajikistan Criminal Code, 1998, Article 403(1).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Geneva Conventions Act (1957), as amended in 1995, punishes
any person, whatever his nationality, who, whether in or outside the United Kingdom, commits, or aids, abets or procures the commission by any other person of, a grave breach of … [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
United Kingdom, Geneva Conventions Act, 1957, as amended in 1995, Section 1(1).
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on Cooperation with the ICC (2006) states:
26.2. Persons and objects affected by the war crimes set out in the present provision are persons and objects which international law protects in international or internal armed conflict.
26.3. The following are war crimes:
41. Launching attacks against demilitarized zones. 
Uruguay, Law on Cooperation with the ICC, 2006, Article 26.2 and 26.3.41.
Yemen
Yemen’s Military Criminal Code (1998), in a part on war crimes, provides for the punishment of “unjustified attacks against demilitarized zones”. 
Yemen, Military Criminal Code, 1998, Article 21(8).
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Penal Code (1976), as amended in 2001, provides for the punishment of “any person who may order the following in violation of the rules of international law during armed conflict or occupation: … indiscriminate attacks on … demilitarized zones”. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic, Penal Code, 1976, as amended in 2001, Article 142(2).
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s Geneva Conventions Act (1981), as amended in 1996, punishes “any person, whatever his nationality, who, whether in or outside Zimbabwe, commits any such grave breach of … [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]”. 
Zimbabwe, Geneva Conventions Act, 1981, as amended in 1996, Section 3(1).
Venezuela
In 2001, in the Ballestas case, the Colombian Government requested the preventive detention and extradition of a Colombian citizen belonging to the armed group known as the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Army) for the crimes of rebellion, kidnapping, wrongful death, seizure and diversion of aircraft. The Chamber of Criminal Appeals of Venezuela’s Supreme Tribunal of Justice stated:
[The] … laws [of war] prohibit attacks on civilians or persons uninvolved in the conflict and on non-military targets … In order to avoid harming the latter, specific zones are drawn and some are declared off-limits: … [such as] demilitarized [zones]. 
Venezuela, Supreme Tribunal of Justice, Ballestas case, Judgment, 10 December 2001, p. 8.
Angola
The Report on the Practice of Angola notes that Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I prohibits attacks against demilitarized zones. 
Report on the Practice of Angola, 1998, Chapter 5.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In a letter dated 6 March 1994 addressed to the UNPROFOR Command, the Commander-in-chief of the Headquarters of Bosnian Armed Forces denounced the killing and imprisonment of civilians in the demilitarized zones of Srebrenica and Žepa. The UN forces were requested to re-establish the previous positions of the lines, which had been shifted by the adverse party in the attempt to take over the demilitarized zone, and to deploy observers in the zones. 
Report on the Practice of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000, Chapter 1.8.
Botswana
The Report on the Practice of Botswana states that demilitarized zones established by agreement between the belligerents shall not be attacked. 
Report on the Practice of Botswana, 1998, Chapter 1.8.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
In 1996, in a letter to the President of the UN Security Council, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea transmitted a statement concerning the situation in the area of the military demarcation line. In the statement, claiming that the military authorities of the Republic of Korea had disregarded the armistice agreement, the spokesperson of the Panmunjom Mission of the Korean People’s Army drew up a list of alleged violations of the demilitarized zone. He declared, inter alia, that the Republic of Korea had introduced tanks, various kinds of artillery pieces and heavy weapons, as well as a large number of armed military personnel, into the zone, and had even built large military facilities there. According to the spokesperson, the area’s status did not correspond to the real meaning of a demilitarized zone since it had been armed and turned into a new attack position. The spokesperson thus stated that the Korean People’s Army did not consider itself any longer bound by the article of the armistice agreement concerning the demilitarized zone, and announced that since the status of this zone could not be maintained any longer, “self-defensive measures” would be considered. 
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Letter dated 5 April 1996 to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1996/253, 8 April 1996.
Egypt
According to the Report on the Practice of Egypt, “Egypt thinks that protection of … demilitarized zones … consists in refraining from launching attacks against … these areas”, which implies that “attacks against such places are prohibited”. 
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
Islamic Republic of Iran
The Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran notes that the Islamic Republic of Iran objected on several occasions to the bombardment of demilitarized zones by Iraqi forces during the Iran–Iraq War, but adds that no other relevant practice could be found in this regard and that, therefore, no conclusion can be drawn from Iranian practice concerning the prohibition on the targeting of demilitarized zones. 
Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
Nigeria
The Report on the Practice of Nigeria states that it is Nigeria’s opinio juris that the protection of demilitarized zones is part of customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of Nigeria, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
Pakistan
The Report on the Practice of Pakistan notes that a demilitarized zone was created under the 1949 Karachi Agreement. The report emphasizes that Pakistan has been respecting the said zone and has periodically reported violations of it by India to the UN Observer Group. The report, referring to a statement by a spokesperson of Pakistan’s Foreign Office made in 1997, also underlines that Pakistan has formally opposed any suggestion of terminating UNMOGIP. 
Report on the Practice of Pakistan, 1998, Chapter 1.8, referring to Statement by the Foreign Office spokesperson, 24 April 1997.
Rwanda
The Report on the Practice of Rwanda notes that, although no practice was found regarding demilitarized zones, the President of the Military Tribunal confirmed that such zones would be protected according to the modalities agreed upon by the belligerents. 
Report on the Practice of Rwanda, 1997, Chapter 1.8, referring to an interview with the President of Rwanda’s Military Tribunal, 23 October 1997.
Syrian Arab Republic
The Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic asserts that the Syrian Arab Republic considers Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I to be part of customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
United States of America
In 1987, the Deputy Legal Adviser of the US Department of State affirmed: “We support the principle that attacks shall not be made against appropriately declared or agreed demilitarized zones.” 
United States, Remarks of Michael J. Matheson, Deputy Legal Adviser, US Department of State, The Sixth Annual American Red Cross-Washington College of Law Conference on International Humanitarian Law: A Workshop on Customary International Law and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 2, 1987, p. 427.
United States of America
The Report on US Practice considers that US opinio juris generally conforms to the rules and conditions prescribed in Article 60 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 1.8.
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ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that an attack against a demilitarized zone constitutes a grave breach of the law of war. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 418.
ICRC
In a working paper on war crimes submitted in 1997 to the Preparatory Committee for the Establishment of an International Court, the ICRC proposed that “making demilitarized zones the objects of attack”, when committed in an international armed conflict, be subject to the jurisdiction of the Court. 
ICRC, Working paper on war crimes submitted to the Preparatory Committee for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, New York, 14 February 1997, § 1(b)(iv).
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