Practice Relating to Rule 31. Humanitarian Relief Personnel

Note: This rule concerns the safety and protection from attack of humanitarian relief personnel. Practice concerning access of civilians in need to humanitarian relief (and impediments thereto) is included under Rule 55, practice concerning the freedom of movement of humanitarian relief personnel is included under Rule 56.
Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article III(57)(c) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement provides:
The Commander of each side shall co-operate fully with the joint Red Cross teams in the performance of their functions, and undertakes to insure the security of the personnel of the joint Red Cross team in the area under his military control. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article III(57)(c).
Additional Protocol I
Article 17(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I allows the parties to a conflict to appeal to aid societies such as National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and to search for the dead and report their location”. It adds that the parties “shall grant both protection and the necessary facilities to those who respond to this appeal”. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 17(2). Article 17 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.37, 24 May 1977, p. 70.
Additional Protocol I
Article 71 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
1. Where necessary, relief personnel may form part of the assistance provided in any relief action, in particular for the transportation and distribution of relief consignments; the participation of such personnel shall be subject to the approval of the Party in whose territory they will carry out their duties.
2. Such personnel shall be respected and protected. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 71. Article 71 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 245.
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
The preamble to the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel states:
The States Parties to this Convention [are] deeply concerned over the growing number of deaths and injuries resulting from deliberate attacks against United Nations and associated personnel and [bear] in mind that attacks against, or other mistreatment of, personnel who act on behalf of the United Nations are unjustifiable and unacceptable, by whomsoever committed. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, preamble.
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
Article 1 of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel, defines UN and associated personnel as follows:
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) “United Nations personnel” means:
(i) Persons engaged or deployed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations as members of the military, police or civilian components of a United Nations operation;
(ii) Other officials and experts on mission of the United Nations or its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency who are present in an official capacity in the area where a United Nations operation is being conducted;
(b) “Associated personnel” means:
(i) Persons assigned by a Government or an intergovernmental organization with the agreement of the competent organ of the United Nations;
(ii) Persons engaged by the Secretary-General of the United Nations or by a specialized agency or by the International Atomic Energy Agency;
(iii) Persons deployed by a humanitarian non-governmental organization or agency under an agreement with the Secretary-General of the United Nations or with a specialized agency or with the International Atomic Energy Agency, to carry out activities in support of the fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, Article 1.
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
Article 7 of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel states:
1. United Nations and associated personnel, their equipment and premises shall not be made the object of attack or of any action that prevents them from discharging their mandate.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel. In particular, States Parties shall take all appropriate steps to protect United Nations and associated personnel who are deployed in their territory from the crimes set out in Article 9 [murder, kidnapping or other attack]. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, Article 7.
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
Article 8 of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel provides:
Except as otherwise provided in an applicable status-of-forces agreement, if United Nations or associated personnel are captured or detained in the course of the performance of their duties and their identification has been established, they shall not be subjected to interrogation and they shall be promptly released and returned to United Nations or other appropriate authorities. Pending their release such personnel shall be treated in accordance with universally recognized standards of human rights and the principles and spirit of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, Article 8.
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
Article 9(1)(a) of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel provides that the intentional commission of “murder, kidnapping or other attack upon the person or liberty of any United Nations or associated personnel” shall be made by each State party a crime under its national law. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, Article 9(1)(a).
Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel
Article 20 of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel states:
1.Nothing in this Convention shall affect:
(a) The applicability of international humanitarian law and universally recognized standards of human rights as contained in international instruments in relation to the protection of United Nations operations and United Nations and associated personnel or the responsibility of such personnel to respect such law and standards; United Nations and associated personnel, their equipment and premises shall not be made the object of attack or of any action that prevents them from discharging their mandate. 
Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 49/59, 9 December 1994, Article 20.
ICC Statute
Pursuant to Article 8(2)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii) of the 1998 ICC Statute, “[i]ntentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict” constitutes a war crime in both international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Statute of the International Criminal Court, adopted by the UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Rome, 17 July 1998, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9, Article 8(2)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii).
Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone
Article 4 of the 2002 Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone provides:
The Special Court shall have the power to prosecute persons who committed the following serious violations of international humanitarian law:
(b) Intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict. 
Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, annexed to the 2002 Agreement on the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Freetown, 16 January 2002, annexed to Letter dated 6 March 2002 from the UN Secretary-General to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/246, 8 March 2002, p. 29, Article 4(b).
Kampala Convention
Article 5(10) of the 2009 Kampala Convention provides that States Parties shall not attack “humanitarian personnel … deployed for the assistance or benefit of internally displaced persons.” 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 5(10).
Article 7(5)(h) of the Convention contains a corresponding obligation for members of armed groups, defined as “dissident armed forces or other organized armed groups that are distinct from the armed forces of the state”, prohibiting them from: “[a]ttacking or otherwise harming humanitarian personnel … deployed for the assistance or benefit of internally displaced persons”. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 7(5)(h).
Agreement No. 2 on the Implementation of the Agreement of 22 May 1992 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2(d) of the 1992 Agreement No. 2 on the Implementation of the Agreement of 22 May 1992 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina states: “Each party undertakes to provide security guarantees to the ICRC in the accomplishment of its humanitarian activities.” 
Agreement No. 2 between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community) on the implementation of the Agreement of 22 May 1992, Geneva, 23 May 1992, § 2(d).
Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action
In paragraph II(9) of the 1992 Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action, the ICRC requested the parties to “ensure respect for ICRC personnel, local ICRC staff and the personnel of other humanitarian organizations involved in the implementation of this plan”. 
Agreement No. 3 between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community) on the ICRC Plan of Action, Geneva, 6 June 1992, § II(9).
Bahir Dar Agreement
In paragraph 2 of the 1992 Bahir Dar Agreement, the various Somali organizations attending the meeting on humanitarian issues convened by the Standing Committee on Somalia pledged to guarantee the security of relief personnel. 
Agreement on Humanitarian Issues of the All-Party Meeting on Somalia, Bahir Dar, 2 June 1992, § 2.
Agreement on Ground Rules for Operation Lifeline Sudan
In the 1995 Agreement on Ground Rules for Operation Lifeline Sudan, intended to “improve the delivery of humanitarian assistance to and protection of civilians in need”, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) expressed its support for “the following humanitarian conventions and their principles, namely … the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions”. 
Agreement on Ground Rules for Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), between Dr. John Garang, Commander in Chief of the SPLM/A, and Pierce Gerety, OLS Coordinator and UNICEF Chief of Operations, 23 July 1995; also signed by Dr. Riek Machar, Commander-in-Chief of the SSIM/A, 6 August 1995 and by Dr. Lam Akol, Commander-in-Chief of SPLM/A-United, 29 July 1996.
ILC Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind (1996)
Article 19(1)(a) of the 1996 ILC Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind provides that “[m]urder, kidnapping or other attack upon the person or liberty” of UN and associated personnel involved in a UN operation constitutes a crime against the peace and security of mankind when committed intentionally and in a systematic manner or on a large scale with a view to preventing or impeding that operation from fulfilling its mandate. 
Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, adopted by the International Law Commission, reprinted in Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, 6 May–26 July 1996, UN Doc. A/51/10, 1996, Article 19(a).
The commentary on Article 19 states:
Attacks against United Nations and associated personnel constitute violent crimes of exceptionally serious gravity which have serious consequences not only for the victims, but also for the international community … Attacks against such personnel are in effect directed against the international community and strike at the very heart of the international legal system established for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security … The international community has a special responsibility to ensure the effective prosecution and punishment of the individuals who are responsible for criminal attacks against United Nations and associated personnel. 
Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, adopted by the International Law Commission, reprinted in Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, 6 May–26 July 1996, UN Doc. A/51/10, 1996, Commentary on Article 19.
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 9.9 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin provides:
The United Nations force shall facilitate the work of relief operations which are humanitarian and impartial in character and conducted without any adverse distinction, and shall respect personnel … involved in such operations. 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 9.9.
Agreement on the Protection and Provision of Humanitarian Assistance in Sudan
In paragraph 1 of the 1999 Agreement on the Protection and Provision of Humanitarian Assistance in Sudan, the parties agreed to inform the UN of any possible security risks to humanitarian personnel, while recognizing the right of the organization to decide on all security issues relating to its personnel as well as to the personnel of NGOs for whom it provided security coverage. 
Agreement on the Implementation of Principles Governing the Protection and Provision of Humanitarian Assistance to War Affected Civilian Populations, concluded by the Government of Sudan, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and the United Nations-Operations Lifeline Sudan, Geneva, 15 December 1999, § 1.
Cairo Declaration
In paragraph 67 of the 2000 Cairo Declaration, participating States committed themselves to ensure the security of relief workers. 
Cairo Declaration, adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit under the Aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union, Cairo, 3–4 April 2000, § 67.
UNTAET Regulation No. 2000/15
The UNTAET Regulation No. 2000/15 establishes panels with exclusive jurisdiction over serious criminal offences, including war crimes. According to Section 6(1)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii), “[i]ntentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict” constitutes a war crime in both international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Regulation on the Establishment of Panels with Exclusive Jurisdiction over Serious Criminal Offences, UN Doc. UNTAET/REG/2000/15, Dili, 6 June 2000, Section 6(1)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii)
N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance
Article 8 of the 2004 N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance states:
The parties affirm that they will fulfil their obligation to provide a security environment favourable to set up humanitarian assistance and protect national and international humanitarian personnel, as well as the equipment and material belonging to the humanitarian agencies. 
Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, annexed to the N’Djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, Article 8.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides that personnel involved in relief actions shall be respected and protected. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.11.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states:
In addition to the special immunity granted to civilian and military medical services there is a number of civilian bodies which are given special protection. These include the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies … [and] personnel involved in relief operations. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 925.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
In addition to the special immunity granted to civilian and military medical services there are numerous civilian bodies which are given special protection. These include the ICRC, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies … [and] personnel involved in relief operations … 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.26.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides:
Humanitarian aid societies, such as the Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies, who on their own initiative, collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even in invaded or occupied areas, shall not be made the object of attack.
Personnel participating in relief actions shall not be made the object of attack. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, §§ 53 and 54.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) provides: “Members of the ICRC wearing the distinctive emblem must be protected at all times.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 10, § 7.
The Code of Conduct further states:
NGOs such as CARE and Médecins Sans Frontières might wear other recognizable symbols. The symbols used by CARE, MSF and other NGOs do not benefit from international legal protection, although their work in favour of the victims of armed conflict must be respected. Upon recognition that they are providing care to the sick and wounded, NGOs are also to be respected. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 10, § 9.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on targeting:
438. Humanitarian aid societies
1. Humanitarian aid societies, such as the Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies, who on their own initiative, collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even in invaded or occupied areas, shall not be made the object of attack.
439. Personnel participating in relief actions
1. Personnel participating in relief actions shall not be made the object of attack. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, §§ 438 and 439.
In its glossary, the manual defines “relief action” as follows:
A relief action for the benefit of the civilian population affected by an armed conflict means the provision of food, water, medical supplies, clothing, bedding, means of shelter, other supplies essential to the survival of the civilian population, and objects necessary for religious worship. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, Glossary, p. GL-16.
Canada
Rule 10 of Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) states:
7. … Members of the ICRC wear the distinctive emblem. As such, they must be protected at all times.
9. … The symbols used by CARE, MSF [Médecins Sans Frontières] and other NGOs do not benefit from international legal protection, although their work in favour of the victims of armed conflict must be respected. Upon recognition that they are providing care to the sick and wounded, NGOs are also to be respected. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 10, §§ 7 and 9.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers):
III.2. Humanitarian aid
The armed forces of the two sides can prescribe technical arrangements for the transport through their territory, for example the routes the convoys must take or the detailed schedule. … Again, the two parties must guarantee the safety of these convoys in their territory. The personnel responsible for the relief supplies and the consignments must not be made the object of attacks. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 33.
In Book IV (Instruction of heads of division and company commanders), the Teaching Manual provides:
Aid societies, such as Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies, which, on their own initiative, collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, must not be made the object of attack.
Personnel participating in aid activities must not be made the object of attack.
Example: Scouts. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 34.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) states: “The law of armed conflict provides special protection for … relief personnel”. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 95.
Italy
Italy’s Combatant’s Manual (1998) states:
International Red Cross Delegates and the equipment and facilities they use are protected by the emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
IT IS PROHIBITED to carry out hostile acts of any kind against people and objects protected by this emblem, except in cases of legitimate defence.
The Delegates must be provided with full assistance in carrying out their tasks: in this regard, every combatant shall act in accordance with the orders received from his own Commanding Officer. 
Italy, Manuale del Combattente, SME 1000/A/2, Stato Maggiore Esercito/Reparto Impiego delle Forze, Ufficio Dottrina, Addestramento e Regolamenti, 1998, § 243.
[emphasis in original]
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009), in a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention I, states: “The personnel taking part in relief actions must be respected and protected.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 261; see also §§ 214 and 285.
Mexico
Mexico’s IHL Guidelines (2009), in a section entitled “Basic rules of conduct in armed conflict”, states: “Respect all persons … involved in humanitarian assistance”. 
Mexico, Cartilla de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Ministry of National Defence, 2009, § 14(v).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “Personnel engaged in relief activities must be respected and protected. Only in case of imperative military necessity may their activities be limited.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-4, § 3.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Rendering humanitarian assistance never means involvement in the conflict.
Examples:
- The immunity granted to medical personnel is coupled with the obligation of such personnel to refrain from any hostile action.
- No one may be harassed or condemned for helping the wounded or sick. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224(a).
The manual further states: “Humanitarian aid is not intervention in the conflict”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 34; see also § 0818.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states:
The assistance provided in any relief action may include relief personnel. They must be respected and protected, and the parties to the conflict must provide them with as much support as possible. Only in the case of imperative military necessity may the activities of the relief personnel be limited. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0820.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
It is prohibited deliberately to direct attacks against personnel, equipment, units or vehicles involved in the provision of humanitarian aid or peace missions under the UN Charter, provided that they are entitled to the protection afforded under international law to civilians or civilian objects. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1068.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states, with respect to humanitarian work conducted in non-international armed conflict:
In internal security situations, the armed forces must respect … the humanitarian work carried out by national institutions and components of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (National Red Cross Society or the Peruvian Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross). 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 82.
The safety and protection of those who provide [social] services [including emergency relief] … shall be ensured. They shall not be the object of undue harassment in the performance of their work. 
Philippines, Human Rights-Based Intelligence Operations, Rules of Behavior for Military Intelligence personnel, HR-BIO (2011), Armed Forces of the Philippines, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 2011, p. 39.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “persons protected by international humanitarian law include … personnel involved in humanitarian operations … Attacks against such persons are prohibited.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) prohibits attacks on “humanitarian organisations (such as ICRC, national Red Cross Society)”. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, p. 35.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Respect all persons and objects bearing the emblem of the Red Cross, Red Crescent and Red Crystal.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.3.e.(1).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) states that the rules on the recognition of the role of aid organizations under Article 17 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and on the protection of personnel in relief actions under Article 71(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I have the status of customary international law. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 2.2.3, pp. 18–19.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Aide-Memoire on the Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict (2005) states: “I spare and respect personnel and installations as well as equipment and means of transport of … the International Red Cross, … as well as the United Nations without discrimination unless they open fire on my comrades or me.” 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Rule 7.
The Aide-Memoire further states with regards to the protective signs of the red cross and red crescent:
Correct behaviour
- Personnel, installations, material and means of transport of the medical services as well as carriers of signs or objects marked with distinctive signs must be respected and spared;
- The distinctive signs may only be used by persons entitled and only for their intended purpose.
Prohibited is/are …
- Attacks against persons or objects carrying this sign[.] 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Chart of Protective Signs.
The Aide-Memoire further states with regards to the UN:
Correct behaviour
Personnel, installations, material and means of transport of the UN as well as bearers of distinctive signs or objects marked with distinctive signs must be respected and spared.
Prohibited is/are …
- Damaging action against personnel, installations and material, as long as these are not involved in combat[.] 
Switzerland, The Ten Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflict, Aide-memoire 51.007/IIIe, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance for Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports dated 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, Chart of Protective Signs.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
13 Protected persons
13.1 Behaviour with regard to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked and medical and religious personnel
181 Personnel of national and international Red Cross and Red Crescent organizations are protected. They must be allowed to perform their duties without interference.
15 Methods of warfare
15.2 Prohibited methods of warfare
225 Indiscriminate attacks, i.e. attacks which cannot distinguish between protected persons/objects and military objectives, as well as attacks directed against protected persons/objects or acts of revenge are prohibited in any place and at any time.
17 Sanctions for violations of the international law of armed conflict
17.1 General provisions
237 The following in particular are criminal offences: … harmful acts against internationally protected persons and objects[.] 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 181, 225 and 237.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states
“Personnel engaged in humanitarian actions” means persons engaged in operations aimed at the provision of aid to the population.
Such personnel are assigned to transportation and distribution of humanitarian aid and enjoy protection under international humanitarian law.
In case of military necessity the actions of such personnel can be temporarily limited. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.42; see also § 1.2.33.
The manual further states: “Attacks against [personnel participating in humanitarian action] shall be prohibited.” 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.2.33.
Furthermore, the manual states that directing attacks against such persons constitutes “a serious violation of international humanitarian law”. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.8.5.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Relief personnel may, where necessary, accompany relief consignments, “subject to the approval of the Party in whose territory they will carry out their duties”. They are entitled to respect and protection and parties are under an obligation to assist them “to the fullest extent practicable”. Only “imperative military necessity” can justify any limitation on their activities or restriction of movement, which must in any event be temporary. Relief personnel are under an obligation not to exceed the terms of their mandate under Additional Protocol I and to “take account” of the security requirements of the party in whose territory they are carrying out their duties. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.13.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the manual states:
15.27. It is prohibited to attack the “personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, so long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict”.
15.27.1. The protection and delivery of relief supplies will usually be dealt with in agreements between the state concerned and the relief agencies in question. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 15.27.–15.27.1.
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia’s Military Manual (1997) provides that relief personnel are entitled to protection in the performance of their task of “civil protection” and shall not be made the object of attack. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Propisi o Primeri Pravila Medjunarodnog Ratnog Prava u Oruzanim Snagama SFRJ, PrU-2, Savezni Sekretarijat za Narodnu Odbranu (Pravna Uprava), 1988, §§ 277–278.
The Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia states that the wording “civil protection” also covers humanitarian assistance. 
Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Australia
Australia’s Criminal Code Act (1995), as amended to 2007, states with respect to serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict:
268.37 War crime – attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator directs an attack; and
(b) the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and
(c) the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life.
(3) Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c). 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.37, p. 326.
The Criminal Code Act also states, with respect to war crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs of war applicable in a non-international armed conflict:
268.79 War crime – attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission
(1) A person (the perpetrator) commits an offence if:
(a) the perpetrator directs an attack; and
(b) the object of the attack is personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; and
(c) the personnel are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the Geneva Conventions or Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions; and
(d) the perpetrator’s conduct takes place in the context of, and is associated with, an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict.
Penalty: Imprisonment for life.
(3) Strict liability applies to paragraphs (1)(c). 
Australia, Criminal Code Act, 1995, as amended to 2007, Chapter 8, § 268.79, p. 355.
Australia
Australia’s ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act (2002) incorporates in the Criminal Code the war crimes defined in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “attacking personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission” in international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Australia, ICC (Consequential Amendments) Act, 2002, Schedule 1, §§ 268.37 and 268.79.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Criminal Code (1999) provides that “directing attacks against personnel recruited … to provide humanitarian assistance” constitutes a war crime in international and non-international armed conflicts. 
Azerbaijan, Criminal Code, 1999, Article 116(3).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (2003), as amended in 2004, states:
Whoever unlawfully confines, keeps confined or in some other manner deprives an internationally protected person of the freedom of movement, or restricts it in some way, with the aim to force him or some other person to do or to omit or to bear something, or perpetrates some other violence against such a person or his liberty … shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of between one and ten years. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, as amended in 2004, Article 192(1).
Burundi
Burundi’s Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) states:
[The following are] considered as war crimes:
B. Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflicts, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
c) launching deliberate attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict;
D. Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
c) launching deliberate attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict. 
Burundi, Law on Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Article 4(B)(c) and (D)(c).
Burundi
Burundi’s Penal Code (2009) states:
“War crimes” means crimes which are committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes, in particular:
2. … [S]erious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
3°. Intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict;
5. … [S]erious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
3°. Intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict. 
Burundi, Penal Code, 2009, Article 198(2)(3°) and 5(3°).
Canada
Canada’s Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes Act (2000) provides that the war crimes defined in Article 8(2) of the 1998 ICC Statute are “crimes according to customary international law” and, as such, indictable offences under the Act. 
Canada, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes Act, 2000, Section 4(1) and (4).
Colombia
Colombia’s Decree No. 138 (2005) states: “All authorities and persons in Colombia must protect the … relief personnel and the persons who permanently or temporarily carry out humanitarian tasks in situations of armed conflict or natural disasters”. 
Colombia, Decree No. 138, 2005, Article 16.
Congo
Congo’s Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity Act (1998) defines war crimes with reference to the categories of crimes set out in Article 8 of the 1998 ICC Statute. 
Congo, Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity Act, 1998, Article 4.
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Penal Code (2005) provides: “Anybody who deliberately uses war methods or procedures contrary to an international agreement signed by Denmark or international customary law shall be punished [with imprisonment for life].” 
Denmark, Military Penal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Estonia
Under Estonia’s Penal Code (2001), “a person who kills, tortures, causes health damage … to a representative of a humanitarian organization performing his/her duties in a war zone” commits a war crime. 
Estonia, Penal Code, 2001, § 102
Ethiopia
Under Ethiopia’s Penal Code (1957), anyone who “indulges in hostile acts against or threats or insults to persons belonging to the International Red Cross or to corresponding humanitarian relief organizations (the Red Crescent, the Red Lion and Sun) or to the representatives of those organizations” commits a punishable offence. 
Ethiopia, Penal Code, 1957, Article 293(a).
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 281.- Hostile Acts against International Humanitarian Organizations.
(1) Whoever intentionally and in time of peace:
(a) indulges in hostile acts against or threats or insults to persons belonging to the International Red Cross or Red Crescent or to corresponding humanitarian relief organizations or to the representatives of those organizations or to persons placed under their protection …
is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, in cases of exceptional gravity, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years.
(2) Where the crime is committed in time of war, the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment from one year to five years. 
Ethiopia, Criminal Code, 2004, Article 281.
The Criminal Code of 2004 repealed Ethiopia’s Penal Code of 1957.
France
France’s Code of Defence (2004), as amended in 2008, states:
Combatants must respect and treat with humanity all persons protected by the applicable international conventions …
… Personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance mission … are … protected as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the law of armed conflicts.
Protected persons are protected as long as they abstain from taking a direct part in hostilities.
It is prohibited for combatants to deliberately target protected persons. 
France, Code of Defence, 2004, as amended in 2008, Article D4122-8.
France
France’s Penal Code (1992), as amended in 2010, states in its section on war crimes common to both international and non-international armed conflicts:
Intentionally launching attacks against personnel … employed in a humanitarian relief mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilian and civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict, is punishable by 20 years’ imprisonment. 
France, Penal Code, 1992, as amended in 2010, Article 461-12, para. 2.
Germany
Germany’s Law Introducing the International Crimes Code (2002) provides:
Anyone who, in connection with an international or non-international armed conflict, carries out an attack against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under international humanitarian law, shall be liable to imprisonment for not less than three years. In less serious cases, particularly where the attack is not carried out with military means, the period of imprisonment shall be for not less than one year. 
Germany, Law Introducing the International Crimes Code, 2002, § 11.1(1).
Ireland
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Articles 17(2) and 71, is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Netherlands
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, “intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in humanitarian assistance …, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict” is a crime, whether committed in an international or a non-international armed conflict. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Articles 5(5)(o) and 6(3)(c).
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Crimes (Internationally Protected Persons and Hostages) Amendment Act (1998) gives New Zealand’s courts extraterritorial jurisdiction over attacks against UN and associated personnel, their property and vehicles, which are criminalized by the Act. 
New Zealand, Crimes (Internationally Protected Persons and Hostages) Amendment Act, 1998.
New Zealand
Under New Zealand’s International Crimes and ICC Act (2000), war crimes include the crimes defined in Article 8(2)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii) of the 1998 ICC Statute. 
New Zealand, International Crimes and ICC Act, 2000, Section 11(2).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108(b).
Norway
Norway’s Penal Code (1902), as amended in 2008, states:
Any person is liable to punishment for a war crime who in connection with an armed conflict … directs an attack against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under international law. 
Norway, Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 2008, § 105(a).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Internal Displacement (2004) states: “Persons providing humanitarian assistance … enjoy respect and protection. They shall not be the object of attack or other acts of violence.” 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 11.
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states: “Persons engaged in humanitarian assistance … shall not be the object of attack or other acts of violence.” 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 18.
Peru
Peru’s Military and Police Criminal Code (2010), in a chapter entitled “Crimes against humanitarian operations and emblems”, states:
A member of the military or the police shall be punished with deprivation of liberty of not less than six years and not more than twenty-five years if, in a state of emergency and when the Armed Forces assume control of the internal order, he or she:
1. Attacks persons … involved in a … humanitarian assistance mission … , if they are entitled to the protection granted to civilians … under International Humanitarian Law. 
Peru, Military and Police Criminal Code, 2010, Article 95(1).
Philippines
The Act on Child Protection (1992) of the Philippines contains an article on “children in situations of armed conflicts”, which states that “the safety and protection of those who provide [emergency relief] services … shall be ensured”. … [They] “shall not be subjected to undue harassment in the performance of their work”. 
Philippines, Act on Child Protection, 1992, Article X, Section 22(d).
Portugal
Under Portugal’s Penal Code (1996), killing, torturing, treating inhumanely or causing serious injury to the body or health of members of humanitarian organizations in time of war, armed conflict or occupation is a war crime. 
Portugal, Penal Code, 1996, Article 241.
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s ICC Act (2007) provides for the punishment of anyone who commits the following war crime in both international and non-international armed conflicts:
Intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under international law of armed conflict. 
Republic of Korea, ICC Act, 2007, Article 12(1)(2).
Rwanda
Rwanda’s Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (2003) provides:
Article: 14
Shall be punished by imprisonment of six (6) months to five (5) years and a fine of fifty thousand (50,000) to one hundred thousand (100,000) Rwandan Francs, or one of these penalties alone, a person who:
1° engages in hostile acts against persons belonging to humanitarian organizations in the exercise of their functions. 
Rwanda, Law Repressing the Crime of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003, Article 14.
shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of one (1) year to two (2) years and a fine of one hundred thousand (100,000) to two hundred thousand (200,000) Rwandan francs or one of these penalties. 
Rwanda, Organic Law instituting the Penal Code, 2012, Article 129(1).
Senegal
Senegal’s Penal Code (1965), as amended in 2007, states that the following constitute war crimes:
b) [O]ther serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
2. launching deliberate attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict;
d) …
Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
3. launching deliberate attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict. 
Senegal, Penal Code, 1965, as amended in 2007, Article 431-3(b)(2) and (d)(3).
Serbia
Serbia’s Criminal Code (2005) states that ordering or committing an attack on “members of … humanitarian organizations” in violation of international law constitutes a war crime. 
Serbia, Criminal Code, 2005, Article 372(1).
South Africa
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the war crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including in both international and non-international armed conflicts: “attacking personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians … under the international law of armed conflict”. 
South Africa, ICC Act, 2002, Schedule 1, Part 3, §§ (b)(iii) and (e)(iii).
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
2. Exercising violence … against a member of … relief societies. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 25 November 2003, Article 612(2).
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2010, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
10. Intentionally directing attacks against personnel of the United Nations, [and] personnel associated with or participating in … humanitarian missions in accordance with the [1945] United Nations Charter, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict, or threatening to commit any such attack with the objective of compelling a physical or legal person to commit or to refrain from committing any act. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 23 June 2010, Article 612(10).
Sudan
Sudan’s Armed Forces Act (2007) provides:
Subject to the provisions of the Criminal Act of 1991, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years, or with any lighter penalty, whoever treats inhumanly any of the persons hereinafter mentioned, during wartime, by killing him/her or causing physical or moral injury or grievous suffering thereto …:
(f) international monitors;
(g) officials belonging to international agencies and organizations, protected by international treaties and agreements ratified by the Sudan. 
Sudan, Armed Forces Act, 2007, Article 152.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Military Criminal Code (1927), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states in a chapter entitled “War crimes”:
Art. 110
Articles 112–114 apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 112
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
b. personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are protected by international humanitarian law. 
Switzerland, Military Criminal Code, 1927, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 110 and 112(1)(b).
[footnote in original omitted]
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Penal Code (1937), taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, states under the title “War crimes”:
Art. 264b
Articles 264d–264j apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.
Art. 264d
1 The penalty shall be a custodial sentence of not less than three years for any person who in the context of an armed conflict directs an attack against:
b. personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission … , as long as they are protected by international humanitarian law. 
Switzerland, Penal Code, 1937, taking into account amendments entered into force up to 2011, Articles 264b and 264d (1)(b).
[footnote in original omitted]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK UN Personnel Act (1997), which gives effect to certain provisions of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel, provides:
If a person does outside the United Kingdom any act to or in relation to a UN worker which, if he had done it in any part of the United Kingdom, would have made him guilty of any of the offences mentioned in subsection (2) inter alia murder, manslaughter, culpable homicide, rape, assault causing injury, kidnapping, abduction and false imprisonment], he shall in that part of the United Kingdom be guilty of that offence. 
United Kingdom, UN Personnel Act, 1997, Section 1(1).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Under the UK ICC Act (2001), it is a punishable offence to commit a war crime as defined in Article 8(2)(b)(iii) and (e)(iii) of the 1998 ICC Statute. 
United Kingdom, ICC Act, 2001, Sections 50(1) and 51(1) (England and Wales) and Section 58(1) (Northern Ireland).
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on Cooperation with the ICC (2006) states:
26.2. Persons and objects affected by the war crimes set out in the present provision are persons and objects which international law protects in international or internal armed conflict.
26.3. The following are war crimes:
11. Intentionally directing attacks against personnel … involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission, as long as they are entitled to the protection granted to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict. 
Uruguay, Law on Cooperation with the ICC, 2006, Article 26.2 and 26.3.11.
Canada
In 2013, in the Sapkota case, Canada’s Federal Court dismissed a request for review of a decision denying refugee protection to the applicant on grounds of complicity in crimes against humanity in Nepal between 1991 and 2009. While reviewing the submissions of the respondent, Canada’s Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, the Court stated: “The Respondent notes that the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court … is endorsed in Canada as a source of customary law.” 
Canada, Federal Court, Sapkota case, Reasons for Judgment and Judgment, 15 July 2013, § 28.
Colombia
In 2007, in the Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
International humanitarian law, in its treaty and customary form applicable in internal armed conflicts, provides for the special protection of certain categories of persons and property particularly vulnerable to the effects of war. The main categories of persons and objects specially protected [include] … humanitarian relief personnel. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, Judgment of 25 April 2007, p. 120.
South Africa
In 1987, in the Petane case, the Cape Provincial Division of South Africa’s Supreme Court dismissed the accused’s claim that the 1977 Additional Protocol I reflected customary international law. The Court stated:
The accused has been indicted before this Court on three counts of terrorism, that is to say, contraventions of s 54(1) of the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982. He has also been indicted on three counts of attempted murder.
The accused’s position is stated to be that this Court has no jurisdiction to try him.
… The point in its early formulation was this. By the terms of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I to the [1949] Geneva Conventions the accused was entitled to be treated as a prisoner-of-war. A prisoner-of-war is entitled to have notice of an impending prosecution for an alleged offence given to the so-called “protecting power” appointed to watch over prisoners-of-war. Since, if such a notice were necessary, the trial could not proceed without it, Mr Donen suggested that the necessity or otherwise for giving such a notice should be determined before evidence was led. …
On 12 August 1949 there were concluded at Geneva in Switzerland four treaties known as the Geneva Conventions. …
South Africa was among the nations which concluded the treaties. … Except for the common art 3, which binds parties to observe a limited number of fundamental humanitarian principles in armed conflicts not of an international character, they apply to wars between States.
After the Second World War many conflicts arose which could not be characterised as international. It was therefore considered desirable by some States to extend and augment the provisions of the Geneva Conventions, so as to afford protection to victims of and combatants in conflicts which fell outside the ambit of these Conventions. The result of these endeavours was Protocol I and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions, both of which came into force on 7 December 1978.
Protocol II relates to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts. Since the State of affairs which exists in South Africa has by Protocol I been characterised as an international armed conflict, Protocol II does not concern me at all.
The extension of the scope of art 2 of the Geneva Conventions was, at the time of its adoption, controversial. …
The article has remained controversial. More debate has raged about its field of operation than about any other articles in Protocol I. …
South Africa is one of the countries which has not acceded to Protocol I. Nevertheless, I am asked to decide, as I indicated earlier, as a preliminary point, whether Protocol I has become part of customary international law. If so, it is argued that it would have been incorporated into South African law. If it has been so incorporated it would have to be proved by one or other of the parties that the turmoil which existed at the time when the accused is alleged to have committed his offences was such that it could properly be described as an “armed conflict” conducted by “peoples” against a “ra[c]ist regime” in the exercise of their “right of self-determination”. Once all this has been shown it would have to be demonstrated to the Court that the accused conducted himself in such a manner as to become entitled to the benefits conferred by Protocol I on combatants, for example that, broadly speaking, he had, while he was launching an attack, distinguished himself from civilians and had not attacked civilian targets. …
… I am prepared to accept that where a rule of customary international law is recognised as such by international law it will be so recognised by our law.
To my way of thinking, the trouble with the first Protocol giving rise to State practice is that its terms have not been capable of being observed by all that many States. At the end of 1977 when the treaty first lay open for ratification there were few States which were involved in colonial domination or the occupation of other States and there were only two, South Africa and Israel, which were considered to fall within the third category of ra[c]ist regimes. Accordingly, the situation sought to be regulated by the first Protocol was one faced by few countries; too few countries in my view, to permit any general usage in dealing with armed conflicts of the kind envisaged by the Protocol to develop.
Mr Donen contended that the provisions of multilateral treaties can become customary international law under certain circumstances. I accept that this is so. There seems in principle to be no reason why treaty rules cannot acquire wider application than among the parties to the treaty.
Brownlie Principles of International Law 3rd ed at 13 agrees that non-parties to a treaty may by their conduct accept the provisions of a multilateral convention as representing general international law. …
I incline to the view that non-ratification of a treaty is strong evidence of non-acceptance.
It is interesting to note that the first Protocol makes extensive provision for the protection of civilians in armed conflict. …
In this sense, Protocol I may be described as an enlightened humanitarian document. If the strife in South Africa should deteriorate into an armed conflict we may all one day find it a cause for regret that the ideologically provocative tone of s 1(4) has made it impossible for the Government to accept its terms.
To my mind it can hardly be said that Protocol I has been greeted with acclaim by the States of the world. Their lack of enthusiasm must be due to the bizarre mixture of political and humanitarian objects sought to be realised by the Protocol. …
According to the International Review of the Red Cross (January/February 1987) No 256, as at December 1986, 66 States were parties to Protocol I and 60 to Protocol II, which, it will be remembered, deals with internal non-international armed conflicts. With the exception of France, which acceded only to Protocol II, not one of the world’s major powers has acceded to or ratified either of the Protocols. This position should be compared to the 165 States which are parties to the Geneva Conventions.
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status o[f] customary international [law].
I have not been persuaded by the arguments which I have heard on behalf of the accused that the assessment of Professor Dugard, writing in the Annual Survey of South African Law (1983) at 66, that “it is argued with growing conviction that under contemporary international law members of SWAPO [South-West Africa People’s Organisation] and the ANC [African National Congress] are members of liberation movements entitled to prisoner-of-war status, in terms of a new customary rule spawned by the 1977 Protocols”, is correct. On what I have heard in argument I disagree with his assessment that there is growing support for the view that the Protocols reflect a new rule of customary international law. No writer has been cited who supports this proposition. Here and there someone says that it may one day come about. I am not sure that the provisions relating to the field of application of Protocol I are capable of ever becoming a rule of customary international law, but I need not decide that point today.
For the reasons which I have given I have concluded that the provisions of Protocol I have not been accepted in customary international law. They accordingly form no part of South African law.
This conclusion has made it unnecessary for me to give a decision on the question of whether rules of customary international law which conflict with the statutory or common law of this country will be enforced by its courts.
In the result, the preliminary point is dismissed. The trial must proceed. 
South Africa, Supreme Court, Petane case, Judgment, 3 November 1987, pp. 2–8.
South Africa
In 2010, in the Boeremag case, South Africa’s North Gauteng High Court stated:
In Petane, … Conradie J found that the provisions of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I are not part of customary international law, and therefore are also not part of South African law.
Referring to the fact that in December 1986 only 66 of the 165 States party to the Geneva Conventions had ratified Protocol I, the Court [in Petane stated:
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status of customary international law.
Important changes with respect to certain aspects applicable at the time of Petane have taken place. The ANC [African National Congress] has become South Africa’s ruling party and in 1995 ratified Protocol I. The total number of States that have ratified it, is now … 162.
This last aspect forms the basis on which the First Respondent [the State] and the applicants agree that Protocol I forms part of customary international law as well as of South African law. As requested, this position is accepted for the purposes of the decision, without deciding on the matter.
Despite these changes, it remains debatable whether the provisions of Protocol I have become a part of South African law in this way.
The consensus of both parties to the conflict is required. See Petane … and Article 96 of Protocol I. …
Parliament’s failure to incorporate Protocol I into legislation in accordance with Article 231(4) of the Constitution in fact points to the contrary, and is indicative that the requirements of usus and/or opinio juris have not been met. See Petane. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, pp. 21–22.
[footnotes in original omitted]
The Court also held:
If the [1977 Additional Protocol I] applies in South Africa as customary international law, the two requirements that form the basis of customary law must be met. It is arguable that the requirement of usus has been met by the vast number of States that have acceded or ratified it. By ratifying Protocol I the Republic of South Africa has indicated its intention to apply the Protocol, thereby fulfilling the requirement of opinio juris. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, p. 66.
Australia
In a debate in the Senate in 1995, the Australian Government stated that attacks on UN and associated personnel would not be tolerated. 
Australia, Government statement, 13 November 1995, Senate Debates, Vol. 176, p. 2760, Recommendation 7.
Australia
In 2000, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of UN and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, Australia recalled the duty of States to provide physical protection and assistance to UN and humanitarian personnel. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4100 (Resumption 1), 9 February 2000, p. 6.
Bangladesh
In 2010, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the Counsellor of the Permanent Mission of Bangladesh stated: “My delegation condemns all violations of international humanitarian and human rights law and stresses the need to … protect the safety of humanitarian aid workers.” 
Bangladesh, Statement by the Counsellor of the Permanent Mission before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed Conflict, 7 July 2010.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In an appeal issued in 1992, the Presidency of the Republika Srpska of Bosnia and Herzegovina stated: “We shall make efforts to provide, as soon as possible, conditions for operations of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations and, in particular, to ensure respect for their representatives, vehicles and supplies and their safe work.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Appeal of the Presidency concerning the International Committee of the Red Cross Operations, Pale, 7 June 1992.
Burundi
In 1996, in response to a letter written jointly by the Special Rapporteurs of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions and for Burundi following a deliberate attack on a vehicle carrying ICRC delegates, the President and the Prime Minister of Burundi wrote that they deplored the incident and indicated that they had requested an independent inquiry to identify the perpetrators. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/60/Add.1, 23 December 1996, § 87.
Canada
In 2005, in a statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the representative of Canada stated:
Australia, Canada and New Zealand condemn the ongoing grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur, Sudan which are having a huge impact on the civilian population in that part of the country.
Armed groups are also carrying out attacks against humanitarian workers, impeding their ability to help an increasingly vulnerable population. 
Canada, Statement by the representative of Canada before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2005, p. 1.
Canada
In 2011, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the deputy permanent representative of Canada stated:
The Secretary General in his November 2010 report – has identified a number of key recommendations with respect to enhancing accountability to better protect civilians. I would like to draw attention to a number of issues and country specific contexts that we see being of particular importance.
Second, Mr. President, it is also important that those who commit violent and deadly attacks against aid workers be brought to justice. The attack against UNHCR in Kandahar, Afghanistan, on October 31st [2011], serves as a reminder of the great risks for those who work tirelessly to deliver humanitarian assistance. Three UNHCR staff tragically lost their lives in this attack. … These attacks underscore the importance of continued and sustained cooperation between the international and Afghan security forces to ensure civilians are protected from indiscriminate acts of violence. 
Canada, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Canada before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 9 November 2011.
Canada
In 2012, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Canada stated:
The Secretary General and the International Committee of the Red Cross highlight the fact that health care providers and facilities continue to come under attack in situations of conflict and violence. … Humanitarian workers, including medical volunteers, have lost their lives in the performance of their duties. 
Canada, Statement by the permanent representative of Canada before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 25 June 2012.
Canada
In 2013, Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development issued a press release entitled “Statement from Minister Paradis: Canada Stands with International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement as they Call for Safe Passage for Humanitarian Workers”, which stated:
Canada stands with the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, as they call on all parties in Syria to respect the work of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, and to guarantee the safety of aid workers, who seek to help those in greatest need across Syria.
… It is deplorable that 22 Syrian Arab Red Crescent volunteers have been killed and many more injured, kidnapped or detained while seeking to help those in need.
Canada … calls upon all parties to this conflict to protect Syrian Arab Red Crescent volunteers, personnel affiliated with the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and all other humanitarian personnel as they provide life-saving assistance to millions of people in dire need. 
Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, “Statement from Minister Paradis: Canada Stands with International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement as they Call for Safe Passage for Humanitarian Workers”, Press Release, 1 November 2013.
China
In 2005, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, China stated:
In conclusion, I should like to take this opportunity to pay tribute to humanitarian workers, who risk their lives in wars and conflicts in order to contribute selflessly. Their noble efforts deserve our respect. Their safety and security should therefore be fully ensured. 
Statement by the deputy permanent representative to the UN at the UN Security Council Open Debate on “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict”, 9 December 2005, available at http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceun/eng/chinaandun/securitycouncil/thematicissues/civilians_ac/t226262.htm (last accessed on 18 May 2009).
Djibouti
In 2010, in the History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, under the heading “Basic rules of IHL” and in a section on “Specific protection”, stated: “Humanitarian relief personnel [shall] be respected and protected.ˮ 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, History and Geography Textbook for 8th Grade, 2010, p. 194.
Djibouti
In 2011, in the History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, under the heading “[O]ffences related to violations of humanitarian law”, listed “[i]ntentionally directing attacks … against personnel … involved in a humanitarian mission”. 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, 2011, p. 210.
Egypt
According to the Report on the Practice of Egypt, “because of the importance of relief personnel and objects for the survival of the civilian population, Egypt believes that their protection is a sine qua non conditio”. 
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Ethiopia
According to the Report on the Practice of Ethiopia, NGOs operating in Ethiopia have reported being harassed. 
Report on the Practice of Ethiopia, 1998, Chapter 4.1.
In addition, it has been reported that “the Ethiopian air force had bombed relief convoys” and that “the EPLF [Eritrean People’s Liberation Front], too, attacked food convoys, claiming that the regime was using them to ship weapons to its troops”. 
Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry (eds.), Ethiopia: A Country Study, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., Fourth edition, 1993, p. 328.
Ethiopia
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the representative of Ethiopia “deplored and condemned” attacks against relief workers. 
Ethiopia, Statement at the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998.
France
In 2008, the Prime Minister of France stated:
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, France endeavours to strengthen, through its actions and political influence, … the protection of humanitarian personnel. Resolution 1674 adopted on 28 April 2006 by the UN Security Council, on the initiative of France, condemns … deliberate attacks … against the personnel of … humanitarian organizations …
Also, under the 30th Conference of the ICRC in November 2007 in Geneva, France undertook to strengthen the protection of the emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement within domestic law. All this contributes to a better protection of humanitarian personnel in the field …
On the eve of the Presidency of the European Union, France considers that the respect and protection of humanitarian personnel are an integral part of the respect for IHL as a whole …
The obligation to respect and protect humanitarian personnel lies with the States parties to the [1949] Geneva Conventions, including France. The NCCHR [National Consultative Commission for Human Rights] states that the non-respect of such obligation constitutes a “grave breach of international humanitarian law” in the meaning of article 85 of the [1977] Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions. The French government recalls that, while it may happen that humanitarian personnel are victims of grave breaches of international humanitarian law (for instance, when such personnel are intentionally targeted), not all lack of respect or protection of humanitarian personnel constitutes, in itself, a grave breach of international humanitarian law. These breaches are exhaustively listed in the Geneva Conventions and its Additional Protocols.
Like the NCCHR, the French government considers that the obligation to respect and protect humanitarian personnel has customary value, by virtue of the general practice of States and their conviction as to its obligatory nature …
In practical terms, the security of humanitarian personnel in the field does not concern only expatriate personnel. Local humanitarian personnel are also often at risk. 
France, Response by the Prime Minister to the National Consultative Commission for Human Rights’ opinion on the Respect and Protection of Humanitarian Relief Personnel adopted on 17 January 2008, 27 May 2008, pp. 1–2.
France
In 2009, the Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of France stated:
Violations of humanitarian law are ever increasing, as the current crises are unfortunately there to remind us, whether we are looking at Darfur, Somalia, Gaza, Sri Lanka or the Kivus. … Worse still, … those who come to [the] aid [of the victims] are regularly targeted, obstructed or harassed.
We must react! 
France, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, “International Humanitarian Law, an Imperative”, La Croix, 12 February 2009, p. 1.
France
In 2009, the President of the French Republic stated:
There have never been as many humanitarian personnel deployed in the field but the barriers imposed on their action have never been so many. Worse, their security is nowadays more and more threatened.
Last year – this figure is unbelievable – 260 humanitarian agents were killed, kidnapped or seriously injured. This figure is intolerable. States are responsible for the security of the humanitarian personnel intervening in their territory. [States] have to protect them and punish those guilty of the atrocities committed against them.
The NGOs expelled from Darfur must be able to return. The humanitarian actors must have access to the civilians imprisoned within the combat zone in Sri Lanka. They must be able to accomplish their mission in Afghanistan, in Iraq, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Somalia, without becoming targets or hostages of the forces present [in the field]. France will spare no effort in order for this duty to protect to be strictly applied and respected at the Security Council and in the field. 
France, Address by the President of the French Republic on the 90th Anniversary of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 4 May 2009, pp. 3–4.
Germany
In 1991, during a debate in the German Parliament, a member of parliament strongly protested about threats to relief personnel in southern Sudan. His protest was shared by all parties in the Parliament. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Statement by Dr. Werner Schuster, Member of Parliament, 21 June 1991, Plenarprotokoll 12/35, p. 2966.
Germany
In 1997, during a debate in the UN General Assembly, Germany called upon all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan to ensure the safety of UN and other international humanitarian personnel. 
Germany, Statement before the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/52/PV.74, 16 December 1997, p. 2.
Germany
In 1998, during a debate in the UN General Assembly, Germany deeply deplored “the hostility, particularly among the Taliban, towards the community of international aid workers in Afghanistan” and emphasized that “safety and security [of humanitarian relief personnel] is a non-negotiable issue and a prerequisite for the delivery of humanitarian assistance”. 
Germany, Statement before the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/53/PV.84, 9 December 1998, p. 3.
Germany
In 2004, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the representative of Germany stated:
Combatants violating the principles of humanitarian law – be it by acts directed against civilians or by acts against humanitarian personnel – need to know that they are acting against fundamental principles of humanity and that their acts will eventually come under the judicial scrutiny of the International Criminal Court or of a regional tribunal. What is needed is to move even further towards universal acceptance of its jurisdiction, not to create new pockets of impunity, like those proposed by Security Council resolutions 1422 (2002) and 1487 (2003).
On the basis of the new report of the Secretary-General that we are considering today, I would like to share with the Council a catalogue of three areas for measures to move our protection agenda forward.
The first area is the protection of women and children …
The second area is humanitarian access and the security of humanitarian personnel. Various crises and emergency situations in recent years have shown that humanitarian access and the security of humanitarian personnel are linked. A lack of security for humanitarian personnel results in the prevention of access to vulnerable populations in need. The consequences of the horrendous attack on the United Nations office in Baghdad in August 2003 showed that quite plainly. The Security Council reacted without delay through the adoption of resolution 1502 (2003). Germany supports efforts aimed at enlarging the scope of protection of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. Measures taken to ensure adequate security for humanitarian personnel will lead to better humanitarian access and thus to the better protection of civilians. In addition, the role that neighbouring States and regional organizations have in helping to establish humanitarian access may be further explored.
Thirdly, regarding refugees and internally displaced persons, in general, their situation must be improved …
Germany thus proposes the following measures.
The first is a new resolution on the protection of civilians; the most recent resolution that the Security Council adopted on the protection of civilians in armed conflict (resolution 1296 (2000)) dates from 2000. That resolution, as well as the preceding relevant resolution (resolution 1265 (1999)), were regarded as a starting point. After four years we feel the need for an update of the most recent resolution, to take into account recent developments and the changing character of conflicts. Germany would support efforts aimed at adopting a new resolution.
A second measure would be more frequent reporting by the Emergency Relief Coordinator …
A third measure would be the promotion of the responsibility of new actors. There are new actors in the area of the protection of civilians in armed conflict whom we have to deal with. More than ever before, we need constructive engagement with non-State armed groups. They not only have the potential to deny humanitarian actors humanitarian access; they actually do it. They are also a potential source of harm to the civilian populations where they operate. Without legitimizing them and their actions, we must explore innovative ways to engage them in a constructive dialogue and, where necessary, to pressure them to make them abide by international humanitarian law and human rights norms. 
Germany, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4990, 14 June 2004, pp. 24–25.
Greece
In 2006, during a debate in the UN Security Council on protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Greece stated: “[B]latant attacks against humanitarian staff … can not be tolerated and should come to a halt.” 
Greece, Statement before the UN Security Council, 5 December 2006.
India
According to the Report on the Practice of India, relief personnel enjoy the same protection as medical and religious personnel. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
India
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the representative of India insisted on the punishment of those who attacked humanitarian personnel. He considered this issue to be of “high priority” for his delegation. 
India, Statement at the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998.
Iraq
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the Iraqi representative requested that “urgent measures be taken to protect relief personnel”. 
Iraq, Statement at the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998.
Iraq
On the basis of the reply by Iraq’s Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, the Report on the Practice of Iraq states:
Protection of relief personnel is an absolute principle, without any restriction, for they must be allowed to perform their activities without impediment, even if the matter necessitates the request for holding a temporary armistice to make room for them to carry out their humanitarian roles. The personnel include staff of the International and National Red Cross and Red Crescent. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Reply by the Iraqi Ministry of Defence to a questionnaire, July 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Islamic Republic of Iran
According to the Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, it is the opinio juris of the Islamic Republic of Iran that relief personnel are “immune from attack”. 
Report on the Practice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Israel
The Report on the Practice of Israel states:
It is the IDF’s [Israel Defense Forces’] policy to cooperate with international humanitarian agencies and organizations, both in time of peace and in time of war. In times of hostilities, members of such agencies and organizations would naturally not be the subject of any attack or capture, and would be allowed to continue to execute their mandate, inasmuch as their activities do not directly conflict with military operations. 
Report on the Practice of Israel, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Jordan
According to the Report on the Practice of Jordan, Jordan has “always assumed the safety of those who are engaged in humanitarian action”. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Kuwait
In a memorandum submitted to the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in 1993, Kuwait stated that it considered attacks against humanitarian personnel to be a war crime. 
Kuwait, Remarks and proposals of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Justice concerning the Draft Declaration, International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993.
Kuwait
According to the Report on the Practice of Kuwait, it is the opinio juris of Kuwait that humanitarian relief personnel must be protected from the effects of military operations. 
Report on the Practice of Kuwait, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Malaysia
According to the Report on the Practice of Malaysia, in 1983, the Malaysian Government condemned an attack by Vietnamese troops on an international relief encampment in Nong-Chan near the Thai-Kampuchean border. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Mexico
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the situation in the Middle East, including the Palestinian question, the permanent representative of Mexico stated:
We are dismayed and surprised by the grave events that took place along the coasts of the Mediterranean off the Gaza Strip today. We condemn in the strongest terms the armed attack carried out by the armed forces of Israel in international waters against the flotilla of civilian boats seeking to carry humanitarian aid to the inhabitants of the Gaza Strip. …
Attacks in armed conflict situations directed specifically against civilians and other persons … subject to protection – in this case, humanitarian assistance personnel – … are serious violations of the norms and principles of international humanitarian law, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of … [1977]. They also constitute international crimes. 
Mexico, Statement by the permanent representative before the UN Security Council, 6325th meeting, UN Doc. S/PV.6325, 31 May 2010, pp. 6–7.
Mexico
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Mexico stated:
Parties in armed conflicts barely comply with the obligation to permit and facilitate access of civilian populations to humanitarian assistance, subjecting them to greater risk. Compounding the difficulty are attacks on humanitarian workers in conflict zones. 
Mexico, Statement by the permanent representative before the UN Security Council, 6427th meeting, UN Doc. S/PV.6427, 22 November 2010, p. 23.
Netherlands
On the basis of an interview with a legal adviser of the Ministry of Defence, the Report on the Practice of the Netherlands notes that during the negotiations on the 1980 Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, one of the more important issues for the Netherlands was “the protection of humanitarian personnel, ICRC delegates in particular, and military personnel assisting in humanitarian relief operations”. It adds: “The Netherlands would have preferred more protective provisions than are now included in the text.” 
Report on the Practice of the Netherlands, 1997, Interview with a legal adviser of the Ministry of Defence, 28 July 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Nigeria
According to the Report on the Practice of Nigeria, it is the opinio juris of Nigeria that the protection of relief personnel is part of customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of Nigeria, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Norway
In 2006, during a debate in the UN Security Council regarding the situation in Lebanon and Gaza, the Norwegian Minister for Foreign Affairs stated: “[H]umanitarian and relief workers must be given unrestricted and safe access both for themselves and for relief supplies.” 
Norway, Statement by the Minister for Foreign Affairs in the UN Security Council regarding the situation in Lebanon and Gaza, 21 July 2006.
Norway
In 2010, in an opening address at a Workshop on International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Civilians, Norway’s Minister of Foreign Affairs stated:
Attacks on humanitarian workers and the denial of humanitarian assistance have grave consequences for civilians caught up in armed conflicts.
We must remain focused on the humanitarian space needed to protect civilians. And we must safeguard the values of humanitarian assistance, regardless of the underlying cause of any given armed conflict. 
Norway, Opening Address by the Minister of Foreign Affairs at a Workshop on International Humanitarian Law and the Protection of Civilians, November 2010.
Russian Federation
In 1996, following the killing of six ICRC medical aid workers in Chechnya, the Russian Government condemned the murders and ordered the police to investigate the crime. The Prime Minister of Chechnya stated that his government “would do everything possible to see that the murderers are severely punished as soon as possible”. 
Brian Humphreys, “Chechen Peace Hit by Provocations”, Christian Science Monitor, 20 December 1996.
Russian Federation
In 2009, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of the Russian Federation stated:
[W]e are deeply concerned about the escalation of the crisis in Gaza as a result of Israel’s military operation … [and] the deaths of humanitarian personnel from Israeli fire. Those actions are absolutely inappropriate and are flagrant violations of international law. 
Russian Federation, Statement by the permanent representative of the Russian Federation at a UN Security Council meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 6066th meeting, 14 January 2009.
Rwanda
On the basis of replies by army officers to a questionnaire, the Report on the Practice of Rwanda states that humanitarian personnel are protected in Rwanda; if necessary, they receive special protection from the Rwandan armed forces. The report notes that there is no practice in Rwanda which could be considered contrary to the principle of the protection of humanitarian personnel. According to the report, it is the opinio juris of Rwanda that the principle of the protection of humanitarian personnel is an obligation binding upon all States under customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of Rwanda, 1997, Replies by Rwandan army officers to a questionnaire, Chapter 4.2.
Slovenia
In 2000, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of UN and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, Slovenia referred to States’ primary responsibility to ensure the safety and security of such personnel. 
Slovenia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4100 (Resumption 1), 9 February 2000, p. 8.
Somalia
In 1998, an ICRC publication entitled “Spared from the Spear” recorded traditional Somali practice in warfare as follows:
When hostilities between two groups had reached an extreme level where neither of them would spare the lives of enemy wounded warriors who fell into its hands, a third neutral lineage, inhabiting the same area of settlement, would volunteer to render humanitarian assistance to the war wounded from both sides in the conflict. … The members of this clan who were engaged in this humanitarian task were not harmed or harassed by any of the two lineages involved in the fighting because their service was free from any considerations of material gain or any other selfish motivation. 
Somalia, Spared from the Spear, 1998, p. 53.
In 2011, in its comments on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning Somalia’s report, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia referred to “Spared from the Spear” as its “own Geneva Conventions”:
In times of hostilities, the Biri-Ma-Geydo (Spared from the Spear), i.e. Somalia’s own “Geneva Conventions”[,] which existed long before the adoption of the Hague and Geneva Conventions, mitigated and regulated the conduct of clan hostilities and the treatment of immune groups. 
Somalia, Comments by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning the report of Somalia, submitted 21 September 2011, § 4.
South Africa
In 2000, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of UN and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, the representative of South Africa stated: “The primary responsibility for the protection of United Nations and humanitarian personnel lies with the host Government”. However, he added: “Non-state parties should similarly protect such personnel, in line with the provisions of international humanitarian law.” 
South Africa, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4100 (Resumption 1), 9 February 2000, p. 4.
South Africa
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of South Africa stated: “The issue of humanitarian access will require further attention so as to find ways to ensure that those in need of life-saving assistance receive it and that those who provide it do so in a secure environment in which attacks on humanitarian workers are not tolerated.” 
South Africa, Statement by the Minister of International Relations and Cooperation before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 7 July 2010.
South Africa
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, made on behalf of the members of the Human Security Network and on behalf of South Africa as an observer, the deputy permanent representative of Chile stated:
Despite the unrelenting efforts of the international community, civilians continue to account for the majority of casualties in armed conflicts. …
… Moreover, the effective protection of civilians requires that health-care facilities, schools, teaching staff, transport, humanitarian personnel and people seeking medical treatment are unconditionally spared from attacks and acts of displacement. 
South Africa, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Chile before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, made on behalf of the members of the Human Security Network and on behalf of South Africa as an observer, 19 August 2013, pp. 4–5.
Switzerland
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, Switzerland presented a working paper on the topic of respect for and security of the personnel of humanitarian organizations, in which it recommended that:
States intensify their efforts in the dissemination of international humanitarian law, especially within their armed and security forces … by emphasising respect for and the protection of humanitarian action and personnel … The proposed dissemination recalls the rule according to which it is forbidden to attack humanitarian organisations. 
Switzerland, Working Paper on Respect for and Security of the Personnel of Humanitarian Organisations, First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Doc. RPDIH1/RP, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998, p. 1, § 3.
The paper also proposed that “national legislation give effect, as widely as possible, to the rules according to which an order to attack a humanitarian organisation does not exonerate anyone from responsibility” and recommended that:
States adopt necessary provisions, especially on the criminal and administrative levels, with a view to pronouncing appropriate sanctions against all those who will have participated, directly or indirectly, in an attack against a humanitarian organisation … States on whose territory attacks have taken place initiate without any delay impartial and efficient enquiry procedures … States take necessary measures against those who have prepared, participated in or in any other way facilitated an attack against a humanitarian organisation. 
Switzerland, Working Paper on Respect for and Security of the Personnel of Humanitarian Organisations, First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Doc. RPDIH1/RP, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998, p. 1, §§ I-2 and I-5.
Switzerland
In 2005, in a report in response to a parliamentary postulate on private security and military companies, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated: “International humanitarian law also limits the conduct of military operations permissible under international law. Thus for example, attacks against protected groups and property such as civilians and civilian property as well as the staff or property of the Red Cross… are forbidden.” 
Switzerland, Report by the Swiss Federal Council on Private Security and Military Companies, 2 December 2005, Section 5.3.1, pp. 45–46.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Emblems (distinctive sign)
In Armed conflicts recognisable emblems serve above all to protect military and civilian medical installations as well as the buildings of national relief organisations and their personnel from attack (protective function). This protection is guaranteed not by the emblems themselves but is based directly in international law. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 18.
Switzerland
In 2009, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Switzerland stated:
The current situation in Gaza cries out to us the importance of the issue we are discussing today. The main victims of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are civilians. …
Switzerland therefore reiterates its call for an immediate halt to the hostilities, the protection of humanitarian space, and strict compliance with international law by all parties to the conflict. …
We welcome the appeal of the [UN] Security Council in its resolution 1860 of 8 January for an immediate ceasefire and for the unimpeded provision and distribution of humanitarian assistance throughout Gaza. … However, we are disappointed that the resolution makes no mention of the importance of respect for international humanitarian law. … It is by insisting on the strict application of international humanitarian law in situations of armed conflict that the Council will achieve better protection of civilians. The Security Council underlined itself in its Presidential Statement of 27 May 2008 the importance of safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to provide assistance to civilians in armed conflict in accordance with international law.  
Switzerland, Statement by the permanent representative of Switzerland before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 14 January 2009, pp. 5–6.
Switzerland
In 2010, in its Report on Foreign Policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated: “At the UN, Switzerland’s priorities on humanitarian matters are … , the guarantee of access without restrictions to zones of catastrophes and war for humanitarian actors and the guarantee of the security of the latter by the host State.” 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2010, 10 December 2010, Section 2.3, p. 1041.
Switzerland
In 2012, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued a press release entitled “Appeal by the Swiss authorities for compliance with international humanitarian law in Syria”, which stated: “Moreover, the parties [to the conflict] are subject to the obligation to respect and protect at all times fixed establishments and mobile medical units as well as all humanitarian actors.” 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, “Appeal by the Swiss authorities for compliance with international humanitarian law in Syria”, Press Release, 15 November 2012.
Switzerland
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the chargé d’affaires a.i. of Switzerland stated:
Further, we would like to share our deep concern about the ever-worsening situation with regard to humanitarian access in Syria. … It is also extremely worrying that the safety of humanitarian workers is not guaranteed. We therefore urge all parties to respect their obligations and to grant rapid and unimpeded access to civilians in need. 
Switzerland, Statement by the chargé d’affaires a.i. of Switzerland before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 12 February 2013.
Switzerland
In 2013, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, made on behalf of the Group of Friends on the Protection of Civilians, the chargé d’affaires a.i. of Switzerland stated:
Parties to conflict too often fail to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, which requires all parties to conflict to spare the civilian population from the effects of hostilities. In particular, increasing numbers of humanitarian workers, including medical personnel, have been deliberately harmed or even killed recently; there is thus a clear need to find ways to improve their safety and security, while at the same time humanitarian access to reach those in most need must be maintained and negotiated with all relevant parties. … More must be done, within the framework of the UN Charter, to ensure accountability but also prevent grave instances of deliberate delays or denials of access for humanitarian operations, as well as attacks against humanitarian workers. In this regard, we recall that attacks on humanitarian workers constitute a war crime under article 8 e iii) of the [1998] Rome Statute of the ICC [International Criminal Court] and that accountability and legal protection are therefore stronger with an increasing membership in the ICC. 
Switzerland, Statement by the chargé d’affaires a.i. of Switzerland before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, made on behalf of the Group of Friends on the Protection of Civilians, namely Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay, 19 August 2013.
Switzerland
In 2013 in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council during an interactive dialogue with the Commission of Inquiry on Syria and the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, the representative of Switzerland stated: “Switzerland condemns in the strongest terms deliberate attacks against medical and humanitarian personnel as well as medical installations, which, let us recall, are protected under international humanitarian law.” 
Switzerland, Statement by the representative of Switzerland before the UN Human Rights Council during an interactive dialogue with the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria and the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, 16 September 2013.
Switzerland
In 2013, in a statement at the 64th Session of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the ambassador of Switzerland stated: “Switzerland condemns in the strongest terms deliberate attacks against medical and humanitarian personnel as well as medical infrastructure and material. Such attacks constitute a war crime, a flagrant violation of international humanitarian law and an attack on human dignity.” 
Switzerland, Statement by the ambassador of Switzerland at the 64th Session of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 1 October 2013.
Switzerland
In 2013, in a statement before the UN General Assembly during an interactive dialogue with the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, the representative of Switzerland stated: “Switzerland condemns in the strongest terms deliberate attacks against the civilian population, including medical and humanitarian personnel, as well as against civilian, and especially medical, infrastructure. Such attacks constitute serious violations of international humanitarian law.” 
Switzerland, Statement by the representative of Switzerland before the UN General Assembly during an interactive dialogue with the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, 24 October 2013.
Turkey
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the representative of Turkey referred to attacks against humanitarian organizations as “terrorism of modern times”. 
Turkey, Statement at the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19-23 January 1998.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 1992, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United Kingdom stated that attacks on ICRC personnel were contrary to all the provisions of IHL. 
United Kingdom, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3106, 13 August 1992, p. 36.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Report on UK Practice states that “as regards protection of relief personnel and objects, the United Kingdom has, both in words and in action, demonstrated support for this principle, as in Iraq, and in the former Yugoslavia”. 
Report on UK Practice, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2008, during a debate in the House of Commons, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for International Development stated:
The [UK] Government welcome the commitment of the Government of Sri Lanka to protect civilian populations and have continued to lobby for all parties in the conflict to respect their obligations under international humanitarian law. Those include the protection of … humanitarian workers. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Statement by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for International Development, Hansard, 14 October 2008, Vol. 704, Westminster Hall, col. 246 WH.
United States of America
In 1992, in a report submitted pursuant to paragraph 5 of UN Security Council Resolution 771 (1992) on grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV committed in the former Yugoslavia, the United States included among “deliberate attacks on non-combatants” a report that “snipers fired all day at United Nations personnel as they distributed food to people in Sarajevo”. 
United States, Former Yugoslavia: Grave Breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention, annexed to Letter dated 22 September 1992 to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/24583, 23 September 1992, p. 8.
United States of America
During a press briefing on 17 December 1996, an official spokesperson for the US Department of State characterized the killing of six ICRC medical aid workers in Chechnya as “a barbarous act” and condemned it in the strongest possible terms. 
United States, Department of State Daily Press Briefing, 17 December 1996.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, it is the opinio juris of the United States that “unjustified attacks on international relief workers are also violations of international humanitarian law”. 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 4.2.
Venezuela
At the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the representative of Venezuela requested that those who “commit crimes” by attacking relief workers be punished.  
Venezuela, Statement at the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998.
Viet Nam
In 2008, the representative of Viet Nam to the UN Security Council stated: “The United Nations’ humanitarian workers … must have their safety ensured while performing their duties.” 
Viet Nam, Statement by the representative of Viet Nam on the safety of UN peacekeepers, 8 January 2008.
Viet Nam
In 2008, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the representative of Viet Nam stated: “It is … urgent … to demand that parties to armed conflicts end hostilities against humanitarian staff and allow them to help people in need.” 
Viet Nam, Statement before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 27 May 2008, p. 14.
Zimbabwe
The Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe states: “Zimbabwe regards the relevant provisions of the Geneva Conventions guaranteeing the activities of relief personnel as part of international customary law.” 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 4.2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on Somalia, the UN Security Council:
Urges all parties to take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety of personnel sent to provide humanitarian assistance, to assist them in their tasks and to ensure full respect for the rules and principles of international law regarding the protection of civilian populations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 733, 23 January 1992, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
This demand was reiterated in 1993. 
UN Security Council, Res. 814, 26 March 1993, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on Somalia, the UN Security Council called upon “all parties, movements and factions, in Mogadishu in particular, and in Somalia in general, to respect fully the security and safety of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 746, 17 March 1992, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
This call was reiterated in a subsequent resolution in the same year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 751, 24 April 1992, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992, the UN Security Council deplored “the incident of 18 May 1992 which caused the death of a member of the ICRC team in Bosnia and Herzegovina”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 757, 30 May 1992, § 10, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties and others concerned cooperate fully with the [United Nations Protection Force] and international humanitarian agencies and take all necessary steps to ensure the safety of their personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 758, 8 June 1992, § 7, adopted without a vote.
This demand was reiterated the same year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 770, 13 August 1992, § 6, voting record: 12-0-2.; Res. 787, 16 November 1992, § 18, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties guarantee the safety … of all other United Nations personnel as well as members of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 819, 16 April 1993, preamble and § 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
The same year, the Security Council declared that “full respect for the safety of the personnel engaged in these [humanitarian] operations” in Bosnia and Herzegovina should be observed. 
UN Security Council, Res. 824, 6 May 1993, § 4(b), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the conflict in Angola, the UN Security Council reiterated “its appeal to both parties to take all necessary measures to ensure the security of UNAVEM II personnel as well as of the personnel involved in humanitarian relief operations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 851, 15 July 1993, § 20, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the UN Security Council condemned repeated attacks carried out by the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) against UN personnel providing humanitarian assistance and reaffirmed that “such attacks are clear violations of international humanitarian law”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 864, 15 September 1993, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on security and safety of UN forces and personnel, the UN Security Council urged States and parties to a conflict “to cooperate closely with the United Nations to ensure the security and safety of United Nations forces and personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 868, 29 September 1993, § 3; see also §§ 4–6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 with respect to the conflict in Somalia, the UN Security Council condemned “violence and armed attacks against persons engaged in humanitarian … efforts”, emphasized the importance it attached to “the safety and security of United Nations and other personnel engaged in humanitarian relief … throughout Somalia” and demanded that “all Somali parties refrain from any acts of intimidation or violence against personnel engaged in humanitarian … work in Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 897, 4 February 1994, preamble and § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
These statements were reiterated in a subsequent resolution later that year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 923, 31 May 1994, preamble and § 5, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 in the context of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the UN Security Council condemned all attacks against humanitarian relief workers in Goražde. 
UN Security Council, Res. 913, 22 April 1994, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties in Rwanda strictly respect the persons and premises of the United Nations and other organizations serving in Rwanda, and refrain from any acts of intimidation or violence against personnel engaged in humanitarian … work”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 918, 17 May 1994, § 11, adopted without a vote.
These demands were reiterated in a subsequent resolution a few weeks later. 
UN Security Council, Res. 925, 8 June 1994, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 authorizing the creation of a multinational force in Haiti, the UN Security Council demanded that “no acts of intimidation or violence be directed against personnel engaged in humanitarian or peace-keeping work”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 940, 31 July 1994, § 15, voting record: 12-0-2-1.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on Angola, the UN Security Council expressed its grave concern over “the disappearance of humanitarian relief workers on 27 August 1994” and demanded “their immediate release by the responsible parties”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 945, 29 September 1994, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
The latter demand was reiterated in a subsequent resolution. 
UN Security Council, Res. 952, 27 October 1994, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN Security Council strongly condemned “the attacks and harassment” against international personnel serving in Somalia and underlined “the responsibility of the Somali parties for the security and safety of [international] personnel”.  
UN Security Council, Res. 946, 30 September 1994, preamble, voting record: 14-0-1.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on Liberia, the UN Security Council:
7. Condemns the detention and maltreatment of … humanitarian relief workers and other international personnel …
8. Demands that all factions in Liberia strictly respect the status of … humanitarian relief agencies working in Liberia, [and] refrain from any acts of violence, abuse or intimidation against them. 
UN Security Council, Res. 950, 21 October 1994, §§ 7 and 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that “both parties grant security clearances and guarantees for relief deliveries to all locations and refrain from any action which could jeopardize the safety of relief personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 952, 27 October 1994, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council emphasized “the responsibility of the Somali parties for the security and safety of … personnel engaged in humanitarian activities” and strongly demanded that all parties in Somalia “refrain from any acts of intimidation or violence” against personnel engaged in humanitarian activities. 
UN Security Council, Res. 954, 4 November 1994, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council demanded that “all factions in Liberia strictly respect the status of personnel of the ECOWAS Monitoring Group and UNOMIL and those of organizations and personnel delivering humanitarian assistance throughout Liberia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 985, 13 April 1995, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
This demand was reiterated in two further resolutions adopted the same year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1001, 30 June 1995, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.; Res. 1014, 15 September 1995, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that all parties fully respect the safety of UNPROFOR personnel and others engaged in the delivery of humanitarian assistance. 
UN Security Council, Res. 998, 16 June 1995, § 1, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council underlined “the responsibility of the authorities in Burundi for the security of international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1040, 29 January 1996, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council demanded that “all factions in Liberia strictly respect the status of ECOMOG and UNOMIL personnel, as well as organizations and agencies delivering humanitarian assistance throughout Liberia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1041, 29 January 1996, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
This demand was reiterated in two further resolutions adopted the same year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1059, 31 May 1996, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.; Res. 1071, 30 August 1996, § 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council condemned “in the strongest terms all acts of violence perpetrated against … international humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1049, 5 March 1996, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 in the context of the conflict in Liberia, the UN Security Council condemned “all attacks against and intimidation of personnel of … the international organizations and agencies delivering humanitarian assistance”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1071, 30 August 1996, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 1083, 27 November 1996, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties to the conflict and others concerned in Angola take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and other international personnel and premises and to guarantee the safety … of humanitarian supplies throughout the country”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1075, 11 October 1996, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
This demand was reiterated in a subsequent resolution later the same year. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1087, 11 December 1996, § 16, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council demanded that the parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina respect the security and freedom of movement of SFOR and other international personnel. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1088, 12 December 1996, § 23, voting record: 18-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the implementation of the Lusaka Peace Accords in Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that the Government of Angola “ensure the safety of MONUA and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1127, 28 August 1997, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Angola, the UN Security Council called upon the Government of Angola and the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) “to guarantee unconditionally the safety [and] security … of all United Nations personnel and international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1173, 12 June 1998, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998, the UN Security Council condemned “the attacks on the United Nations personnel in the Taliban-held territories of Afghanistan, including the killing of the two Afghan staff-members of the World Food Programme and of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Jalalabad”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1193, 28 August 1998, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
The resolution further demanded that “all Afghan factions and, in particular the Taliban, do everything possible to assure the safety … of the United Nations and other international and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1193, 28 August 1998, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Angola, the UN Security Council demanded that the Government of Angola and in particular the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) “guarantee unconditionally the safety and freedom of movement of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General and all United Nations and international humanitarian personnel, including those providing humanitarian assistance”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1195, 15 September 1998, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation in Kosovo, the UN Security Council reminded the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that “it has the primary responsibility for … the safety and security of all international and non-governmental humanitarian personnel in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1199, 23 September 1998, § 10, voting record: 14-0-1.
This reminder was repeated in a subsequent resolution in 1999. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1203, 4 October 1998, § 8, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council underscored the importance of “the safety [and] security … of United Nations and associated personnel to the alleviation of the impact of armed conflict on children”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1261, 25 August 1999, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council emphasized “the need for combatants to ensure the safety [and] security … of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations”.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1265, 17 September 1999, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
The same resolution also condemned “attacks and the use of force against United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1265, 17 September 1999, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council, without reference to any particular conflict, called upon all parties concerned, including non-State parties, “to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1296, 19 April 2000, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on children in armed conflict, the UN Security Council underlined the importance of “the full, safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and goods and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all children affected by armed conflict”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1460, 30 January 2003, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003, the UN Security Council reiterated the need for the Governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea to “fulfil their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law, and to ensure the safety of all personnel of the United Nations, the Boundary Commission, the ICRC and other humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1466, 14 March 2003, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 following the invasion of Iraq by US and coalition forces, the UN Security Council:
Urges all parties concerned, consistent with the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by international humanitarian organizations to all people of Iraq in need of assistance and to make available all necessary facilities for their operations and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel and their assets, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations in Iraq in meeting such needs. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1472, 28 March 2003, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council strongly condemned “the deliberate killing of unarmed MONUC personnel and staff of humanitarian organizations in Ituri” and demanded that “the perpetrators be brought to justice”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1484, 30 May 2003, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council called on “all Liberian parties and Member States … to ensure the safe and unimpeded access of international humanitarian personnel to populations in need in Liberia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1497, 1 August 2003, § 11, voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the “Protection of United Nations personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones”, the UN Security Council:
Reiterating its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and, in this context, the need to promote and ensure respect for the principles and rules of international humanitarian law,
Reaffirming its resolutions 1296 (2000), of 19 April 2000, and 1265 (1999), of 17 September 1999, on protection of civilians in armed conflict, and resolution 1460 (2003), of 30 January 2003, on children and armed conflict, as well as other relevant resolutions, and recalling the statements of its President on protection of civilians in armed conflict and on protection of United Nations personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones,
Welcoming the adoption by the General Assembly of resolutions 57/28 entitled Scope of legal protection under the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel and 57/155 entitled Safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel,
Reaffirming the obligation of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel to observe and respect the laws of the country in which they are operating, in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations, and underlining the importance for humanitarian organizations to uphold the principles of neutrality, impartiality and humanity in their humanitarian activities,
Emphasizing that there are existing prohibitions under international law against attacks knowingly and intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission undertaken in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations which in situations of armed conflicts constitute war crimes, and recalling the need for States to end impunity for such criminal acts,
Aware that the protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel is a concern in situations of armed conflict and otherwise,
Gravely concerned at the acts of violence in many parts of the world against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel, in particular deliberate attacks, which are in violation of international humanitarian law, as well as other international law that may be applicable, such as the attack against the Headquarters of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) in Baghdad on 19 August 2003,
1. Expresses its strong condemnation of all forms of violence, including, inter alia, murder, rape and sexual assault, intimidation, armed robbery, abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which those participating in humanitarian operations are increasingly exposed, as well as attacks on humanitarian convoys and acts of destruction and looting of their property;
2. Urges States to ensure that crimes against such personnel do not remain unpunished;
3. Reaffirms also the obligation of all parties involved in an armed conflict to comply fully with the rules and principles of international law applicable to them related to the protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel, in particular international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law;
4. Urges all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets;
5. Expresses its determination to take appropriate steps in order to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel, including, inter alia, by:
(a) Requesting the Secretary-General to seek the inclusion of, and that host countries include, key provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, among others, those regarding the prevention of attacks against members of United Nations operations, the establishment of such attacks as crimes punishable by law and the prosecution or extradition of offenders, in future as well as, if necessary, in existing status-of-forces, status-of-missions and host country agreements negotiated between the United Nations and those countries, mindful of the importance of the timely conclusion of such agreements;
(b) Encouraging the Secretary-General, in accordance with his prerogatives under the Charter of the United Nations, to bring to the attention of the Security Council situations in which humanitarian assistance is denied as a consequence of violence directed against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel;
(c) Issuing the declaration of exceptional risk for the purposes of article 1 (c) (ii) of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, in situations where in its assessment circumstances would support such a declaration, and inviting the Secretary-General to advise the Council, where in his assessment circumstances would support such a declaration;
6. Requests the Secretary-General to address in all his country-specific situation reports, the issue of the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel, including specific acts of violence against such personnel, remedial actions taken to prevent similar incidents and actions taken to identify and hold accountable those who commit such acts, and to explore and propose additional ways and means to enhance the safety and security of such personnel. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1502, 26 August 2003, preamble and §§ 1–6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council, recalling Resolution 1502, emphasized “the need for all parties to safeguard the welfare and security of humanitarian workers and United Nations personnel in accordance with applicable rules and principles of international law”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1509, 19 September 2003, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on children in armed conflict, the UN Security Council underlined the importance of “the full, safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and goods and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all children affected by armed conflict”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1539, 22 April 2004, preamble. voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council:
11. Requests all parties to cooperate fully with the deployment and operations of ONUB, in particular by ensuring the safety and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as the personnel of humanitarian, development and aid organizations, throughout the territory of Burundi;
12. Recalling its resolution 1502 of 26 August 2003, reaffirms the obligation of all parties to comply fully with the rules and principles of international humanitarian law applicable to them related to the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and also urges all those concerned to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance as set forth in applicable international humanitarian law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1545, 21 May 2004, §§ 11–12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Demands all armed groups, including rebel forces, cease all violence, cooperate with international humanitarian relief and monitoring efforts and ensure that their members comply with international humanitarian law, and facilitate the safety and security of humanitarian staff. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1564, 18 September 2004, § 10, voting record: 11-0-4.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Recalling its resolution 1502 of 26 August 2003, reaffirms the obligation of all parties to comply fully with the rules and principles of international humanitarian law applicable to them related to the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and also urges all those concerned to allow immediate, full and unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance as set forth in applicable international humanitarian law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1565, 1 October 2004, § 21, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Recalling in this regard that all parties, including the Sudanese rebel groups such as the Justice and Equality Movement and the Sudanese Liberation Army, must respect human rights and international humanitarian law …
11. Demands that Government and rebel forces and all other armed groups … cooperate with international humanitarian relief and monitoring efforts, ensure that their members comply with international humanitarian law, facilitate the safety and security of humanitarian staff, and reinforce throughout their ranks their agreements to allow unhindered access and passage by humanitarian agencies and those in their employ, in accordance with its resolution 1502 (2003) of 26 August 2003 on the access of humanitarian workers to populations in need and with the Abuja Protocols of 9 November 2004. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1574, 19 November 2004, preamble and § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
28. Underlines that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel;
29. Strongly condemns in that respect the repeated abductions of personnel of those missions in the past, deeply deplores that none of the perpetrators have ever been identified or brought to justice, reiterates that it is the responsibility of the parties to end this impunity and calls upon them to take action. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1582, 28 January 2005, §§ 28–29, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Urges the Government of National Unity and Transition to do its utmost to ensure the security of civilians, including humanitarian personnel, by effectively extending State authority, throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in particular in North and South Kivu and in Ituri. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1592, 30 March 2005, § 3, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Urges the Government of National Unity and Transition to do its utmost to ensure the security of civilians, including humanitarian personnel, by effectively extending State authority throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in particular in the provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu and in the Ituri district. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1649, 21 December 2005, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council:
8. Strongly condemns the activities of militias and armed groups operating in the Great Lakes region such as the Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), the Palipehutu-Forces Nationales de Libération (FNL) and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) which continue to attack civilians and United Nations and humanitarian personnel and commit human rights abuses against local populations …
10. Underscores that the governments in the region have a primary responsibility to protect their populations, including from attacks by militias and armed groups and stresses the importance of ensuring the full, safe and unhindered access of humanitarian workers to people in need in accordance with international law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1653, 27 January 2006, §§ 8 and 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council:
Expressing concern at the increasing threat to … international assistance efforts by extremist activities and stressing the importance of the security and safety of the United Nations staff,
17. Calls upon all Afghan and international parties to continue to cooperate with UNAMA in the implementation of its mandate and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its staff throughout the country. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1662, 23 March 2006, preamble and § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Underlines that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel and calls on both sides to fulfil their obligations in this regard. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1666, 31 March 2006, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
21. Stresses the importance for all, within the framework of humanitarian assistance, of upholding and respecting the humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence;
22. Urges all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to civilians in need of assistance in situations of armed conflict, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets.
23. Condemns all attacks deliberately targeting United Nations and associated personnel involved in humanitarian missions, as well as other humanitarian personnel, urges States on whose territory such attacks occur to prosecute or extradite those responsible, and welcomes in this regard the adoption on 8 December 2005 by the General Assembly of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, §§ 21–23, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Expressing its deep concern for the security of humanitarian aid workers and their access to populations in need, including refugees, internally displaced persons and other war-affected populations, and calling upon all parties, in particular the Government of National Unity, to ensure, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law, the full, safe and unhindered access of relief personnel to all those in need in Darfur as well as the delivery of humanitarian assistance, in particular to internally displaced persons and refugees.
9. Decides further that the mandate of UNMIS in Darfur shall also include the following:
(a) To facilitate and coordinate in close cooperation with relevant United Nations agencies, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment … humanitarian assistance inter alia by helping to establish the necessary security conditions in Darfur. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1706, 31 August 2006, preamble and § 9(a), voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Underlines that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel and calls on both sides to fulfil their obligations in this regard. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1716, 13 October 2006, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the question concerning Haiti, the UN Security Council:
Deplores and condemns in the strongest terms any attack against personnel from MINUSTAH and demands that no acts of intimidation or violence be directed against United Nations and associated personnel and other international and humanitarian organizations engaged in humanitarian, development or peacekeeping work. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1743, 15 February 2007, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council demanded that all parties in Somalia “ensure complete and unhindered humanitarian access, as well as providing guarantees for the safety and security of humanitarian aid workers in Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1744, 21 February 2007, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
condemning continued violent attacks on civilians, including displaced persons, refugees, women, children, the elderly and humanitarian workers; and reiterating in the strongest terms the need for all parties to the conflict in Darfur, including non-parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement, to put an end to the violence and atrocities in Darfur and the region. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1755, 30 April 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
2. Decides that MONUC will have the mandate, within the limits of its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, to assist the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in establishing a stable security environment in the country, and, to that end, to:
(a) Ensure the protection of civilians, including humanitarian personnel, under imminent threat of physical violence;
13. Recalling its resolution 1502 of 26 August 2003, reaffirms the obligation of all parties to comply fully with the relevant rules and principles of international humanitarian law relating to the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and also demands that all parties concerned grant immediate, full and unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all persons in need of assistance, as provided for in applicable international law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1756, 15 May 2007, §§ 2(a) and 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Demands an immediate cessation of hostilities and attacks on AMIS [African Union Mission in Sudan], civilians and humanitarian agencies, their staff and assets and relief convoys, and further demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur fully co-operate with AMIS, civilians and humanitarian agencies, their staff and assets and relief convoys. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1769, 31 July 2007, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning Iraq, the UN Security Council:
Urging all those concerned as set forth in international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need of assistance, and to make available, as far as possible, all necessary facilities for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1770, 10 August 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council:
Strongly supports and encourages the ongoing relief efforts in Somalia, recalls its resolution 1502 (2003) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, calls on all parties and armed groups in Somalia to take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and security of AMISOM and humanitarian personnel, and grant timely, safe and unhindered access for the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all those in need, and urges the countries in the region to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance by land or via air and sea ports. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1772, 20 August 2007, § 20, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Chad, the Central African Republic and the subregion, the UN Security Council:
Deeply concerned at the activities of armed groups and other attacks in eastern Chad, the north-eastern Central African Republic and western Sudan which threaten the security of the civilian population, the conduct of humanitarian operations in those areas and the stability of those countries, and which result in serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law,
Reaffirming its resolutions 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, 1502 (2003) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and 1674 (2006) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict,
17. Reaffirms the obligation of all parties to implement fully the rules and principles of international humanitarian law, particularly those regarding the protection of humanitarian personnel, and furthermore requests all the parties involved to provide humanitarian personnel with immediate, free and unimpeded access to all persons in need of assistance, in accordance with applicable international law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1778, 25 September 2007, preamble and § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council reiterated “its deep concern about the security of civilians and humanitarian aid workers and about humanitarian access to populations in need” and called upon “all parties in Darfur to cease offensive actions immediately and to refrain from further violent attacks”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1779, 28 September 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Underlines that it is the primary responsibility of both sides to provide appropriate security and to ensure the freedom of movement throughout the zone of conflict of UNOMIG, the CIS peacekeeping force and other international personnel and calls on both sides to fulfil their obligations in this regard and to extend full cooperation to UNOMIG and the CIS peacekeeping force. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1781, 15 October 2007, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
condemning the acts of violence perpetrated by all sides; and calling for the rapid deployment of the United Nations Light and Heavy Support Packages for the African Union Mission in Sudan, the full deployment of UNAMID and the protection of humanitarian workers,
12. Calls upon the parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the communiqué, signed between the United Nations and the Government of National Unity in Khartoum on 28 March 2007 to support, protect, and facilitate all humanitarian operations in the Sudan. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1784, 31 October 2007, preamble and § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms the obligation of all parties to comply fully with the relevant rules and principles of international humanitarian law relating to the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and also demands that all parties concerned grant immediate, full and unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all persons in need of assistance, as provided for in applicable international law. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1794, 21 December 2007, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 1993, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed the view that “attacks and other acts of violence, whether actual or threatened, including obstruction or detention of persons, against United Nations … personnel are wholly unacceptable”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/25493, 31 March 1993, p. 1.
The statement also reiterated a demand that “States and other parties to various conflicts take all possible steps to ensure the safety and security of United Nations … personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/25493, 31 March 1993, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1993, in a statement by its President following accounts of “an attack to which an humanitarian convoy under the protection of UNPROFOR was subjected on 25 October 1993 in central Bosnia”, the UN Security Council called upon all parties to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia “to guarantee … the security of the personnel responsible” for humanitarian assistance. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/26661, 28 October 1993, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President concerning the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council condemned “recent attacks against the personnel of … UNHCR and other humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/1, 7 January 1994, p. 1.
It reiterated this condemnation in a further statement by its President a few months later. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/11, 14 March 1994, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President in connection with the situation in Haiti, the UN Security Council stated that it would “hold responsible any authorities or individuals in Haiti who endanger the personal security and safety of all personnel involved in such [humanitarian] assistance”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/2, 10 January 1994.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President concerning the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council demanded that “all parties ensure the safety and security of … United Nations personnel and those of non-governmental organizations”.  
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/11, 14 March 1994, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in Rwanda, the UN Security Council urged all parties and factions to respect the “safety and security of … United Nations personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/16, 7 April 1994, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council deplored “attacks and harassment directed against … international personnel serving in Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/46, 25 August 1994, p. 1.
The statement also underlined “the responsibility of the Somali parties for the security and safety” of international personnel, including the staff of non-governmental organizations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/46, 25 August 1994, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in Croatia, the UN Security Council reminded the parties, and in particular the Croatian Government, “that they have an obligation to respect United Nations personnel [and] to ensure their safety … at all times”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/38, 4 August 1995, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in two statements by its President, the UN Security Council underlined “the responsibility of all parties in Somalia for ensuring the safety and security of humanitarian and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/4, 24 January 1996; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/47, 20 December 1996.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed its grave concern at “attacks on personnel of international humanitarian organizations” in Burundi, stressed that “the authorities in Burundi are responsible for the security of personnel of international humanitarian organizations” and called upon the Government of Burundi “to provide adequate security to food convoys and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/1, 5 January 1996, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon the parties to the conflict in Tajikistan “to ensure the safety … of the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/14, 29 March 1996, p. 2.
The Security Council reiterated its call in another statement by its President two months later. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/25, 21 May 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council reminded all parties to the conflict in Liberia of their responsibility “to ensure the safety of United Nations and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/16, 9 April 1996, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council condemned “the incident on 3 April 1996 which resulted in the death of two UNAVEM III personnel, the wounding of a third, and the death of a humanitarian assistance official” and reiterated the importance it attached to “the safety and security of UNAVEM III and humanitarian assistance personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/19, 24 April 1996.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council demanded that all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan “fulfil their obligations and commitments regarding the safety of the United Nations personnel and other international personnel in Afghanistan”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/40, 28 September 1996, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council stressed that the international community’s ability to assist in the conflict in Georgia depended on “the full cooperation of the parties, especially the fulfilment of their obligations regarding the safety … of international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/43, 22 October 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called on all parties in the Great Lakes region “to ensure the security … of all international humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/44, 1 November 1996, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President with respect to the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council demanded that the parties ensure “the security … of all United Nations and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/5, 7 February 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon the parties “to ensure the safety … of the personnel of the United Nations … and other international personnel in Tajikistan” and strongly condemned “the attacks on and kidnapping of international personnel, in particular UNMOT, UNHCR and ICRC, and others”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/6, 7 February 1997.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon the Somali factions “to ensure the safety … of all humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/8, 27 February 1997.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council … expresses its grave concern at the recent increase in attacks and the use of force against United Nations and other personnel associated with United Nations operations, as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations, including murder, physical and psychological threats, hostage taking, shooting at vehicles and aircraft, mine-laying, looting of assets and other hostile acts ….
… It emphasizes the unacceptability of any acts endangering the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/13, 12 March 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council called upon the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo/Zaire (ADFL) in the strongest terms “to guarantee the safety of humanitarian relief workers … in the areas which the ADFL control”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/22, 24 April 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President following the military coup d’état in Sierra Leone, the UN Security Council recalled the obligations of all concerned “to ensure the protection of United Nations and other international personnel in the country” and strongly condemned “the violence which has been inflicted on both local and expatriate communities, in particular United Nations and other international personnel serving in the country”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/29, 27 May 1997.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President in the context of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council called for “safety for humanitarian relief workers”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/31, 29 May 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President following a debate on the protection of humanitarian assistance to refugees and others in conflict situations, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council also expresses its grave concern at all attacks or use of force against United Nations and other personnel associated with United Nations operations, as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations, in violation of the relevant rules of international law, including those of international humanitarian law … [I]t calls upon all parties concerned to ensure the safety and security of [UN and associated] personnel as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations and encourages all States to consider ways and means to strengthen the protection of such personnel.  
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/34, 19 June 1997, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President in the context of the conflict in Angola, the UN Security Council condemned “the mistreatment of the personnel of the United Nations and international humanitarian organizations in areas under UNITA [União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola] control and called upon UNITA in particular “to ensure … the safety … of international humanitarian organizations”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/39, 23 July 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President concerning the conflict in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council expressed its deep concern about “the deteriorating security conditions for United Nations and humanitarian personnel” and called upon all Afghan factions, in particular the Taliban, “to take necessary steps to assure their safety”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/9, 6 April 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed concern “for the safety of all humanitarian personnel working in Sierra Leone” and called on all parties concerned “to facilitate the work of humanitarian agencies”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/13, 20 May 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council strongly condemned “the armed attack in Angola on 19 May 1998 against personnel from the United Nations and the Angolan National Police, in which one person was killed and three people were seriously injured” and demanded that the Government of Angola and in particular the União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) “guarantee unconditionally the safety … of all United Nations and other international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/14, 22 May 1998. p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President in the context of the conflict in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council stated that it was “concerned at recent reports of harassment of humanitarian organizations and at the unilateral decision by the Taliban to relocate humanitarian organizations’ offices in Kabul”. It called upon all factions “to facilitate the work of humanitarian agencies to the greatest extent possible”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/22, 14 July 1998, pp. 2–3.
The statement further urged all Afghan factions “to cooperate fully with the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan and international humanitarian organizations” and called upon them, in particular the Taliban, “to take all necessary steps to ensure the safety … of such personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/22, 14 July 1998, p. 2.
This demand was reiterated later in the year. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/24, 6 August 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council condemned “the killing of the two Afghan staff members of the World Food Programme and of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Jalalabad”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/24, 6 August 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council urged all parties to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo “to guarantee the safety and security of United Nations and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/26, 31 August 1998, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council recalled its “condemnation of the murders of members of the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan and the personnel of humanitarian agencies in areas controlled by the Taliban” and demanded that the Taliban “ensure the safety and security of all international personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/27, 15 September 1998, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council condemned “all attacks or use of force against United Nations and other personnel associated with United Nations operations as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations, in violation of international law, including international humanitarian law”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/30, 29 September 1998.
UN Security Council
In 1999, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed its special concern about “attacks on humanitarian workers, in violation of the rules of international law”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1999/6, 12 February 1999, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2000, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed its grave concern at “continued attacks against United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel, which are in violation of international law including international humanitarian law” and strongly condemned “the acts of murder and various forms of physical and psychological violence, including abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which such personnel have been subjected”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2000/4, 11 February 2000, pp. 1 and 2.
UN Security Council
In 2000, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council reiterated its call for combatants “to ensure the safety [and] security … of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2000/7, 13 March 2000, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2001, in a statement by its President in connection with the deaths of six ICRC staff members in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council expressed “profound sympathy to the Governments and peoples of Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Switzerland” and strongly condemned “the wanton killing of those humanitarian workers”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PV.4315, 27 April 2001, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council stated:
… The Council urges the Somalia leaders to live up to their commitments under the “Eldoret Declaration”, to facilitate the delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance, to assure the safety of all international and national aid workers, to provide immediate safe access for all humanitarian personnel, and to support the return and reintegration of refugees. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/2, 12 March 2003, pp. 2–3.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council expresses its concern at the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Bunia and demands that all parties grant full and unimpeded access for humanitarian aid and guaranty the safety and security of humanitarian personnel. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/6, 16 May 2003, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in Afghanistan, the UN Security Council expressed “its concern over the increased number of attacks against international and local humanitarian personnel”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/7, 18 June 2003, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
… The Security Council strongly condemns all attacks and acts of violence directed against civilians or other protected persons under international law, in particular international humanitarian law in situations of armed conflict … [and] reaffirms the need for parties to armed conflict to take all possible measures to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations in accordance with applicable international law. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/27, 15 December 2003, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council expresses serious concern regarding the humanitarian situation in Somalia, and calls on the Somalia leaders to facilitate the delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance and to assure the safety of all international and national aid workers. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/3, 25 February 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the question concerning Haiti, the UN Security Council stated:
The Council calls upon all sides in Haiti’s conflict to facilitate the distribution of food and medicine and ensure the protection of civilians. It calls upon all sides to respect international humanitarian personnel and facilities and to ensure that humanitarian assistance reaches those who need it. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/4, 26 February 2004, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council is deeply concerned by slogans and declarations of hate, in particular those addressed against the personnel of the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI), and urges all the Ivorian actors to refrain from any action or statement, especially in the media, which put at risk the security of United Nations personnel and, more globally, the process of national reconciliation. The Security Council recalls the obligation of all Ivorian actors, in particular the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, to cooperate fully in the deployment and operations of UNOCI, which is there at the request of the Government, in particular by guaranteeing the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations personnel. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/17, 25 May 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the UN Security Council stated:
… The Council calls on all parties, in accordance with the provisions of resolution 1502 (2003), to allow full unimpeded access by humanitarian personnel to all people in need for their operations, and to promote the safety, security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel and their assets. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/18, 25 May 2004, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council:
The Security Council reiterates serious concern regarding the humanitarian situation in Somalia, and calls on Somali leaders to facilitate the delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance and to assure the safety of all international and national aid workers. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/24, 14 July 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council underlines the importance of safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and assistance to civilians in armed conflict in accordance with international law. The Security Council reiterates its call to all parties to armed conflict, including non-State parties, to take all necessary measures to ensure security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel as well as personnel of humanitarian organizations. The Security Council condemns all attacks targeting United Nations personnel and other humanitarian workers, and underlines that the perpetrators of such attacks must be held accountable as outlined in its resolution 1502 (2003) of 26 August 2003. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/46, 14 December 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2005, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council strongly urges the TFIs [Transitional Federal Institutions] to ensure humanitarian access and provide guarantees for the safety and security of aid workers. The Council condemns in the strongest terms the killing of a United Nations national security officer on 3 October in Kismayo. The Council calls for those responsible to be held accountable. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/54, 9 November 2005, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President on the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council urged “all Somali leaders to ensure complete and unhindered humanitarian access, as well as provide guarantees for the safety and security of the humanitarian aid workers in Somalia”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/11, 15 March 2006, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2007, in a statement by its President regarding the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council demands that all parties in Somalia comply fully with international humanitarian law, protect the civilian population, and guarantee complete, unhindered and secure access for humanitarian assistance. It demands that the relevant authorities do all they can in this regard, in particular to facilitate the free movement of aid and humanitarian workers throughout Somalia and when entering or leaving Somalia. The Council also urges the wider region to help facilitate the cross-border provision of aid to Somalia, across land borders or via air- and sea-ports. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2007/13, 30 April 2007, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2007, in a statement by its President on the reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council recalls the demand in resolution 1769 (2007) on all parties for an immediate cessation of hostilities and attacks on AMIS, civilians and humanitarian agencies. The Council insists that all parties in the Sudan comply with this demand. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2007/35, 2 October 2007, p. 1.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the UN General Assembly demanded that “all parties to the conflict ensure complete safety and freedom of movement for the International Committee of the Red Cross and otherwise facilitate such access”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 46/242, 25 August 1992, § 9, voting record: 136-1-5-37.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN General Assembly:
Condemns also the attacks on and continuous harassment of the United Nations Protection Force and on personnel working with the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations, most of which are perpetrated by Bosnian Serb forces. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/196, 23 December 1994, § 15, voting record: 150-0-14-21.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN General Assembly emphasized that it was “the duty of all parties to the conflict in Sudan to protect relief workers” and stated that it was “disturbed by the continuing failure of the Sudan to provide a full impartial investigation of the killings of Sudanese nationals employed by foreign relief organizations and foreign Governments”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/198, 23 December 1994, preamble, voting record: 101-13-49-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN General Assembly condemned “in the strongest terms the killing of personnel attached to humanitarian organizations operating in Rwanda”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/206, 23 December 1994, § 3, adopted without a vote.
The condemnation was reiterated in 1995. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/200, 22 December 1995, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN General Assembly strongly urged all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan “to take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of all personnel of humanitarian organizations”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/189, 22 December 1995, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN General Assembly condemned “all attacks on personnel working with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations by parties to the conflict”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/193, 22 December 1995, § 14, voting record: 144-1-20-20.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution on the Sudan adopted in 1995, the General Assembly reiterated its call upon the Government of the Sudan “to ensure a full, thorough and prompt investigation by an independent judicial inquiry commission of the killings of Sudanese nationals employed by foreign relief organizations”.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/197, 22 December 1995, § 9, voting record: 94-15-54-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation in Rwanda, the UN General Assembly:
Acknowledging the responsibility of the Government of Rwanda for the safety and security of all personnel attached to the United Nations Mission for Rwanda, United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations and other international staff operating in the country,
5. Calls upon the Government of Rwanda to take all necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of all personnel attached to the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations and other international staff operating in the country. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/200, 22 December 1995, preamble and § 5, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Liberia, the UN General Assembly deplored “all attacks against and intimidation of personnel of the United Nations, its specialized agencies [and] non-governmental organizations”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/30 B, 5 December 1996, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN General Assembly called upon “all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to respect fully the safety and security of personnel of the United Nations and its specialized agencies and of non-governmental organizations”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/30 G, 13 December 1996, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly strongly urged “all parties to the conflict to take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of all personnel of humanitarian organizations … in Afghanistan”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/108, 12 December 1996, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN General Assembly expressed concern about “continuing deliberate and indiscriminate aerial bombardments by the Government of the Sudan of civilian targets in southern Sudan, in clear violation of international humanitarian law, which … resulted in casualties to civilians, including relief workers”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/112, 12 December 1996, preamble, voting record: 100-16-50-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN and Associated Personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Gravely concerned by the continuing attacks and acts of violence against United Nations and associated personnel that have caused death or serious injury,
Conscious of the need effectively to promote and protect the safety and security of the personnel who act on behalf of the United Nations, attacks against whom are unjustifiable and unacceptable,
Noting, however, that only a small number of States have become parties to the Convention [on the Safety of UN and Associated Personnel]. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 51/137, 13 December 1996, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly demanded that “all Afghan parties fulfil their obligations and commitments regarding the safety of all personnel of … the United Nations and other international organizations”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 52/145, 12 December 1997, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Deploring the rising toll of casualties among humanitarian personnel in complex emergencies, in particular armed conflicts and post-conflict situations, as well as the physical violence and harassment to which those participating in humanitarian operations are too frequently exposed,
2. Strongly condemns any act or failure to act which obstructs or prevents humanitarian personnel from discharging their humanitarian functions, or which entails their being subjected to threats, the use of force or physical attack frequently resulting in injury or death;
4. Calls upon all Governments and parties in countries where humanitarian personnel are operating to take all possible measures to ensure that the lives and well-being of humanitarian personnel are respected and protected;
6. Urges all States to ensure that any threat or act of violence committed against humanitarian personnel on their territory is fully investigated and to take all appropriate measures, in accordance with international law and national legislation, to ensure that the perpetrators of such acts are prosecuted. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 52/167, 16 December 1997, preamble and §§ 2, 4 and 6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998, the UN General Assembly strongly condemned “the acts of physical violence and harassment to which those participating in humanitarian operations are too frequently exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/87, 7 December 1998, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly:
11. Deeply deplores the killing of humanitarian aid workers …
24. Calls upon the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and all others concerned to … ensure the safety and security of humanitarian … personnel. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 9 December 1998, §§ 11 and 24, voting record: 122-3-34-26.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of UN personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Strongly deploring the rising toll of casualties among national and international humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, and strongly condemning the acts of murder and other forms of physical violence, abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which those participating in humanitarian operations are increasingly exposed, …
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter of the United Nations or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all other parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with their obligations under the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols thereto, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel,
1. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international humanitarian law, as well as relevant provisions of human rights law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
2. Also urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel.
4. Strongly condemns any act or failure to act … which entails [humanitarian and UN personnel] being subjected to threats, the use of force or physical attack frequently resulting in injury or death, and affirms the need to hold accountable those who commit such acts;
6. Urges all States to ensure that any threat or act of violence committed against humanitarian personnel on their territory is fully investigated and to take appropriate measures, in accordance with international law and national legislation, to ensure that the perpetrators of such acts are prosecuted;
7. Also urges all States to provide adequate and prompt information in the event of arrest or detention of humanitarian personnel or United Nations personnel … [and] to take the necessary measures to ensure the speedy release of United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation who have been arrested or detained in violation of their immunity, in accordance with the relevant conventions referred to in the present resolution and applicable international humanitarian law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/192, 17 December 1999, preamble and §§ 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN General Assembly:
Condemning the murder of four Sudanese relief workers in April 1999 while in the custody of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M),
2. Expresses its deep concern:
(a) At … the continuing serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by all parties, in particular:
(vi) The conditions imposed by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement on humanitarian organizations working in southern Sudan, which have seriously affected their safety and led to the withdrawal of many of them …
(vii) The difficulties encountered by United Nations and humanitarian staff in carrying out their mandate because of harassment, indiscriminate aerial bombings and the reopening of hostilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 55/116, 4 December 2000, preamble and § 2(a)(vi) and (vii), voting record: 85-32-49-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming the importance of the safety and security of the humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel in Afghanistan, and alarmed by the increase in attacks on humanitarian personnel, including Afghan nationals, in parts of the country,
Noting with concern that the increase in such attacks has limited access to certain areas of Afghanistan and led to inadequate conditions for the delivery of aid for internally displaced persons and vulnerable sectors of the civilian population,
Recognizing that a secure environment is indispensable for the safe and effective delivery and distribution of humanitarian assistance …;
8. Strongly condemns the recent deliberate attacks and all other acts of violence and intimidation directed against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, and regrets the loss of life and physical harm suffered among such staff;
9. Urges the Transitional Administration and local authorities to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations and humanitarian personnel, as well as their safe and unimpeded access to all affected populations, and to protect the property of the United Nations and of humanitarian organizations, including non-governmental organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, preamble and §§ 8–9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Gravely concerned about the acts of violence against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel, in particular deliberate attacks, which are in violation of international humanitarian law or other international law that may be applicable,
7. Strongly condemns all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel are increasingly subjected, as well as any act or failure to act, contrary to international law, which obstructs or prevents humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel from discharging their humanitarian functions;
8. Urges all States to take necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel;
9. Reaffirms the leading role of civilian organizations in implementing humanitarian assistance, particularly in areas affected by conflicts, affirms the need, in situations where military capacity and assets are used to support the implementation of humanitarian assistance, for their use to be in conformity with international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles, and in this regard takes note of the 2003 “Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defence Assets to Support United Nations Humanitarian Activities in Complex Emergencies”, as well as of the 1994 “Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief”;
10. Calls upon all Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel as well as supplies and equipment in order to allow them to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/114, 17 December 2003, preamble and §§ 7–10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Security Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia.
9. Calls upon all Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/115, 17 December 2003, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and the protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Strongly condemning … attacks on humanitarian convoys …
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which entered into force on 1 July 2002, and noting the role that the Court could play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
Expressing concern that the occurrence of attacks and threats against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel is a factor that increasingly restricts the ability of the Organization to provide assistance and protection to civilians in fulfilment of its mandate under the Charter,
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all other parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with international humanitarian law, in particular their obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the obligations applicable to them under the Additional Protocols thereto, of 8 June 1977, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel,
2. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international law, including international humanitarian law, as well as the relevant provisions of human rights and refugee law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
3. Also urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and to respect and ensure respect for the inviolability of United Nations premises, which are essential to the continuation and successful implementation of United Nations operations
15. Recommends that the Secretary-General continue to seek the inclusion of, and that host countries include, key provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, among others, those regarding the prevention of attacks against members of the operation, the establishment of such attacks as crimes punishable by law and the prosecution or extradition of offenders, in future as well as, if necessary, in existing status-of-forces, status-of-mission and host country agreements negotiated between the United Nations and those countries, mindful of the importance of the timely conclusion of such agreements. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/122, 17 December 2003, preamble and §§ 2, 3 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on special assistance for the economic recovery and reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all parties to fully respect international humanitarian law and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all affected populations throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the safety of United Nations and humanitarian personnel. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/123, 17 December 2003, § 13, voting record: 169-1-0-21.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the deaths, injuries and other forms of violence sustained by staff members of the Office of the High Commissioner, urges States, parties to conflict and all other relevant actors to take all necessary measures to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance, prevent attacks on and kidnapping of national and international humanitarian workers and ensure their safety and security, calls upon States to investigate fully any crime committed against humanitarian personnel and to bring to justice persons responsible for such crimes, and calls upon organizations and aid workers to abide by the national laws and regulations of the countries in which they operate. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, § 18, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly underscored “its strong condemnation of all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel are increasingly exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/151, 22 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the scope of the legal protection under the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Deeply concerned by the increasing dangers and security risks faced by United Nations and associated personnel at the field level, and mindful of the need to provide the fullest possible protection for their security,
2. Urges States to take all necessary measures, in accordance with their international obligations, to prevent crimes against United Nations and associated personnel from occurring. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/47, 2 December 2004, preamble and § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
2. Urges the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to take all possible steps to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations and humanitarian personnel, as well as their safe and unimpeded access to all affected populations, and to protect the property of the United Nations and of humanitarian organizations, including non-governmental organizations, and calls upon the international community to continue to support the efforts of the Government of Afghanistan in the area of security in a coordinated manner.
3. Strongly condemns all acts of violence and intimidation directed against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, regrets the loss of life and physical harm, and urges the Government of Afghanistan to make every effort to identify and to bring to justice the perpetrators of attacks.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/112 B, 8 December 2004, §§ 2–3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Strongly condemns all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel are increasingly subjected, as well as any act or failure to act, contrary to international law that obstructs or prevents humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel from discharging their humanitarian functions. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/141, 15 December 2004, § 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 entitled “Strengthening international cooperation and technical assistance in promoting the implementation of the universal conventions and protocols related to terrorism within the framework of the activities of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime”, the UN General Assembly:
Condemns the acts of violence perpetrated in many parts of the world against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, in particular deliberate attacks, which are in violation of international humanitarian law as well as other international law that may be applicable, such as the attack against the headquarters of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq in Baghdad on 19 August 2003. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/153, 20 December 2004, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly underscored “its strong condemnation of all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel are increasingly exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/170, 20 December 2004, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the deaths, injuries and other forms of violence sustained by staff members of the Office of the High Commissioner and other humanitarian organizations, urges States, parties to conflict and all other relevant actors to take all necessary measures to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance, prevent attacks on and kidnapping of national and international humanitarian workers and ensure their safety and security, calls upon States to investigate fully any crime committed against humanitarian personnel and bring to justice the persons responsible for such crimes, and calls upon organizations and aid workers to abide by the national laws and regulations of the countries in which they operate. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/172, 20 December 2004, § 14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter of the United Nations or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with international humanitarian law, in particular their obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the obligations applicable to them under the Additional Protocols thereto, of 8 June 1977, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel,
Welcoming the fact that the number of States parties to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which entered into force on 15 January 1999, has continued to rise, the number now having reached seventy-seven, and mindful of the need to promote universality of the Convention,
Strongly condemning … attacks on humanitarian convoys …
Expressing concern that the occurrence of attacks and threats against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel is a factor that increasingly restricts the ability of the Organization to provide assistance and protection to civilians in fulfilment of its mandate under the Charter,
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and noting the role that the Court could play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
2. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
3. Strongly urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and its associated personnel and to respect and ensure respect for the inviolability of United Nations premises.
15. Recommends that the Secretary-General continue to seek the inclusion of, and that host countries include, key provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, among others, those regarding the prevention of attacks against members of the operation, the establishment of such attacks as crimes punishable by law and the prosecution or extradition of offenders, in future as well as, if necessary, in existing status-of-forces, status-of-mission and host country agreements negotiated between the United Nations and those countries, mindful of the importance of the timely conclusion of such agreements. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/211, 20 December 2004, preamble and §§ 2-3 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling the statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia,
9. Calls upon all Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/218, 22 December 2004, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
2. Urges the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to take all possible steps to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations, development and humanitarian personnel, as well as their safe and unhindered access to all affected populations, and to protect the property of the United Nations and of development or humanitarian organizations, including nongovernmental organizations.
3. Strongly condemns all acts of violence and intimidation directed against development and humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, regrets the loss of life and physical harm, and urges the Government of Afghanistan to make every effort to identify and to bring to justice the perpetrators of attacks. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/32B, 30 November 2005, §§ 2–3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling Articles 100, 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations,
Recalling also the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel,
Gravely concerned about the endangerment of the safety of the Agency’s staff and about the damage caused to the facilities of the Agency as a result of Israeli military operations during the reporting period,
Deploring the killing of twelve Agency staff members by the Israeli occupying forces in the Occupied Palestinian Territory since September 2000,
8. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949;
9. Also calls upon Israel to abide by Articles 100, 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations in order to ensure the safety of the personnel of the Agency, the protection of its institutions and the safeguarding of the security of its facilities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/102, 8 December 2005, preamble and §§ 8–9, voting record: 159-6-3-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter of the United Nations or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with international humanitarian law, in particular their obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the obligations applicable to them under the Additional Protocols thereto, of 8 June 1977, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel,
Welcoming the fact that the number of States parties to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which entered into force on 15 January 1999, has continued to rise, the number now having reached seventy-nine, and mindful of the need to promote universality of the Convention,
Strongly condemning … attacks on humanitarian convoys …
Expressing concern that the occurrence of attacks and threats against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel is a factor that increasingly restricts the provision of assistance and protection to populations in need,
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and noting the role that the Court could play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
2. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
3. Strongly urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel and to respect and ensure respect for the inviolability of United Nations premises, which are essential to the continuation and successful implementation of United Nations operations.
15. Recommends that the Secretary-General continue to seek the inclusion of, and that host countries include, key provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, among others, those regarding the prevention of attacks against members of the operation, the establishment of such attacks as crimes punishable by law and the prosecution or extradition of offenders, in future as well as, if necessary, in existing status-of-forces, status-of-mission, host country agreements and other related agreements negotiated between the United Nations and those countries, mindful of the importance of the timely conclusion of such agreements, and encourages further efforts in this regard  
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/123, 15 December 2005, preamble and §§ 2–3 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the continuing violence and insecurity which constitute an ongoing threat to the safety and security of staff members of the Office of the High Commissioner and other humanitarian organizations and an obstacle to the effective fulfilment of the mandate of the Office and the ability of its implementing partners and other humanitarian personnel to discharge their respective humanitarian functions, urges States, parties to conflict and all other relevant actors to take all necessary measures to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance, prevent attacks on and kidnapping of national and international humanitarian workers and ensure the safety and security of the personnel and property of the Office and that of all humanitarian organizations discharging functions mandated by the Office, and calls upon States to investigate fully any crime committed against humanitarian personnel and bring to justice the persons responsible for such crimes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/128, 16 December 2005, § 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly underscored “its strong condemnation of all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel are increasingly exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/129, 16 December 2005, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly urged all parties:
To respect international humanitarian law, in particular on the protection of civilians, and to ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians and United Nations and associated personnel, and the unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to all of the affected population throughout the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1265 (1999) of 17 September 1999 and 1296 (2000) of 19 April 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/170, 16 December 2005, § 5(e), voting record: 102-3-67-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of Somalia, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling the statements by the President of the Security Council of 31 October 2001 and 28 March 2002, by which the Council condemned attacks on humanitarian personnel and called upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully the security and safety of personnel of the United Nations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and access throughout Somalia,
3. Urges … the Somali leaders to make every effort to create conditions to help to increase the effectiveness of humanitarian assistance by, inter alia, improving the security situation on the ground;
10. Urges the Somali parties to respect the security and safety of the personnel of the United Nations, the specialized agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and non-governmental organizations, as well as all other humanitarian personnel, and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement and safe access throughout Somalia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/219, 22 December 2005, preamble and §§ 3 and 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing in this context its deep concern over attacks against both Afghan and foreign nationals committed to supporting the consolidation of peace, stability and development in Afghanistan, in particular United Nations and diplomatic staff, national and international humanitarian and development personnel, …
2. Strongly condemns the upsurge of violence throughout Afghanistan, in particular in the southern and eastern parts … which has resulted in increased casualties among Afghan civilians … as well as among the personnel of Afghan and international aid agencies and all other humanitarian workers;
7. Strongly condemns all acts of violence and intimidation, in particular that directed against development and humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel as well as against Afghan civilians, including women activists, regrets the loss of life and physical harm and urges the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to make every effort, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 60/123 of 15 December 2005, to bring to justice the perpetrators of attacks, to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations, development and humanitarian personnel and to protect the property of the United Nations and of development or humanitarian organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/18, 28 November 2006, preamble and §§ 2 and 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling Articles 100, 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations,
Recalling also the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel,
Gravely concerned about the endangerment of the safety of the Agency’s staff and about the damage caused to the facilities of the Agency as a result of Israeli military operations during the reporting period,
Deploring the killing of fourteen Agency staff members by the Israeli occupying forces in the Occupied Palestinian Territory since September 2000 and of one Agency staff member by the Israeli air force in Lebanon in August 2006,
10. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949;
11. Also calls upon Israel to abide by Articles 100, 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations in order to ensure the safety of the personnel of the Agency, the protection of its institutions and the safeguarding of the security of its facilities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/114, 14 December 2006, preamble and §§ 10–11, voting record: 169-6-8-9.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter of the United Nations or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with international humanitarian law, in particular their obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the obligations applicable to them under the Additional Protocols thereto, of 8 June 1977, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel,
Welcoming the fact that the number of States parties to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which entered into force on 15 January 1999, has continued to rise, the number now having reached eighty-one, and mindful of the need to promote universality of the Convention,
Deeply concerned by the dangers and security risks faced by humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel at the field level, as they operate in increasingly complex contexts, as well as the continuous erosion, in many cases, of respect for the principles and rules of international law, in particular international humanitarian law,
Expressing profound regret at the deaths of and violent acts against international and national humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance, and strongly deploring the rising toll of casualties among such personnel in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations,
Strongly condemning acts of murder and other forms of violence, rape and sexual assault and all forms of violence committed in particular against women and children, and intimidation, armed robbery, abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which those participating in humanitarian operations are increasingly exposed, as well as attacks on humanitarian convoys and acts of destruction and looting of property,
Expressing deep concern that the occurrence of attacks and threats against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel is a factor that increasingly restricts the provision of assistance and protection to populations in need,
Affirming the need for States to ensure that perpetrators of attacks committed on their territory against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel do not operate with impunity, and that the perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice as provided for by national law and obligations under international law,
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and noting the role that the Court could play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
2. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
3. Strongly urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel and to respect and ensure respect for the inviolability of United Nations premises, which are essential to the continuation and successful implementation of United Nations operations;
4. Calls upon all Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and delivery of supplies and equipment in order to allow those personnel to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons;
5. Calls upon all States to consider becoming parties to and to respect fully their obligations under the relevant international instruments;
6. Also calls upon all States to consider becoming parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;
7. Takes note with appreciation of the adoption of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which expands the scope of legal protection under the Convention, and calls upon all States to consider signing and ratifying the Optional Protocol as soon as possible so as to ensure its rapid entry into force, and urges States parties to put in place appropriate national legislation, as necessary, to enable its effective implementation;
8. Expresses deep concern that, over the past decade, threats and attacks against the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel have escalated dramatically and that perpetrators of acts of violence seemingly operate with impunity;
9. Strongly condemns all threats and acts of violence against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, reaffirms the need to hold accountable those responsible for such acts, strongly urges all States to take stronger action to ensure that any such acts committed on their territory are investigated fully and to ensure that the perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice in accordance with international law and national law, and urges States to end impunity for such acts;
10. Calls upon all States to provide adequate and prompt information in the event of the arrest or detention of humanitarian personnel or United Nations and associated personnel, so as to afford them the necessary medical assistance and to allow independent medical teams to visit and examine the health of those detained, and urges them to take the necessary measures to ensure the speedy release of those who have been arrested or detained in violation of the relevant conventions referred to in the present resolution and applicable international humanitarian law;
11. Calls upon all other parties involved in armed conflicts to refrain from abducting humanitarian personnel or United Nations and associated personnel or detaining them in violation of the relevant conventions referred to in the present resolution and applicable international humanitarian law, and speedily to release, without harm or requirement of concession, any abductee or detainee;
14. Reaffirms the obligation of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel to observe and respect the national laws of the country in which they are operating, in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations;
15. Stresses the importance of ensuring that humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel remain sensitive to national and local customs and traditions in their countries of assignment and communicate clearly their purpose and objectives to local populations;
18. Also emphasizes the need to pay particular attention to the safety and security of locally recruited humanitarian personnel, who are particularly vulnerable to attacks and who account for the majority of casualties, and calls upon humanitarian organizations to ensure that their staff are adequately informed about and trained in their respective organization’s relevant security measures, plans and initiatives, which should be in line with applicable national law and international law;
19. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take the necessary measures to ensure that United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation are properly informed about and operate in conformity with the minimum operating security standards and relevant codes of conduct and are properly informed about the conditions under which they are called upon to operate and the standards that they are required to meet, including those contained in relevant national and international law, and that adequate training in security, human rights law and international humanitarian law is provided so as to enhance their security and effectiveness in accomplishing their functions, and reaffirms the necessity for all other humanitarian organizations to provide their personnel with similar support;
20. Welcomes the ongoing efforts of the Secretary-General and stresses the need to ensure that all United Nations staff members receive adequate security training, including training to enhance cultural awareness, prior to their deployment to the field. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/133, 14 December 2006, preamble and §§ 2–11, 14–15 and 18–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming the principles of neutrality, humanity, impartiality and independence for the provision of humanitarian assistance,
5. Emphasizes the fundamentally civilian character of humanitarian assistance, reaffirms the leading role of civilian organizations in implementing humanitarian assistance, particularly in areas affected by conflicts, and affirms the need, in situations where military capacity and assets are used to support the implementation of humanitarian assistance, for their use to be in conformity with international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles;
20. Calls upon all States and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel as well as delivery of supplies and equipment in order to allow them to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/134, 14 December 2006, preamble and §§ 5 and 20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly underlined “its strong condemnation of all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel are increasingly exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the continuing violence and insecurity which constitute an ongoing threat to the safety and security of staff members of the Office of the High Commissioner and other humanitarian organizations and an obstacle to the effective fulfilment of the mandate of the Office and the ability of its implementing partners and other humanitarian personnel to discharge their respective humanitarian functions, urges States, parties to conflict and all other relevant actors to take all necessary measures to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance, prevent attacks on and kidnapping of national and international humanitarian workers and ensure the safety and security of the personnel and property of the Office and that of all humanitarian organizations discharging functions mandated by the Office, and calls upon States to investigate fully any crime committed against humanitarian personnel and bring to justice the persons responsible for such crimes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, § 16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Condemning, in this context, attacks against both Afghan and foreign nationals committed to supporting the consolidation of peace, stability and development in Afghanistan, in particular United Nations and diplomatic staff, national and international humanitarian and development personnel, …,
2. Strongly condemns the upsurge of violence throughout Afghanistan, including the rising trend of suicide attacks, in particular in the southern and eastern parts … which has resulted in increased casualties among Afghan civilians … as well as among the personnel of Afghan and international aid agencies and all other humanitarian workers;
7. Strongly condemns all [such] acts of violence and intimidation and urges the Government of Afghanistan and local authorities to make every effort, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 60/123 of 15 December 2005, to bring to justice the perpetrators of attacks, to ensure the safety, security and free movement of all United Nations, development and humanitarian personnel and to protect the property of the United Nations and of development or humanitarian organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, preamble and §§ 2 and 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming the principles of neutrality, humanity, impartiality and independence for the provision of humanitarian assistance,
6. Emphasizes the fundamentally civilian character of humanitarian assistance, reaffirms the leading role of civilian organizations in implementing humanitarian assistance, particularly in areas affected by conflicts, and affirms the need, in situations where military capacity and assets are used to support the implementation of humanitarian assistance, for their use to be in conformity with international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles;
24. Calls upon all States and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel as well as delivery of supplies and equipment in order to allow them to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/94, 17 December 2007, preamble and §§ 6 and 24, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Recalling that primary responsibility under international law for the security and protection of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel lies with the Government hosting a United Nations operation conducted under the Charter of the United Nations or its agreements with relevant organizations,
Urging all parties involved in armed conflicts, in compliance with international humanitarian law, in particular their obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the obligations applicable to them under the Additional Protocols thereto, of 8 June 1977, to ensure the security and protection of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel,
Welcoming the fact that the number of States parties to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which entered into force on 15 January 1999, has continued to rise, the number now having reached eighty-two, and mindful of the need to promote universality of the Convention,
Deeply concerned by the dangers and security risks faced by humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel at the field level, as they operate in increasingly complex contexts, as well as the continuous erosion, in many cases, of respect for the principles and rules of international law, in particular international humanitarian law,
Expressing profound regret at the deaths of and violent acts against international and national humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance, and strongly deploring the rising toll of casualties among such personnel in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations,
Strongly condemning acts of murder and other forms of violence, rape and sexual assault and all forms of violence committed in particular against women and children, and intimidation, armed robbery, abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which those participating in humanitarian operations are increasingly exposed, as well as attacks on humanitarian convoys and acts of destruction and looting of property,
Expressing deep concern that the occurrence of attacks and threats against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel is a factor that increasingly restricts the provision of assistance and protection to populations in need,
Affirming the need for States to ensure that perpetrators of attacks committed on their territory against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel do not operate with impunity, and that the perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice as provided for by national laws and obligations under international law,
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and noting the role that the Court can play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
Reaffirming the need to ensure adequate levels of safety and security for United Nations personnel and associated humanitarian personnel, which constitutes an underlying duty of the Organization, and mindful of the need to promote and enhance the security consciousness within the organizational culture of the United Nations and a culture of accountability at all levels,
Noting the importance of maintaining close collaboration between the United Nations and the host country on contingency planning, information exchange and risk assessment in the context of good mutual cooperation on issues relating to security of United Nations and associated personnel,
2. Urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the full and effective implementation of the relevant principles and rules of international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law related to the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel;
3. Strongly urges all States to take the necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel and to respect and ensure respect for the inviolability of United Nations premises, which are essential to the continuation and successful implementation of United Nations operations;
4. Calls upon all Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post -conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel and delivery of supplies and equipment, in order to allow those personnel to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons;
5. Calls upon all States to consider becoming parties to and to respect fully their obligations under the relevant international instruments;
6. Also calls upon all States to consider becoming parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;
7. Recalls with appreciation the adoption of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which expands the scope of legal protection under the Convention, and calls upon all States to consider signing and ratifying the Optional Protocol as soon as possible so as to ensure its rapid entry into force, and urges States parties to put in place appropriate national legislation, as necessary, to enable its effective implementation;
8. Expresses deep concern that, over the past decade, threats and attacks against the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel have escalated dramatically and that perpetrators of acts of violence seemingly operate with impunity;
9. Strongly condemns all threats and acts of violence against humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel, reaffirms the need to hold accountable those responsible for such acts, strongly urges all States to take stronger action to ensure that any such acts committed on their territory are investigated fully and to ensure that the perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice in accordance with national law and obligations under international law, and urges States to end impunity for such acts;
10. Calls upon all States to provide adequate and prompt information in the event of the arrest or detention of humanitarian personnel or United Nations and associated personnel, so as to afford them the necessary medical assistance and to allow independent medical teams to visit and examine the health of those detained, and urges them to take the necessary measures to ensure the speedy release of those who have been arrested or detained in violation of the relevant conventions referred to in the present resolution and applicable international humanitarian law;
11. Calls upon all other parties involved in armed conflicts to refrain from abducting humanitarian personnel or United Nations and associated personnel or detaining them in violation of the relevant conventions referred to in the present resolution and applicable international humanitarian law, and speedily to release, without harm or requirement of concession, any abductee or detainee;
14. Reaffirms the obligation of all humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel to respect and, where required, observe the national laws of the country in which they are operating, in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations;
15. Stresses the importance of ensuring that humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel remain sensitive to national and local customs and traditions in their countries of assignment and communicate clearly their purpose and objectives to local populations;
18. Also emphasizes the need to pay particular attention to the safety and security of locally recruited humanitarian personnel, who are particularly vulnerable to attacks and who account for the majority of casualties, requests the Secretary-General to keep under review the relevant internal United Nations policy, operational and administrative arrangements that can contribute to providing locally recruited personnel with adequate safety and security, and calls upon humanitarian organizations to ensure that their staff are adequately informed about and trained in their respective organization’s relevant security measures, plans and initiatives, which should be in line with applicable national law and international law;
19. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take the necessary measures to ensure that United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation are properly informed about and operate in conformity with the minimum operating security standards and relevant codes of conduct and are properly informed about the conditions under which they are called upon to operate and the standards that they are required to meet, including those contained in relevant national and international law, and that adequate training in security, human rights law and international humanitarian law is provided so as to enhance their security and effectiveness in accomplishing their functions, and reaffirms the necessity for all other humanitarian organizations to provide their personnel with similar support;
20. Welcomes the ongoing efforts of the Secretary-General and stresses the need to ensure that all United Nations staff members receive adequate security training, including training to enhance cultural awareness, prior to their deployment to the field … . 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/95, 17 December 2007, preamble and §§ 2–11, 14–15 and 18–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on operations of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the UN General Assembly:
Gravely concerned about the endangerment of the safety of the Agency’s staff and about the damage caused to the facilities of the Agency as a result of Israeli military operations during the reporting period,
Deploring the killing of fourteen Agency staff members by the Israeli occupying forces in the Occupied Palestinian Territory since September 2000 and of one Agency staff member by the Israeli air force in Lebanon in August 2006,
10. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949;
11. Also calls upon Israel to abide by Articles 100, 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations in order to ensure the safety of the personnel of the Agency, the protection of its institutions and the safeguarding of the security of its facilities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/104, 17 December 2007, preamble and §§ 10–11, voting record: 170-6-3-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly underlined “its strong condemnation of all forms of violence to which humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel are increasingly exposed”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the continuing violence and insecurity which constitute an ongoing threat to the safety and security of staff members of the Office of the High Commissioner and other humanitarian organizations and an obstacle to the effective fulfilment of the mandate of the Office and the ability of its implementing partners and other humanitarian personnel to discharge their respective humanitarian functions, urges States, parties to conflict and all other relevant actors to take all necessary measures to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance, prevent attacks on and kidnapping of national and international humanitarian workers and ensure the safety and security of the personnel and property of the Office and that of all humanitarian organizations discharging functions mandated by the Office, and calls upon States to investigate fully any crime committed against humanitarian personnel and bring to justice the persons responsible for such crimes.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, § 18, adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 entitled “Strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations”, ECOSOC:
Expressing grave concern about the tragic loss of lives of humanitarian staff while providing humanitarian assistance and the increased insecurity encountered by humanitarian staff as well as the acts of violence committed against them, in particular deliberate attacks, and mindful of the need to provide the fullest possible protection for their security,
Recalling the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which was adopted on 17 July 1998 and entered into force on 1 July 2002, and noting the role that the Court could play in appropriate cases in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law,
2. Calls upon all parties to armed conflicts to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law;
5. Urges all States to take necessary measures to ensure the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and United Nations and associated personnel;
6. Strongly condemns any act, or failure to act, contrary to international law, which obstructs or prevents humanitarian personnel and United Nations personnel from discharging their humanitarian functions;
7. Calls upon all Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, to cooperate fully with the United Nations and other humanitarian agencies and organizations and to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel, as well as supplies and equipment, in order to allow them to perform efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian population, including refugees and internally displaced persons;
8. Strongly urges States to ensure that those responsible for attacks against humanitarian staff are promptly brought to justice, as provided by national law and obligations under international law, and notes the need for States to end impunity for such acts;
21. Affirms the leading role of civilian organizations in implementing humanitarian assistance, particularly in areas affected by conflicts, and also affirms the need, in situations where military capacity and assets are used to support the implementation of humanitarian assistance, that their use be in conformity with international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2003/5, 15 July 2003, preamble and §§ 2, 5–8 and 21, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1991 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all parties concerned to undertake all necessary measures to ensure the safety of the personnel of humanitarian organizations involved in the implementation of United Nations humanitarian and economic assistance programmes relating to Afghanistan and the programmes of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1991/78, 6 March 1991, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all parties concerned to undertake all necessary measures to ensure the safety of the personnel of humanitarian organizations involved in the implementation of United Nations humanitarian and economic assistance programmes relating to Afghanistan and the programmes of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1992/68, 4 March 1992, § 22, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon all parties in Somalia to respect international humanitarian law and human rights and criminal justice standards and to protect civilians, United Nations personnel and humanitarian relief workers from injury and death, and reaffirms the applicability of those human rights standards for all parties in Somalia. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/60, 4 March 1994, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Strongly urges all the parties to the conflict to undertake all necessary measures to ensure the safety of the personnel of humanitarian organizations involved in the implementation of the United Nations humanitarian and economic assistance programmes relating to Afghanistan and the programmes of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in order to avoid further deplorable incidents such as those which have caused loss of life among that personnel. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/84, 9 March 1994, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the human rights situation in the former Yugoslavia, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned “the use of military force against relief operations”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/72, 9 March 1994, § 7(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon the Government of the Sudan to ensure a full, thorough and prompt investigation by the independent judicial inquiry commission of the killings of Sudanese employees of foreign relief organizations, to bring to justice those responsible for the killings and to provide just compensation to the families of the victims. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/79, 9 March 1994, § 11, voting record: 35-9-9.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Deploring continued attacks, acts of reprisal, abductions and other acts of violence committed against United Nations personnel, personnel of other humanitarian organizations and non-governmental organizations and representatives of the international media in Somalia, sometimes resulting in serious injury or death. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/56, 3 March 1995, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights strongly urged “all the parties to the conflict to undertake all necessary measures to ensure the safety of all the personnel of humanitarian organizations and representatives of the media in Afghanistan”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/74, 8 March 1995, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls once more upon the Government of the Sudan to ensure a full and thorough investigation by the independent judicial inquiry commission of the killings of Sudanese employees of foreign relief organizations, to bring to justice those responsible for the killings and to provide just compensation to the families of the victims. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/77, 8 March 1995, § 17, voting record: 33-7-10.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the human rights situation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Also condemns … attacks on and continued harassment of … personnel working with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations, which have caused injuries and the death of those who seek to protect civilians and to deliver humanitarian assistance, and demands that all parties ensure that all persons under their control cease all such attacks and acts of harassment. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/89, 8 March 1995, § 17, voting record: 44-0-7.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned “in the strongest terms the kidnapping and killing … of personnel attached to humanitarian organizations operating in the country … all of which constitute blatant violations of international humanitarian law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/91, 8 March 1995, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Strongly condemning the continued violence against the civilian population, including refugees, displaced persons and international humanitarian aid workers, the murders of government officials and attempts to undermine the legitimacy of the Government,
Emphasizing also that the Burundian authorities are responsible for ensuring the safety of humanitarian and other aid workers, refugees, displaced persons and the civilian population,
15. Appeals to the authorities of Burundi to strengthen measures to guarantee the security and protection of the staff of international, governmental and non-governmental organizations so as to facilitate their work. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/1, 27 March 1996, preamble and § 15, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Deeply concerned also about continued acts of indiscriminate and deliberate aerial bombardment by the Government of the Sudan of civilian targets in southern Sudan, including humanitarian relief operations, in clear violation of international humanitarian law, which have added to the suffering of the civilian population and resulted in casualties to civilians, including relief workers,
12. Calls upon the Government of the Sudan to cease immediately the deliberate and indiscriminate aerial bombardment of civilian targets and relief operations;
16. Calls once more upon the Government of the Sudan to ensure a full and thorough investigation by the independent judicial inquiry commission of the killing of Sudanese employees of foreign relief organizations, to bring to justice those responsible for the killings and to provide just compensation to the families of the victims. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/73, 23 April 1996, preamble and §§ 12 and 16, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
4. Also expresses its deep concern at actions by other parties to the conflict, including … arrest of foreign relief workers without charge;
15. Calls upon the Government of the Sudan to cease immediately the deliberate and indiscriminate aerial bombardment of civilian targets and relief operations;
17. Calls once more upon the Government of the Sudan to carry out a full and thorough investigation by the independent judicial inquiry commission of the killing of Sudanese employees of foreign relief organizations, to bring to justice those responsible for the killings and to provide just compensation to the families of the victims. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1997/59, 15 April 1997, §§ 4, 15 and 17, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the Commission on Human Rights:
Strongly condemns the murder of three workers from the delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross which took place at Mugina in Cibitoke province on 4 June 1996, and urges the Government of Burundi to publish the results of the investigations carried out in this connection and to bring the culprits to justice. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1997/77, 18 April 1997, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of the Sudan “to cease immediately the deliberate and indiscriminate aerial bombardment of civilian targets and relief operations”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/67, 21 April 1998, § 15, voting record: 31-6-16.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Condemns:
(c) Actions by all parties that constitute interference with the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the civilian population of Afghanistan and which jeopardize the safety of humanitarian personnel, …
5. Urges all the Afghan parties:
(e) To fulfil their obligations and commitments regarding the safety of all personnel of diplomatic missions, the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as of their premises in Afghanistan. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/70, 21 April 1998, §§ 3(c) and 5(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2001 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed its deep concern at continuing serious violations of IHL by all parties to the conflict, in particular “the conditions, in contravention of humanitarian principles, imposed by the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army on humanitarian organizations working in southern Sudan, which have seriously affected their safety” and “the difficulties encountered by United Nations and humanitarian staff in carrying out their mandate because of harassment, indiscriminate aerial bombings and the reopening of hostilities”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2001/18, 20 April 2001, § 2(a)(vii), voting record: 28-0-25.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Mindful of the need to ensure the safety of all humanitarian workers in accordance with the principles of international law,
16. Condemns all attacks on humanitarian workers and adjures the parties to the conflict to abstain rigorously from any action liable to hamper humanitarian assistance operations, in order to assure the population easy access to such assistance;
30. Calls upon the Transitional Government to take action to establish a security environment conducive to the work of aid organizations, and invites the United Nations and donors to augment the flow of humanitarian assistance to those in need. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/16, 17 April 2003, preamble and §§ 16 and 30, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on hostage-taking, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Appeals for the humanitarian action of humanitarian organizations, in particular of the International Committee of the Red Cross and its delegates, to be respected, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977 thereto. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/40, 23 April 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights reiterated “the need for safety, security and free movement of all United Nations and associated personnel, as well as of all foreign and local personnel of humanitarian organizations”.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/77, 25 April 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned “[a]ll acts of violence such as hostage-taking, abduction and murder, including of humanitarian relief workers and of United Nations agency personnel”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 6(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the protection of United Nations personnel, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Strongly condemning the acts of murder and various forms of physical violence, rape and sexual assault, abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment, illegal arrest and detention, acts of destruction and looting of property, shooting at vehicles and aircraft, mine-laying, looting of assets, physical and psychological threats and other hostile acts against United Nations and associated personnel and other personnel acting under the authority of United Nations operations, as well as personnel of international humanitarian organizations.
Welcoming also the inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (A/CONF.183/9), which entered into force on 1 July 2002, and noting the role that the Court can play in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, as a measure of preventing impunity,
Emphasizing that there are existing prohibitions under international law against attacks knowingly and intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission undertaken in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, which in situations of armed conflict constitute war crimes, and recalling the need for States to end impunity for such criminal acts,
Gravely concerned at the acts of violence in many parts of the world against humanitarian personnel and the United Nations and its associated personnel, in particular deliberate attacks, which are in violation of international humanitarian law, as well as other international law that may be applicable, such as the attack against the headquarters of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq in Baghdad on 19 August 2003. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/77, 21 April 2004, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Noting further with grave concern that attacks have been committed against humanitarian workers in Somalia and the impact this has on the ability of aid agencies to carry out their assistance and protection activities,
9. Condemns:
(e) All acts of violence such as hostage-taking, abduction and murder, including of humanitarian relief workers and of United Nations agency personnel;
12. Urges:
(d) All parties throughout Somalia to facilitate the delivery of muchneeded humanitarian assistance and to protect and facilitate the work of United Nations personnel, humanitarian relief workers, human rights defenders and representatives of nongovernmental organizations and of the international media, and to guarantee all persons involved in humanitarian action freedom of movement throughout the country and safe and unhindered access to civilians in need of protection and humanitarian assistance. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, preamble and §§ 9(e) and 12(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties:
To protect human rights and to respect international humanitarian law, in particular by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians, and that of United Nations personnel and associated personnel, as well as free access for humanitarian personnel to all affected population groups throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/84, 21 April 2004, § 4(g), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on hostage-taking, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Appeals for the humanitarian action of humanitarian organizations, in particular the International Committee of the Red Cross and its delegates, to be respected, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977 thereto. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/31, 19 April 2005, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights stated that it was mindful of “the need to back efforts by the Government of Burundi to ensure the safety of humanitarian workers in accordance with the principles of international law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/75, 20 April 2005, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon all parties to the conflict to “stop immediately the abduction and murder of relief workers by the armed groups”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/82, 21 April 2005, § 3(l), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Noting with grave concern that the security situation remains fragile throughout the country, and that attacks continue to be committed against humanitarian workers in Somalia and human rights defenders, the impact of which hinder a full response by aid agencies,
7.Firmly condemns:
(a) … acts of violence such as hostagetaking, abduction and murder, including of humanitarian relief workers and United Nations agency personnel;
9.Also calls upon:
(a) All parties to … guarantee also to all persons involved in humanitarian action, including international media, their complete freedom of movement and safe and unhindered access to civilians in need of protection and humanitarian assistance throughout the country. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, preamble and §§ 7(a) and 9(a), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties:
To protect human rights and to respect international humanitarian law, in particular by ensuring the safety, security and freedom of movement of all civilians, as well as free access for humanitarian personnel to all affected population groups throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/85, 21 April 2005, § 5(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council:
3. Expresses its deep concern regarding the seriousness of the ongoing violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur, including armed attacks on the civilian population and humanitarian workers, widespread destruction of villages, and continued and widespread violence, in particular gender-based violence against women and girls, as well as the lack of accountability of perpetrators of such crimes;
4. Calls upon all parties to the conflict in Darfur to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with a special focus on vulnerable groups including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as humanitarian workers. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 4/8, 30 March 2007, §§ 3–4, adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council reiterated its call upon all parties “to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with special focus on vulnerable groups, including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as human rights defenders and humanitarian workers”. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 6/35, 14 December 2007, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN Secretary-General
In 1997, in a progress report on UNOMIL, the UN Secretary-General included among apparent or alleged human rights violations in Liberia, “the harassment and detention of members of the international humanitarian community by ULIMO-J fighters at Vonzula, Grand Cape Mount County, resulting in the suspension of humanitarian assistance to the area on 20 December 1996”. 
UN Secretary-General, Twenty-first progress report on UNOMIL, UN Doc. S/1997/90, 29 January 1997, § 30.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights called upon the Burundian authorities “to ensure the security … of foreigners present in Burundian territory, including those who are providing humanitarian or other assistance to Burundi”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/4, 19 August 1996, § 6.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1995, a report on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed his concern at the escalation of violence against international humanitarian workers in Burundi and referred to the 1994 Convention on the Safety of UN Personnel. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report on the mission to Burundi from 19 to 29 April 1995, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1995, § 85.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a mission to Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions mentioned a deliberate attack on a vehicle carrying ICRC delegates, following which he, jointly with the Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Burundi, had addressed a letter to the President and the Prime Minister of Burundi expressing their “extreme disgust at that act”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/60/Add.1, 23 December 1996, §§ 85–86.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1997, following the murder of three ICRC delegates in Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights for Burundi stated that he would not be satisfied “unless those responsible for this heinous crime are prosecuted and appropriately punished”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Burundi, Second report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/12, 10 February 1997, § 97.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1997, in a report on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights described the following incident:
On 1 November 1996, members of another dissident SPLA [Sudan People’s Liberation Army] group led by commander Kerubino Kwanyan Bol … seized an aircraft of the International Committee of the Red Cross which had landed by mistake at Wunrock airstrip and kidnapped three Red Cross workers and five SPLA-Mainstream soldiers who were returning from an ICRC hospital in Lokichokio, Kenya. Commander Kerubino accused the ICRC of transporting enemy soldiers, arms and ammunition into Southern Sudan, a charge denied as completely baseless by the ICRC. After more than five weeks of detention Kerubino agreed to release the Red Cross workers … The Special Rapporteur is not aware of any attempt by anyone to raise legal questions regarding the responsibility of commander Kerubino and his men for the kidnapping, which is a violation of Sudanese national legislation and a serious breach of international humanitarian law. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan, Report, 3 February 1997, § 27.
Code of Conduct for Humanitarian Assistance in Sierra Leone
The Code of Conduct for Humanitarian Assistance in Sierra Leone, annexed to the 1999 United Nations Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for Sierra Leone, contains certain guiding principles for States and non-State entities. The principles provide:
Every effort should be made to ensure security and protection of UN, NGO and associated personnel engaged in humanitarian assistance activities. Protagonists shall be held directly accountable to the UN and the international community for attacks on UN and NGO staff and others connected with the UN and NGO humanitarian operations. 
OCHA, United Nations Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for Sierra Leone (January–December 1999), December 1998, Annex I, Code of Conduct for Humanitarian Assistance in Sierra Leone, p. 88.
Principles of Engagement for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Principles of Engagement for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, annexed to the 2000 United Nations Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, state: “The relevant authorities are responsible for creating conditions conducive to the implementing of humanitarian activities. This must cover the security of local and international staff as well as all assets.” 
OCHA, United Nations Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (January–December 2000), November 1999, Annex II, Principles of Engagement for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, p. 68, § 2.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1989, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly declared that it was “preoccupied by the increase in breaches in the security of delegates of the ICRC, its installations and means of transport, and by the recent taking of ICRC delegates in Lebanon as hostages in the accomplishment of their mission”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 921, 6 July 1989, § 8.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly strongly condemned “attacks on convoys and personnel of international humanitarian organizations trying to bring relief to the afflicted population in Sarajevo and other places in Bosnia-Herzegovina” and demanded that “violators of humanitarian law are held personally accountable for these violations”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 984, 30 June 1992, § 8.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1992 on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly expressed “its admiration for the courage and dedication of UNPROFOR and the personnel of humanitarian organizations” and condemned all attacks on these persons. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1198, 5 November 1992, § 8.
European Union
In a declaration by its Presidency in 1998 with respect to the situation in Sierra Leone, the EU urged ECOMOG “to ensure that international humanitarian law is upheld and to ensure the security of those engaged in providing such relief”. 
EU, Declaration on the situation in Sierra Leone by the Presidency on behalf of the EU, 20 February 1998, § 2.
European Union
In a declaration by its Presidency in 1998, the EU called upon all parties to the conflict in the Sudan “to respect and guarantee the security of all personnel of aid organizations and relief flights and their crews”. 
EU, Declaration on Sudan by the Presidency on behalf of the EU, 14 August 1998, § 11.
European Union
In a statement by its Presidency in 1999 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the EU stated that during armed conflicts, the security of humanitarian personnel was frequently not respected. 
EU, Statement by the Presidency on behalf of the EU at the 50th anniversary of the Four Geneva Conventions, 12 August 1999, § 5.
North Atlantic Council
In 1994, the North Atlantic Council demanded “strict respect for the safety of UNPROFOR and other UN relief agency personnel throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina”. 
North Atlantic Council, Decision taken at the meeting of 9 February 1994, annexed to Council of Europe, Report to the Parliamentary Assembly on the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Doc. No. 7065, 12 April 1994, Appendix I, § 12.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on respect for international humanitarian law and support for humanitarian action in armed conflict, the OAU Council of Ministers condemned “the attacks and killings of the staff of humanitarian organizations”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1526 (LX), 6–11 June 1994, § 5.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on international humanitarian law, water and armed conflicts in Africa, the OAU Council of Ministers:
10. Condemns in the strongest possible terms the attacks and killings, including incitements to acts of violence and threat against the personnel of organizations that are exclusively humanitarian, neutral and impartial;
11. Urges Member States to take all necessary steps to ensure that the personnel of humanitarian organizations are protected and respected by all, in conformity with international law especially the international humanitarian law. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1662 (LXIV), 1–5 July 1996, §§ 10–11.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the OAU Council of Ministers called upon the authorities of Burundi “to take necessary measures to ensure the safety of … the personnel of international organizations, IGOs, NGOs, who currently risk their lives to render humanitarian assistance” and strongly condemned “the brutal and bastardly murder of … humanitarian aid-workers”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1649 (LXIV), 1–5 July 1996, § 4.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a decision adopted in 1997, the OAU Council of Ministers called upon “the Member States concerned to create conditions of peace and security in order to ensure … the safety of relief workers”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Dec. 362 (LXVI) Rev.1, 28–31 May 1997, § d.
OAS General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the OAS General Assembly urged all member States “to do their utmost to guarantee the security of personnel engaged in humanitarian activities, so as to ensure protection and assistance for all victims”. 
OAS, General Assembly, Res. 1270 (XXIV-O/94), 10 June 1994, § 3.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In a press release issued in December 1996 on the killing of six ICRC medical aid workers in Chechnya, the Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE stated that he was “horrified to learn of the atrocious crime which claimed the lives of six International Red Cross aid workers … in Novye Atagi” and “strongly condemned this act of violence … and terrorism”. He urged the competent authorities to clarify the circumstances of the act and to bring those responsible to justice. 
OSCE, Chairman-in-Office, Press Release No. 86/96, 17 December 1996, §§ 1 and 2.
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (1992)
In 1992, the Committee of Senior Officials of the CSCE debated the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and condemned “attacks on international relief staff and on UNPROFOR”. 
CSCE, Decisions of the Committee of Senior Officials, September 1992, Helsinki Monitor, 1993, p. 92, § 4.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1992)
In a resolution on Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted in 1992, the 88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference in Stockholm strongly condemned “the escalation of violence by armed attacks against humanitarian … personnel” and insisted that “such attacks cease immediately”. 
88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Stockholm, 7–12 September 1992, Resolution on support to the recent international initiatives to halt the violence and put an end to the violations of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, § 5.
International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia
In a public statement issued on 31 October 1992, the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia asked all parties to the conflict to avoid harming UNHCR and other international humanitarian workers in Travnik and called upon all political and military leaders to issue instructions to prevent the further endangerment of these relief workers. 
International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, Statement, 31 October 1992, reprinted in Report of the UN Secretary-General on the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/24795, 11 November 1992, § 11.
World Conference on Human Rights
In the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 called for “safe and timely access for [humanitarian] assistance”. 
World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 14–25 June 1993, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/24, 12 July 1993, § I(29).
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims
The Final Declaration adopted by the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in 1993 demanded that “measures be taken at the national, regional and international levels to allow assistance and relief personnel to carry out in all safety their mandate in favour of the victims of an armed conflict”. It further urged “all States to make every effort to … take the appropriate measures to enhance respect for [the] safety, security and integrity [of humanitarian organizations], in conformity with applicable rules of international humanitarian law”. 
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993, Final Declaration, §§ I (7) and II (8), ILM, Vol. 33, 1994, pp. 299 and 301.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the 90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference in Canberra expressed regret that “the international relief and protection effort during armed conflicts … is encountering serious difficulties and dangers, including … attacks against humanitarian personnel”. 
90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Canberra, 13–18 September 1993, Resolution on respect for international humanitarian law and support for humanitarian action in armed conflicts, preamble.
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (1994)
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the Parliamentary Assembly of the CSCE condemned attacks against personnel of UNPROFOR and humanitarian organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
CSCE, Parliamentary Assembly, Vienna Declaration, Chapter IV: Resolution on the former Yugoslavia, Doc. PA (94) 7, 8 July 1994, § 10.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995)
The 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995 adopted a resolution on principles and action in international humanitarian assistance and protection calling on States “to fully respect humanitarian operations and the personnel engaged therein in all circumstances”. 
26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, Res. IV, § 2(d).
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1999)
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference in Berlin:
3. Calls on States to take steps to address effectively other serious repercussions of war on civilians and humanitarian personnel, and to strengthen safety and security requirements for humanitarian personnel, including locally recruited staff;
16. Urges States to halt arms transfers to parties that target relief workers, undermine humanitarian assistance and violate human rights and international humanitarian law.. 
102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Berlin, 10–15 October 1999, Resolution on contribution of parliaments to ensuring respect for and promoting international humanitarian law on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, §§ 3 and 16.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999 states: “Humanitarian personnel will be respected and protected at all times. Threats to, and attacks on, such personnel will be duly investigated and those alleged to have committed such attacks will be brought to justice under due process of law.” 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 2.4, § 12.
Special Court for Sierra Leone
In the Bockarie case before the SCSL in 2003, the accused, a senior member of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), Junta and the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC)/RUF forces, was charged, inter alia, with:
Intentionally directing attacks against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission, an OTHER SERIOUS VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, punishable under Article 4.b. of the [2002 Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone]. 
SCSL, Bockarie case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 61, Count 14.
[emphasis in original]
It was alleged that:
Between about 15 April 2000 and about 15 September 2000, AFRC/RUF engaged in widespread attacks against … humanitarian assistance workers within the Republic of Sierra Leone … These attacks included … abducting hundreds of … humanitarian assistance workers who were then held hostage. 
SCSL, Bockarie case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 61.
Owing to the accused’s death, the indictment was withdrawn. 
SCSL, Bockarie case, Withdrawal of Indictment, 8 December 2003.
Special Court for Sierra Leone
In the Koroma case before the SCSL in 2003, the accused, the leader of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), a senior leader of the AFRC/Revolutionary United Front (RUF), a senior member of the Junta regime, and exercising the powers of the President of the Republic of Sierra Leone from May 1997 to February 1998, was charged, inter alia, with:
Intentionally directing attacks against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission, an OTHER SERIOUS VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, punishable under Article 4.b. of the [2002 Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone]. 
SCSL, Koroma case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 59, Count 14.
[emphasis in original]
It was alleged that:
Between about 15 April 2000 and about 15 September 2000, AFRC/RUF engaged in widespread attacks against … humanitarian assistance workers within the Republic of Sierra Leone … These attacks included … abducting hundreds of … humanitarian assistance workers who were then held hostage. 
SCSL, Koroma case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 59.
Special Court for Sierra Leone
In the Sankoh case before the SCSL in 2003, the accused, the leader of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), a senior leader in the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC)/RUF, and a senior member of the Junta regime, was charged, inter alia, with:
Intentionally directing attacks against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission, an OTHER SERIOUS VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, punishable under Article 4.b. of the [2002 Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone]. 
SCSL, Sankoh case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 62, Count 14.
[emphasis in original]
It was alleged that:
Between about 15 April 2000 and about 15 September 2000, AFRC/RUF engaged in widespread attacks against … humanitarian assistance workers within the Republic of Sierra Leone … These attacks included … abducting hundreds of … humanitarian assistance workers who were then held hostage. 
SCSL, Sankoh case, Indictment, 7 March 2003, § 62.
Owing to the accused’s death, the indictment was withdrawn. 
SCSL, Sankoh case, Withdrawal of Indictment, 8 December 2003.
Special Court for Sierra Leone
In the Sesay case before the SCSL in 2006, the accused Sesay and Kallon, senior commanders in the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), Junta and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC)/RUF forces, and the accused Gbao, senior commander in the RUF and AFRC/RUF forces, were charged, inter alia, with:
Intentionally directing attacks against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission, an OTHER SERIOUS VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW, punishable under Article 4.b. of the [2002 Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone]. 
SCSL, Sesay case, Corrected Amended Consolidated Indictment, 2 August 2006, § 83, Count 15.
[emphasis in original]
It was alleged that:
Between about 15 April 2000 and about 15 September 2000, AFRC/RUF engaged in widespread attacks against … humanitarian assistance workers within the Republic of Sierra Leone … These attacks included … abducting hundreds of … humanitarian assistance workers who were then held hostage. 
SCSL, Sesay case, Corrected Amended Consolidated Indictment, 2 August 2006, § 83.
In its judgment in the case in 2009, the Trial Chamber set out the definition of the offence of intentionally directing attacks against humanitarian relief personnel, stating:
214. The offence of attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian … mission was first explicitly identified as a war crime in the [1998] ICC Statute. This Judgement is the first to specifically address the nature and scope of this offence.
218. The Chamber considers the condemnation and criminalisation of intentional attacks against personnel and objects involved in a humanitarian … mission by States and international organisations, the finding of the ICRC and the inclusion of the offence in the ICC Statute in 1998 demonstrate State practice and opinio juris. The Chamber is also of the view that this offence is a particularisation of the general and fundamental prohibition in international humanitarian law, in both international and internal conflicts, against attacking civilians and civilian property. This Chamber is, therefore, satisfied that this offence existed in customary international law in both international and non-international conflicts and entailed individual criminal responsibility at the time of the acts alleged in the Indictment.
219. The Chamber holds that the elements of the offence of intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian … mission in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations are as follows:
(i) The Accused directed an attack against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission;
(ii) The Accused intended such personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles to be the object of the attack;
(iii) Such personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles were entitled to that protection given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed conflict; and
(iv) The Accused knew or had reason to know that the personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles were protected.
220. In the view of the Chamber, the primary object of the attack must be the personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance … mission. There exists no requirement that there be actual damage to the personnel or objects as a result of the attack and this Chamber opines that the mere attack is the gravamen of the crime. The Chamber adopts the definition of attack in Article 49(1) of [the 1977] Additional Protocol I as an “act of violence”. Insofar as non-international armed conflict is concerned, the Chamber holds that the same meaning applies to the term “attack” in [the 1977] Additional Protocol II. Furthermore, the Chamber notes that attacks are narrower in scope than “military operations.”
235. With regard to the mens rea of the offence, the Chamber opines that the Prosecution is obliged to prove that the Accused must have known or had reason to know that the personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles were protected. It is not necessary to establish that the Accused actually had legal knowledge of the protection to which the personnel and objects were entitled under international humanitarian law, but the Accused must have been aware of the factual basis for that protection. 
SCSL, Sesay case, Judgment, 2 March 2009, §§ 214, 218–220 and 235.
[footnotes in original omitted]
ICRC
Following the murder of two ICRC expatriates and one local staff member in May 1978 in Zimbabwe, the ICRC asked the highest authorities of the parties to the conflict to investigate the case and demanded that immediate measures be taken to ensure respect for the red cross emblem and the security of ICRC delegates. 
ICRC, Death of four members of ICRC delegations, IRRC, No. 204, 1978, pp. 166–167.
ICRC
In 1992, the ICRC appealed to all parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina to “take the action necessary to ensure that ICRC delegates can work effectively and rapidly in adequate conditions of security”. 
ICRC, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Solemn appeal to all parties to the conflict, IRRC, No. 290, 1992, p. 493.
ICRC
In a communication to the press in 1993, the ICRC enjoined the parties to the conflict in Somalia “to facilitate relief operations … and to respect the personnel, vehicles and premises involved”. 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 93/17, Somalia: ICRC appeals for compliance with international humanitarian law, 17 June 1993.
Council of Delegates (1993)
At its Birmingham Session in 1993, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on armed protection of humanitarian assistance in which it expressed its deep concern about “the hazardous and dangerous conditions under which humanitarian assistance has had to be carried out in various disaster areas in recent years”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Birmingham Session, 29–30 October 1993, Res. 5, preamble.
The Council of Delegates also adopted a resolution on principles of humanitarian assistance in which it reminded States, in particular,
of the basis for and the nature of humanitarian assistance, as established by international humanitarian law, the Fundamental Principles and the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement:
b) with respect to States: the duty – which is in the first instance theirs – to assist people who are placed de jure or de facto under their authority and, should they fail to discharge this duty, the obligation to authorize humanitarian organizations to provide such assistance, to grant such organizations access to the victims and to protect their action. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Birmingham Session, 29–30 October 1993, Res. 11, § 1(b).
[emphasis in original]
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, the ICRC stated: “The personnel, vehicles and premises of relief agencies shall be protected.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, 8 June 1994, § IV, IRRC, No. 320, 1997, p. 505
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise in the Great Lakes region, the ICRC stated:
Relief operations for the civilian population that are solely humanitarian, impartial and non-discriminatory in nature must be facilitated and respected. The staff, vehicles and premises of relief agencies must be protected. 
ICRC, Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise, 23 June 1994, § IV, reprinted in Marco Sassòli and Antoine A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War?, ICRC, Geneva, 1999, p. 1309.
Council of Delegates (1997)
At its Seville Session in 1997, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on peace, international humanitarian law and human rights in which it stated:
alarmed by the ever-more frequent threats to the safety and security of Red Cross and Red Crescent personnel and of the staff of other humanitarian organizations, in particular through intentional and often fatal violent attacks … ,
reaffirming that humanitarian law also extends protection to the relief work of impartial and humanitarian organizations … ,
3. reaffirms the obligation, under international humanitarian law, of parties to armed conflicts to respect and protect relief work and in particular personnel engaged in relief operations. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Seville Session, 25–27 November 1997, Res. 8, Part 5, preamble and § 3.
ICRC
In a preparatory document for the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law in 1998, the ICRC emphasized that
generally speaking, the relief operations provided for under international humanitarian law cannot be carried out unless the security of the humanitarian personnel involved is guaranteed. Their safety is therefore directly linked to respect for the law. 
ICRC, Respect for and protection of the personnel of humanitarian organizations, Preparatory document for the First Periodical Meeting on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 19–23 January 1998, p. 19.
ICRC
In a communication to the press issued in 2000 following two separate incidents in Colombia in which wounded combatants being evacuated by the ICRC were seized and summarily executed by men belonging to opposition forces, the ICRC called on all the warring parties to respect individuals engaged in humanitarian work for the victims of the conflict. 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 00/36, Colombia: ICRC condemns grave breaches of international humanitarian law, suspends medical evacuations of wounded combatants, 3 October 2000.
ICRC
In a communication to the press issued in April 2001 following the killing of six ICRC staff members by unidentified assailants in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the ICRC condemned “in the strongest terms this attack and the flouting of the red cross emblem”. 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 01/14, Six ICRC staff killed in Democratic Republic of the Congo, 27 April 2001.
ICRC
In a communication to the press issued in 2001 in the context of the conflict in Afghanistan, the ICRC reminded all the parties involved – the Taliban, the Northern Alliance and the US-led coalition – of their obligation to “ensure the safety of medical and humanitarian personnel”. 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 01/47, Afghanistan: ICRC calls on all parties to conflict to respect international humanitarian law, 24 October 2001.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
In a resolution adopted in 1991, the Politico-Military High Command of the SPLM/A stated: “All international and local relief, rehabilitation and development assistance and efforts shall be organized and processed through the Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association (SRRA) which shall remain an autonomous humanitarian organization.”  
SPLM/A, PMHC Resolution No. 10: Relief assistance, 9 September 1991, § 3, Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 4.1
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
The SRRA Model Agreement, concluded by the SPLM/A with various international NGOs and agencies in the context of the conflict in southern Sudan, is aimed at protecting relief personnel and facilitating the delivery of humanitarian relief. 
Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 4.1, referring to SRRA Model Agreement, § 5.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
In 1994, the SPLM/A concluded an agreement with Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), which sought to determine possible corridors for the delivery of relief supplies and humanitarian assistance to war-affected areas. The agreement recognized that “the delivery of humanitarian assistance should be as far as possible practical, safe and cost effective”. 
Agreement on Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) corridors for relief supplies and humanitarian assistance to war-affected areas, 23 March 1994.
International Symposium on Water in Armed Conflicts
At the International Symposium on Water in Armed Conflicts held in Montreux (Switzerland) in 1994, the group of international experts present agreed to “aim for absolute protection of water supplies and systems, and to extend legal protection to include engineers attempting to restore water supplies in times of armed conflict”. 
International Symposium on Water in Armed Conflicts, Montreux, November 1994, ICRC News, 24 November 1994, quoted in Marco Sassòli and Antoine A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War?, ICRC, Geneva, 1999, pp. 458–459.
União Nacional para Independência Total de Angola (UNITA)
In 1996, UNITA, a party to the conflict in Angola, committed itself to ensuring that relief personnel and objects would be spared from attack. 
UNITA, Statement on the humanitarian situation in Angola, Bailundo, 1 January 1996.