Practice Relating to Rule 143. Dissemination of International Humanitarian Law among the Civilian Population

Geneva Convention (1906)
Article 26 of the 1906 Geneva Convention provides: “The signatory governments shall take the necessary steps … to make [the provisions of this convention] known to the people at large.” 
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 6 July 1906, Article 26.
Geneva Convention (1929)
Article 27 of the 1929 Geneva Convention provides: “The High Contracting Parties shall take the necessary steps … to bring [the provisions of the present Convention] to the notice of the civil population.” 
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 27 July 1929, Article 27.
Geneva Conventions (1949)
Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 48 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II, Article 127 of the 1949 Geneva Convention III and Article 144 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provide:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof [if possible] in their programmes of … civilian instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population. 
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 47; Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 48; Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 127; Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 144.
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property
Article 25 of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property states:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the text of the present Convention and the Regulations for its execution as widely as possible in their respective countries. They undertake, in particular, to include the study thereof [if possible] in their programmes of … civilian training, so that its principles are made known to the whole population. 
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 14 May 1954, Article 25.
Additional Protocol I
Article 83 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, … to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population, so that those instruments may become known … to the civilian population.
2. Any … civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the Conventions and this Protocol shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 83. Article 83 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 30 May 1977, p. 307.
Second Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property
Article 30 of the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property provides:
1. The Parties shall endeavour by appropriate means, and in particular by educational and information programmes, to strengthen appreciation and respect for cultural property by their entire population.
2. The Parties shall disseminate this Protocol, as widely as possible, both in time of peace and in time of armed conflict.
3. Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities with respect to the application of this Protocol, shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof. To this end, the Parties shall, as appropriate:
(b) develop and implement, in cooperation with UNESCO and relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations, peacetime training and educational programmes. 
Second Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 26 March 1999, Article 30.
Convention on Enforced Disappearance
The 2006 Convention on Enforced Disappearance provides:
Recalling … relevant international instruments in the fields of human rights, humanitarian law and international criminal law,
Article 23
1. Each State Party shall ensure that the training of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, medical personnel, public officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody or treatment of any person deprived of liberty includes the necessary education and information regarding the relevant provisions of this Convention, in order to:
(a) Prevent the involvement of such officials in enforced disappearances;
(b) Emphasize the importance of prevention and investigations in relation to enforced disappearances;
(c) Ensure that the urgent need to resolve cases of enforced disappearance is recognized. 
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 61/177, 20 December 2006, Annex, Preamble and Article 23.
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Article 3(2) of the 1986 Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, dealing with tasks of the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, provides that the National Societies “disseminate and assist their governments in disseminating international humanitarian law; they take initiatives in this respect”. 
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, adopted by the 25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Article 3(2).
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 13 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia states:
The parties undertake to spread knowledge of and promote respect for the principles and rules of international humanitarian law … this shall be done in particular:
–via articles in the press, and radio and television programmes prepared also in cooperation with the ICRC and broadcast simultaneously;
–by distributing ICRC publications. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 13.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 4 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides:
The parties undertake to spread knowledge of and promote respect for the principles and rules of international humanitarian law … [T]his shall be done in particular:
–by facilitating the dissemination of ICRC appeals urging respect for international humanitarian law;
–by distributing ICRC publications. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 4.
Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action
In paragraph II(10) of the 1992 Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action, the ICRC requested the parties to “undertake to ensure that the principles and rules of international humanitarian law and, in particular, [the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina] are known … to the civilian population”. 
Agreement No. 3 between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community) on the ICRC Plan of Action, Geneva, 6 June 1992, § II(10).
Guidelines on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict
Section 17 of the 1994 Guidelines on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict provides: “States shall disseminate these rules and make them known as widely as possible in their respective countries and include them in their programmes of … civil instruction.” 
Revised Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict, prepared by the International Committee of the Red Cross and presented to the UN Secretary-General, annexed to Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Decade of International Law, UN Doc. A/49/323, 19 August 1994, pp. 49–53, Section 17.
Accra Declaration on the Chemical Weapons Convention
In April 2011, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone signed the Accra Declaration on the Chemical Weapons Convention. In its preamble, the States expressed the conviction that “West African nations need more awareness and commitment and are grateful for the training and awareness provided by OPCW [Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons].” 
Accra Declaration on the Chemical Weapons Convention, signed by Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone at the Planning Meeting for English Speaking Countries in the West African Sub-Region, Accra, 20 April 2011, p. 2, Preamble.
The participating States called on ECOWAS to “[e]nsure that OPCW conducts Training in each ECOWAS Member State; that is to facilitate and encourage OPCW to conduct their training in each ECOWAS Member State.” 
Accra Declaration on the Chemical Weapons Convention, signed by Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone at the Planning Meeting for English Speaking Countries in the West African Sub-Region, Accra, 20 April 2011, p. 3, § 4.
The participating States also called on the OPCW to:
2. Work to ensure and create the necessary awareness of the relevance of the CWC [Chemical Weapons Convention] at every level of our respective government functionaries.
3. Work on increasing political awareness and commitment from ECOWAS to create the general and specific awareness from top government officials to ensure that the necessary political will is developed in the wake of the idea/myth that there are no chemical weapons in West Africa, Africa and the world.
4. Provide and conduct OPCW Training in each ECOWAS country to enable more training to be achieved at the national levels. 
Accra Declaration on the Chemical Weapons Convention, signed by Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone at the Planning Meeting for English Speaking Countries in the West African Sub-Region, Accra, 20 April 2011, p. 3, §§ 2–4.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Training Manual (1994) provides:
The Government of Australia is required to disseminate the text of the conventions [the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocols I and II, and the 1907 Hague Convention (IV)] as widely as possible, so that the principles become known … to the civilian population. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict Training, DI(G) OPS 33-1, 24 January 1994, § 4.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
13.8 In time of peace and war, states are required to disseminate the texts of the Geneva Conventions 1949 and the two Additional Protocols 1977 as widely as possible within their respective countries. This may facilitate the principles of the Conventions and Protocols becoming known to the entire population.
13.9 … Those civilians or military who have responsibility for applying the conventions or protocols must be fully acquainted with the texts. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 13.8–13.9.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) provides:
States signatory to the [1949 Geneva] Conventions undertook to take a series of measures to promote the respect thereof.
These measures can be summarized as follows:
1) the widest dissemination possible of the content of the Conventions among the civilian population. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 55.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “To fulfil the obligation [to respect and ensure respect for the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols], the State must disseminate the content of these treaties … so that they are known to the entire population”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 65; see also Part I, pp. vi and 98.
The Regulations further states:
The treaties and conventions stipulate that States parties must “respect and ensure respect” for the obligations which ensue. This means in particular:
- to incorporate the content of these texts into different programmes of instruction at different levels of training … in the civilian sphere. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 65; see also Part I bis, pp. 46, 99 and 113.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “The teaching and dissemination of the Law of War is of capital importance for Cameroon, on the civilian … level.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 2.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “The teaching and dissemination of the law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law is of prime importance for Cameroon at … the civilian level.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 1.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) states: “Canada … has the obligation to … encourage the study of the LOAC by the civilian population.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 15-1, § 6.
Canada
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states:
The GCs [1949 Geneva Conventions] and AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] place a duty on their signatories in time of both peace and war to circulate the texts as widely as possible within their countries. They are especially required to ensure that the implications of the GCs and AP I are clearly understood by the members of their Armed Forces and by the civilian population. In order to assist this process, the GCs and AP I place an obligation on signatories to disseminate the text of the Conventions to appropriate military and civilian personnel. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 104.1.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that a preparatory measure in peacetime is to “make the law of war known among … the population”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 91.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) states that, before conflicts occur, there is an obligation “to adopt plans and programmes of dissemination and capacity building through which IHL is made known to … the civil society (… public servants, students and the community in general)”. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, pp. 27 and 28.
In a chapter dealing with the 1977 Additional Protocol II, the manual further states:
It is important to underline the obligation incumbent upon States to organize periodical and systematic instruction on the content of the Protocol, so that … civil society in general can apply and insist on respect for its norms. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 46.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
I.3.1. Obligation to disseminate
“The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction and to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population, so that those instruments may become known to the armed forces and to the civilian population.”
Dissemination comprises:
- general information intended to popularize and to update;
- instruction intended to instil the fundamental principles;
- instruction intended to create automatic collective and individual reflexes in terms of the application of the legal rules. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 36.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states: “States are bound to respect [international] humanitarian law. The preventive mechanisms include in particular the dissemination of IHL …”. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 13.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) states:
The four Geneva Conventions and [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] oblige all contracting parties to disseminate the text of the conventions as widely as possible … This shall particularly be accomplished … by encouraging the civilian population to study these conventions … Considering their responsibility in times of armed conflict, … civilian authorities shall be fully acquainted with the text of the Conventions and the Protocol Additional to them. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 136.
The manual further states:
Effective implementation is depending on dissemination of humanitarian law. Providing information about it is the necessary basis to create a common consciousness and to further the attitude of peoples towards greater acceptance of these principles as an achievement of the social and cultural development of mankind. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 1223.
Guinea
Guinea’s Code of Conduct (2011) states: “The Code of Conduct shall be taught, disseminated and applied amongst the defence forces units. It shall be the object of a wide public awareness campaign on the whole national territory.” 
Guinea, Code de Conduite des Forces de Défense (Code of Conduct of the Defence Forces), 2011, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, approved by Presidential Decree No. D 289/PRG/SGG/2011, 28 November 2011, Article 36.
Guinea
Guinea’s Code of Conduct (2014) states: “The Code of Conduct shall be taught, disseminated and applied amongst the defence forces units. It shall be the object of a wide public awareness campaign on the whole national territory.” 
Guinea, Code de Conduite des Forces de Défense (Code of Conduct of the Defence Forces), 2014 edition, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, 28 November 2011, Article 36.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) states: “Everybody must know the rules.” 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 31.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states:
The publication of this manual by the Ministry of National Defence of Mexico contributes to fulfilling the obligation undertaken by the Government of Mexico on signing the [1949] Geneva Conventions to ensure that these instruments are disseminated as widely as possible in peacetime. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, Foreword; see also § 137.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “The distribution of AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II] and other rules on internal armed conflicts should take place as widely as possible.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1073.
In its chapter on the prevention and punishment of war crimes, the manual provides: “The States which are parties to the conventions on the law of war should take all necessary steps to meet their obligations … These States should disseminate the conventions on the widest possible scale during peacetime”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1103.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) notes: “The parties [to the 1949 Geneva Conventions] are … encouraged to disseminate the Conventions as widely as possible among their civilian populations.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1602.1, footnote 5.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) incorporates the content of Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I and adds:
Dissemination simply means that in the law of armed conflict, the obligation is that States make the principles of the law known to … the civilian population by … encouraging the civilian population to study them. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 29, § 1.
The manual further states:
The dissemination of the conventions and the protocols therefore must be as orderly as possible in the respective countries and in particular to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population. The purpose therefore is that any … civilian authorities, who in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the [1949 Geneva] conventions and the [1977 Additional] protocols, shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 30, § 3.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
a. Preventive measures and mechanisms
The obligations assumed by States Parties to international humanitarian law treaties require them to ensure the proper implementation of the preventive measures and mechanisms provided for in these treaties, including, in particular, the following:
(2) Dissemination of international humanitarian law in State institutions (government ministries, municipal authorities, universities, higher education establishments, … and State and private education establishments), with particular reference to the rights that all civilians have in armed conflict situations. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 10.a.(2).
The manual defines the term “dissemination” as: “The obligation of States to teach the rules of international humanitarian law … and to encourage the civilian population to study them.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Annex 9, Glossary of Terms.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
(a) Preventive measures and mechanisms
The obligations assumed by States Parties to international humanitarian law treaties require them to ensure the proper implementation of the preventive measures and mechanisms provided for in these treaties, including, in particular, the following:
(2) Dissemination of international humanitarian law in State institutions (government ministries, municipal authorities, universities, higher education establishments, military academies and State and private education establishments), with particular reference to the rights that all civilians have in armed conflict situations. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 10(a)(2), p. 221.
In its Glossary of terms, the manual defines “dissemination” as: “The obligation of States to teach the rules of international humanitarian law in military training programmes and to encourage the civilian population to study them.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 403.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) explains that “[t]he production of [the] manual is in part fulfilment of [the] Government’s obligation to instruct its armed forces and civilian population alike in the provisions of international humanitarian law”. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, Introduction (unnumbered page).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “The instruction and dissemination of [IHL] are established as obligatory, so that the State has the duty to introduce it in its programmes of … civil instruction.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.1.a; see also §§ 1.1.d.(7) and 11.3.b.(2) (which add that the instruction must take place in time of peace as well as in time of war).
The manual identifies the sectors of the public that should be targeted in priority: National Societies, universities, schools, medical circles, communication media, and the general public, particularly young people and teachers. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.2.b.(3).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “In both peacetime and wartime, States [must] … encourage the study of [the law of armed conflict] among the civilian population.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 1.1.d.(7).
The manual further states: “The law of armed conflict contains provisions making the teaching and dissemination of its rules compulsory. Consequently, States are under an obligation to incorporate them in their programmes of … civil instruction.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.1; see also § 11.3.b.(2).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) notes:
I Geneva Convention (GC I, Art. 47) states that the contracting parties shall undertake, both in peace and in war, to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the convention texts and to introduce study thereof into programmes of … civilian instruction. The III Geneva Convention (GC III, Art. 127) states that the principles of the conventions shall be made known to … the entire population. Similarly, the IV Geneva Convention (GC IV, Art. 144) states that the principles for protection of civilians shall be made known to the entire population. The undertaking of the parties concerning information and instruction in international humanitarian law is stressed in Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (AP I, Art. 83), which, however, goes further than the earlier conventions. According to the Protocol, the military and civilian authorities responsible for their application during a conflict shall possess full knowledge of the texts both of the Protocol and of the Conventions. Thus a definite tightening of the demands has been introduced. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 4.1, pp. 91 and 92.
The manual further states: “By its ratification in 1977 of the Additional Protocols to the Geneva 1949 Conventions, Sweden pledged herself to inform and instruct … the civilian population … on the rules of international humanitarian law.” 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 10.1, p. 168.
Tajikistan
In the Order on Law of Armed Conflict Curriculum (1997), Tajikistan’s Minister of Education decided “to include in the curriculum of the Republican Specialized Boarding School No. 1 for the Intensive Study of the Russian Language and for Military-Physical Training in Dushanbe the subject ‘Law of Armed Conflict’”. 
Tajikistan, Order No. 566 on the Inclusion of the Subject “Law of Armed Conflict” in the Curriculum of the Republican Specialised Boarding School No. 1 in Dushanbe, 1 October 1997, § 1.
Tajikistan
In the Order No. 148 on Law of Armed Conflict Courses (1997), Tajikistan’s Minister of Defence decided “to include in the curricula of the Military Chairs of civilian Institutions of Higher Education … the subject ‘Law of Armed Conflict’”. 
Tajikistan, Order No. 148 on the Implementation of the “Law of Armed Conflict” Courses at the Military Chairs of Civilian Institutions of Higher Education, at the S. Safarov Tajik Higher Military College and at the Military Schools of the Republic of Tajikistan, Ministry of Defence, 8 August 1997, § II.
Tajikistan
In the Order No. 554 on Law of Armed Conflict Courses (1997), Tajikistan’s Minister of Education decided “to include in the curricula of the Military Chairs of civilian Institutions of Higher Education the subject ‘Law of Armed Conflict’”. 
Tajikistan, Order No. 554 on the Implementation of the “Law of Armed Conflict” Courses at the Military Chairs of Civilian Institutions of Higher Education of the Republic of Tajikistan, 24 September 1997, § 2.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) notes:
Under the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions the parties are bound, both in time of peace and in war, to disseminate the text of the Conventions in their countries and to include the study of them in their programmes … if possible (i.e., according to the constitution of the country concerned) of civilian instruction. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 120.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
16.2.1. Whilst ignorance of the law is not generally accepted as a defence, the first step to enforcement of the law of armed conflict must be to ensure as wide a knowledge of its terms as possible both within the armed forces and outside.
Dissemination
16.3. States are also required to disseminate the texts of the Geneva Conventions 1949 and the two Additional Protocols 1977 as widely as possible in peace and war so that the general population can learn about them.
16.3.1. The manner in which dissemination is done is left to the states themselves and may be by means of orders, courses of instructions, commentaries or manuals. … Any military or civilian authorities with responsibility for applying the conventions or protocol must be fully acquainted with the text.
Training
16.4. Additional Protocol I also requires states to endeavour, with the assistance of their national red cross or red crescent societies, to train qualified persons “to facilitate the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, and in particular the activities of the Protecting Powers.” The parties are encouraged to send lists of such qualified persons to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 16.2.1–16.4.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 48 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II, Article 127 of the 1949 Geneva Convention III and Article 144 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 14.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) quotes a directive of the Department of Defense which provides:
The Armed Forces of the United States will insure that programs to prevent violations of the law of war to include training and dissemination as required by the [1949] Geneva Conventions … and by [the 1907] Hague Convention IV … are instituted and implemented. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 1-4(c).
The Pamphlet adds that “all states must include the text of the Conventions in programs of … if possible, civil instruction”. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 15-2(b).
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War (1995) provides:
The appropriate authorities and governmental bodies of the Azerbaijan Republic ensure that all the citizens learn the provisions of this law on civil defence and ensure the preparation of military servicemen of all categories within the framework of training programmes.
If the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties to the conflict, the necessary instruction is given to the civilian population in such a conflict area and to the personnel staff of the Armed Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic involved in the solution of this conflict. 
Azerbaijan, Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War, 1995, Article 30.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Emblem Law (2002) states:
Competent bodies within … health institutions shall inform … workers in health institutions about the text of the [1949] Geneva Conventions.
Students of degree-granting educational institutions shall be informed about the text of the Geneva Conventions. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Emblem Law, 2002, Article 18.
Brazil
Brazil’s Decree on the National Commission on IHL (2003) states:
The National Commission for the Dissemination and Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Brazil is [hereby] established … [It has] the objective of proposing the necessary measures to be taken by the competent authorities for the … dissemination of international humanitarian law in Brazil, notably the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols … , as well as other instruments on the matter to which Brazil is a party. 
Brazil, Decree on the National Commission on IHL, 2003, Article 1.
Chad
Chad’s Emblem Law (2014) states:
The Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Defence ensure at all times strict compliance with the rules governing the use of the emblems of the red cross or the red crescent, the denomination “Red Cross” and “Red Crescent” and the distinctive signals. …
These Ministries shall take every appropriate step to prevent misuse, in particular:
- by disseminating the rules in question as widely as possible among the armed forces, the police forces, the administrative authorities and the civilian population;
- by issuing directives to the national civil and military authorities concerning the use of the emblem, in accordance with the [1949] Geneva Conventions and their [1977] Additional Protocols. 
Chad, Emblem Law, 2014, Article 8(1)–(2).
Colombia
Colombia’s Decree No. 138 (2005) states:
The Ministry for Social Protection must continue its programmes of disseminating international humanitarian law, in particular the norms that specifically concern the medical services, through the faculties of health science, the regional health bodies and through publications directed at the general public. 
Colombia, Decree No. 138, 2005, Article 2; see also Article 14.
Croatia
Croatia’s Emblem Law (1993) provides:
In accordance with the commitments made on [the] international level concerning the promotion of [the 1949] Geneva Conventions, it is necessary to elaborate adequate programmes and ensure their implementation among:
–[the] civilian population of the Republic of Croatia – Croatian Red Cross;
–high schools and university students – Ministry of Culture and Education. 
Croatia, Emblem Law, 1993, Article 14.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Constitution of the Transition (2003) provides:
The Plenum of the Intercongolese Dialogue has adopted,
The President of the Republic promulgates the Constitution of the Transition with the following content:
Article 47
The State has the duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as of all duly ratified regional and international instruments relative to human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Constitution of the Transition, 2003, Article 47.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Constitution (2006) provides:
The public authorities have the duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as of all duly ratified regional and international conventions relative to human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Constitution, 2006, Article 45.
France
France’s Law on the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights (2007) provides:
Article 1 – The National Consultative Commission on Human Rights Commission nationale consultative des droits de l’homme acts as adviser to the Government and proposes laws in the area of human rights, international humanitarian law and humanitarian action. It assists the Prime Minister and ministers concerned by way of its views on all questions of general scope relating to its field of competence, on both the national and international levels. It can, at is own initiative, publicly draw the attention of the Parliament and the Government to measures which it deems to be of a nature to help the protection and promotion of human rights.
The Commission is fully independent in the exercise of its mission.
It consists of representatives of non-governmental organizations specialized in the area of human rights, international humanitarian law or humanitarian action, experts placed in international organizations competent in the same area, qualified personalities, representatives of the main trade union confederations, the Ombudsman Médiateur de la République, as well as a member of parliament, a senator, and a member of the Economic and Social Council Conseil économique et social, nominated by their respective assemblies.
The mandate of the members of the Commission is irrevocable as long as its holder keeps the capacity by virtue of which he has been nominated and as long as he acts according to his obligation of diligence.
Representatives of the Prime Minister and of ministers concerned can participate in the work of the Commission, without voting powers.
Article 2 – A decree of the Council of State Conseil d’Etat ] specifies the composition and lays down the modalities of organization and functioning of the Commission established in article 1. 
France, Law on the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, 2007, Articles 1–2.
France
France’s Decree on the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights (2007) provides:
Article 2 – The Commission [Commission nationale consultative des droits de l’homme can be seized with requests for views or studies emanating from the Prime Minister or members of the Government.
It cooperates, within the limits of its competence, with the international organizations charged with human rights and international humanitarian law.
The Commission can, at its own initiative, draw the attention of the public powers to measures which it deems to be of a nature to help the protection and promotion of human rights, in particular concerning:
- the ratification of international instruments relating to human rights and international humanitarian law and, as the case may be, the aligning of national law with these instruments;
The Commission can also:
- study appropriate measures of ensuring the application of international humanitarian law.
The Commission makes public the views and reports it adopts. 
France, Decree on the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, 2007, Article 2.
Mexico
Mexico’s Order Establishing the IHL Commission (2009) states:
The Interdepartmental Commission on International Humanitarian Law, whose acronym is CIDIH-Mexico, is hereby permanently established as a consultative and technical organ of the Federal Government whose objective is to disseminate … the norms, principles and institutions of international humanitarian law and to advance the implementation at the national and international level of the obligations acquired by Mexico by virtue of being a party to international treaties in this field. 
Mexico, Order Establishing the IHL Commission, 2009, Article 1.
The Order also states:
In order to fulfil its objectives, the Commission shall have the following tasks:
II. Disseminate and promote international humanitarian law … among the general population. 
Mexico, Order Establishing the IHL Commission, 2009, Article 3(II).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Compulsory Human Rights Education (2002), providing, inter alia, for the establishment of a national plan on the teaching of human rights and IHL in universities and higher education establishments, states:
The duty to teach human rights and international humanitarian law must aim at full implementation and strict compliance with the international treaties and conventions as well as the protection of fundamental rights in the national and international arenas. 
Peru, Law on Compulsory Human Rights Education, 2002, Article 3.
Peru
Peru’s Law on the Control of Chemical Substances (2008) states: “The National Council for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (CONAPAQ) carries out the functions of the National Authority [envisaged by the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention].” 
Peru, Law on the Control of Chemical Substances, 2008, Article 5.
The Law also states:
CONAPAQ carries out the following functions:
c) Disseminate the scope and objectives of the [1993 Chemical Weapons] “Convention” and the present Law within the national territory. 
Peru, Law on the Control of Chemical Substances, 2008, Article 10(c).
Philippines
The Philippines’ Executive Order No. 134 (1999) states:
Whereas, in solidarity with the other Contracting Parties to the four Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II, the Philippines accepts direct responsibility for the application of international humanitarian law when involved in an armed conflict;
Whereas, the officials and personnel of government departments, law enforcement agencies, and local government units need to enhance their understanding of the principles of international humanitarian law in order to further strengthen their resolve to adhere to, promote and protect these principles;
Whereas, the commemoration of International Humanitarian Law Day will raise the people’s consciousness and promote greater awareness of the principles of International Humanitarian Law;
Now, Therefore, I, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law, do hereby declare August 12, 1999 and every 12th day of August thereafter as International Humanitarian Law Day.
All concerned departments and agencies of the government are enjoined to observe International Humanitarian Law Day and to actively support and participate in programs and activities to commemorate this Day. 
Philippines, Executive Order No. 134, 1999.
Philippines
The Philippines’ Memorandum Circular No. 138 (2007) states:
The Office of the President issued Executive Order (EO) 134 in 1999 declaring August 12 as IHL Day to commemorate the signing of the 1949 Geneva Convention. In addition, one of the thrusts of the Government is to sustain institutional and popular support and participation in building a culture of peace in the country. Therefore, the theme for this year’s observance shall be “Together for Humanity; Together for Peace”.
Relative thereto, all Cabinet Members and Heads of Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations are hereby directed to actively participate in the nationwide observance of IHL Day, both at the central and at the regional/field levels. In particular, you are directed to undertake any or a combination of the following:
3. Holding IHL seminars and symposia to discuss the importance of IHL; and
4. Provide other support that may be needed to make the celebration more meaningful;
The Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), Department of National Defense (DND) with the support of the Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) shall undertake the necessary coordination nationwide on the participation of government agencies. 
Philippines, Memorandum Circular No. 138, 2007, preamble and Sections 3–4.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Ordinance regarding Ratification of the Additional Protocols (1989) recommends that the Executive Committee of the Union of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR take measures for the publication and dissemination of the texts of the 1977 Additional Protocols among the civilian population. 
Russian Federation, Ordinance regarding Ratification of the Additional Protocols (1989), § 3.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Order on the Publication of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols (1990) contains a provision for the teaching of these treaties during studies and education. 
Russian Federation, Order on the Publication of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols, 1990, § 2.
Senegal
Senegal’s Decree on the High Commission for Human Rights and the Promotion of Peace (2004) states:
The High Commission for Human Rights and the Promotion of Peace is … tasked with monitoring all questions regarding the promotion and protection of human rights [and] the implementation of international humanitarian law …
To this effect:
- it receives and instructs … all complaints [which are brought before it by] natural persons or legal entities as well as organizations working in the field of promoting and protecting human rights and humanitarian law, without, however, being able to intervene in juridical proceedings or to call into question the validity of a judicial decision;
- it watches over … the implementation of international conventions in the field of human rights and international humanitarian law, and contributes to the adoption of domestic law to these conventions. 
Senegal, Decree on the High Commission for Human Rights and the Promotion of Peace, 2004, Article 2.
Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro’s Decision on the Establishment of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law (2004) states:
1. The Commission for International Humanitarian Law of Serbia and Montenegro (in further text: the Commission) is established in order to follow the development and implementation of International Humanitarian Law.
3. Tasks of the Commission are the following:
(4) To consider and propose measures undertaken in Serbia and in Montenegro on spreading knowledge of International Humanitarian Law in the … Police, Serbia and Montenegro Red Cross Society and other institutions which implement the rules of International Humanitarian Law. 
Serbia and Montenegro, Decision on the Establishment of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law, 2004, Articles 1 and 3(4).
Slovakia
Slovakia’s Law on the Red Cross Society and Emblem (1994) provides:
The Slovak Red Cross fulfils in accordance with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols and the conclusions of the International Conferences of the Red Cross and Red Crescent during the peace and war period primarily the following tasks:
–it familiarizes the population with the basic principles of the Red Cross, with the principles of international humanitarian law, disseminates the ideas of peace, mutual respect and understanding among people and nations. 
Slovakia, Law on the Red Cross Society and Emblem, 1994, Section 2(h).
Spain
Spain’s Royal Decree Establishing the Spanish IHL Commission (2007) states that this Commission is to “[p]rovide advice on the dissemination of … international humanitarian law … to … police forces, public officials, humanitarian organizations, legal and medical professionals, universities and educational centres, media and society in general.” 
Spain, Royal Decree Establishing the Spanish IHL Commission, 2007, Article 2(1)(e).
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka’s Geneva Conventions Act (2006) reproduces the following from the 1949 Geneva Convention IV:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population.
Any [c]ivilian[,] military, police or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions. 
Sri Lanka, Geneva Conventions Act, 2006, Schedule IV: Article 144; see also Schedule III: Article 127.
3. The FOCP [Federal Office for Civil Protection] shall provide the cantons with the necessary training documentation. 
Switzerland, Ordinance on the Protection of Cultural Property in the event of armed conflict, disaster or emergency situations, 2014, Article 4.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Regulations of the Commission on IHL Implementation (1999) states:
3. The main task of the Commission shall be to promote the implementation of international obligations of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of international humanitarian law …
4. In order to fulfill the main task, the Commission shall have the following functions:
- Participating in the development of training programs on the subject for all levels of general and vocational education. 
Tajikistan, Regulations of the Commission on IHL Implementation, 1999, Articles 3–4.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Order on the Introduction of an IHL Course at the Faculties of Law and Journalism (2001) states:
[I]n order to fulfill international obligations under the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 8 June 1977 to which the Republic of Tajikistan acceded on 13 January 1993 [the Ministry of Education] [o]rder[s]:
1. To introduce a course on “International humanitarian law” in the first semester of the fifth year of the law and journalism faculties at the higher education institutions of the Republic of Tajikistan at the expense of reserve hours.
1.1. To allocate to the special course “International Humanitarian Law” at higher education institutions of the Republic of Tajikistan the following lengths: at law faculties – 36 hours (including 24 hours of lectures, 12 hours of seminars) and at journalism faculties – 18 hours (including 12 hours of lectures, 6 hours of seminars). 
Tajikistan, Order on the Introduction of an IHL Course at the Faculties of Law and Journalism, 2001, Article 1.
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on Cooperation with the ICC (2006) states:
The State is obliged to inform and disseminate to the widest extent possible the norms of domestic and international law that regulate the aforementioned crimes and offences [including war crimes]. Education and training programmes must be implemented for public officials, in particular for all levels of teaching, judicial, police, … and external relations personnel. 
Uruguay, Law on Cooperation with the ICC, 2006, Article 30.
Viet Nam
Viet Nam’s Law on Red Cross Activities (2008) states:
Dissemination of humanitarian values by the Red Cross is an activity to enhance the awareness of organizations and individuals about the following … [matters]:
c) International humanitarian law, basic principles of the international red cross and red crescent movement, [and] other international treaties on humanitarian activities to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a party. 
Viet Nam, Law on Red Cross Activities, 2008, Article 12(c).
Venezuela
In 2001, in the Ballestas case, the Colombian Government requested the preventive detention and extradition of a Colombian citizen belonging to the armed group known as the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Army) for the crimes of rebellion, kidnapping, wrongful death, seizure and diversion of aircraft. The Chamber of Criminal Appeals of Venezuela’s Supreme Tribunal of Justice stated:
The High Contracting Parties have the legal obligation of disseminating as widely as possible … [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions and their [1977] Additional Protocols. … In these situations [of non-conventional, informal or “unstructured” armed conflicts], greater efforts must be made to disseminate International Humanitarian Law. 
Venezuela, Supreme Tribunal of Justice, Ballestas case, Judgment, 10 December 2001, pp. 8–9.
Note: As of 1 September 2011, 100 States had created national committees and other national bodies to assist them in ensuring respect for their obligations under IHL. These are not listed here individually. 
The States in question are:Africa: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago and Uruguay.Asia & Pacific: Australia, Indonesia, China, Cook Islands, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.Europe: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Information on the composition and mandate of the committees can be found in the Table of National Committees and Other National Bodies on International Humanitarian Law, Advisory Service on International Humanitarian Law, ICRC, 1 January 2010, available on www.icrc.org/ihl.
The tasks of these committees and bodies usually include dissemination of IHL or the promotion of such dissemination.
Algeria
According to the Report on the Practice of Algeria, courses in IHL are organized at Algerian universities and at the École Nationale d’Administration at postgraduate level. The report also mentions the activities of the Algerian Red Crescent Society, stating, however, that they consist mainly of first-aid training. 
Report on the Practice of Algeria, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Argentina
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Argentina pledged to “incorporate the study of international humanitarian law into the curricula of secondary schools and universities”. 
Argentina, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Argentina
The rules of procedure of the Argentinian Committee on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CADIH), established to undertake studies on the teaching and dissemination of the rules of IHL, make specific reference to the teaching and dissemination of the law among the civilian population. 
Argentina, Committee on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CADIH), Internal Rules of Procedure, Article 10.
Argentina
According to the Report on the Practice of Argentina, which refers to several annexed university curricula, IHL is part of some university programmes in Argentina. The report further notes that the CADIH also plans to introduce courses on IHL in secondary school curricula.  
Argentina, Curricula for the courses on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Law Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, 1986; Curriculum for the course on International Public Law as part of the Political Science degree, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina; Curriculum for the course on International Public Law, Faculty of Law, Austral University; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Religion, Statement by a Legal Adviser, First Meeting of the Argentine and Chilean Committees on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law, Buenos Aires, 17–18 April 1997; Report on the Practice of Argentina, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Australia
In its report to UNESCO on measures to implement the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property, the Australian Government noted that it provided funds to the Australian Red Cross to enable it to conduct IHL dissemination activities throughout Australia, which included a description of the contents of the Convention. 
Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Report to UNESCO on Measures to Implement the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and Associate Regulations, 1994, § 2.
Australia
Enumerating the matters which Australia believed must receive priority attention in the outcomes of the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995, the head of the Australian delegation noted:
All States must take effective action to disseminate the law [of armed conflict] … because of the growth of irregular conflict, to their general populations. States and relevant international organizations must work together to ensure that dissemination programs are given the highest priority in terms of funding and materials. 
Australia, Statement at the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, reprinted in Australian Year Book of International Law, Vol. 17, 1996, p. 787.
Australia
In 2002, during a debate in the UN Security Council concerning the protection of UN personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, Australia stated:
Practical measures can be taken by Governments to promote understanding and observance of international humanitarian law within their own communities … also among civilian populations, including by disseminating information about international humanitarian law. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4100 (Resumption 1), 9 February 2000, p. 6.
Australia
At the outset of the Iraq War in March 2003, Australia’s Department of Defence issued guidance to news organizations regarding the restrictions under IHL placed on the identification of prisoners of war:
Department of Defence is aware that some news organisations have shown images of prisoners of war (POWs) in the course of covering the events of the conflict in Iraq.
Media organisations should be aware of Article 13 of the Geneva Conventions III, which states that POWs must at all times be “protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity”.
Article 27 of the Geneva Conventions IV has the same provisions for civilian detainees and civilian internees. This includes restrictions of photographing and filming POWs, civilian detainees and civilian internees.
Defence requests media organisations “pixilate” the faces of both Coalition and Iraqi prisoners of war. 
Australia, Media release, “Identifying prisoners of war”, Department of Defence, Canberra, 24 March 2003.
Bangladesh
In 2007, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Bangladesh stated:
The Government has taken initiatives in disseminating the … [1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child], [the 2000] Optional … [Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict], Concluding Observations [of the Committee on the Rights of the Child] and written reports to a wider audience including … educational institutions, the Parliament and the NGOs. 
Bangladesh, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 29 October 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/BGD/4, submitted 4 September 2007, § 450.
Belarus
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Belarus pledged “to continue the dissemination of information on the fundamental norms and principles of [IHL] among the population of the Republic of Belarus”. 
Belarus, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Belgium
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Belgium pledged “to implement training programmes in international humanitarian law targeted at those who are most directly concerned by the application of and respect for this body of law, namely the judiciary …”. 
Belgium, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Belgium
The Report on the Practice of Belgium notes that, although the Belgian Government does not itself conduct dissemination activities for the civilian population, it actively supports such activities undertaken by the Belgian Red Cross, by institutions of higher education and by NGOs. 
Report on the Practice of Belgium, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Belgium
In 2006, in its written replies to the questions raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to Belgium’s initial report under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Belgium stated:
Since 1998, a programme called “Damage limitation” has been teaching pupils in upper primary school about the consequences of armed conflict and encouraging them to be civic-minded, show solidarity and adopt humanitarian values.
The programme is specifically aimed at teaching children and teenagers about the protection they enjoy as vulnerable persons under international humanitarian law. It tries to show the harm caused to children by conflicts, giving specific examples (child soldiers, light weapons, anti-personnel landmines, etc.).
The programme, which is run in the French Community in Belgium and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has the support of the Belgian Department of Development Cooperation. 
Belgium, Written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Belgium to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 3 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 30 March 2006, p. 2.
Chad
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Chad stated:
235. Chad is having to cope with an influx of refugees as a result of the conflicts which broke out in 2003 in Darfur and the Central African Republic.
236. In 2005, the east of the country was sheltering 220,000 refugees from Darfur, 60 per cent of them aged under 18.
237. In the south, Chad is sheltering some 40,000 refugees from the Central African Republic. Some 5,500 refugees are estimated to be living in urban areas. They are from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda, as well as from Sudan and the Central African Republic.
243. It should be noted that “Djanjaweed” incursions and rebel attacks have caused the internal displacement of 115,677 persons in the regions of Wadi Fira (Department of Dar Tama), Ouaddai (Departments of Assongha and Dar Sila), and Salamat (Department of Bahr Azoum). This total is estimated to include 48,578 children of pre-school age and 34,817 of school age (Source: UNHCR/N’Dj., 31 January 2007).
248. Social workers and humanitarian personnel have been trained … in humanitarian law and children’s rights in general. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 December 2007, UN Doc. CRC/C/TCD/2, submitted 7 June 2007, §§ 235–237, 243 and 248.
Chad
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Chad stated:
Humanitarian law is … taught in the faculty of law and legal techniques. The National School for Administration and the Magistracy, with the technical support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), recently drew up a manual entitled “Module of legal training on international human rights standards for the use of the National School for Administration and the Magistracy”, which is currently being tested. 
Chad, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 22 September 2008, UN Doc. CAT/C/TCD/1, submitted 4 September 2007, § 330.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated: “Social workers and humanitarian personnel have received training in … humanitarian law and children’s rights in general”. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 11.
Chad further stated: “[T]eaching on humanitarian law and human rights … is … to be introduced in primary and secondary schools.”  
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 87.
Chad also stated:
The recruitment into the army of minors under 18 is officially prohibited by law. Children can nevertheless be found in military camps and among armed groups, although there are no statistics on this. Awareness campaigns have been organized by United Nations agencies and international NGOs with a view to curbing the problem and a children’s parliament has been established to give children a voice, as recommended by the United Nations. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 47.
Chile
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Chile pledged to “incorporate study of [international humanitarian] law’s fundamental principles into Ministry of Education programmes”. 
Chile, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
China
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, China pledged that it would promote and strengthen “the wide dissemination and education of international humanitarian law among the people of China”. 
China, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Colombia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Colombia solemnly pledged to “promote and spread knowledge of international humanitarian law through training courses for all sectors of Colombian society and through general education programmes for trade schools, universities and schools”. 
Colombia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Colombia
In 2004, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Colombia stated:
A learning strategy aimed at communities has been introduced to put human rights values at the centre of the response by civil society to violations. The aim is to ensure the continuity of programmes designed to promote, publicize and ensure respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Colombia, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/Add.129, submitted 28 June 2004, § 122.
Cuba
According to the Report on the Practice of Cuba, IHL is taught in the law faculties’ departments of international law and is included in postgraduate courses in Cuba. 
Report on the Practice of Cuba, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Cuba
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Cuba solemnly pledged to “continue promoting dissemination of the norms and principles governing international humanitarian law, with a view to heightening the population’s awareness thereof”. 
Cuba, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Cuba
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the Status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Cuba stated:
Cuba has a great deal of experience in the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law. The Centre for Studies in International Humanitarian Law was established in Cuba more than 15 years ago … . Cuba has thus been able to include international humanitarian law in the curricula of the national education system. It has also contributed to the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law among foreign students in Cuba and professionals from Central America and the Caribbean.
The Centre, which was recently fully accredited as a postgraduate teaching institution for the National Health System, is under the University Of Medical Sciences Of Havana.
The Centre offers, inter alia, basic courses for instructors, postgraduates and degree holders, as well as workshops and lectures. It is involved in various national and international events, promoting an active exchange of up-to-date information on international humanitarian law. …
The Cuban Red Cross Society, the National Union of Jurists, universities and schools of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Public Health are also involved in the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law, for their respective audiences.
Cuba reaffirms its readiness to provide further assistance to the ICRC and Red Cross societies of different countries in their noble task of spreading knowledge of international humanitarian law in Cuban society and in other countries. 
Cuba, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 27 September 2010.
Cuba
In 2010, in a statement before the UN General Assembly on the status of the Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflicts, the representative of Cuba stated:
[Cuba] … has also accumulated experience in the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law. We have a Centre for the Study of International Humanitarian Law, … which has made a significant contribution to the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law to … the Ministry of the Interior, other State officials and Cuban civil society. We have [also] contributed to the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law in Central American and Caribbean countries.
Finally, Cuba reiterates its willingness to work towards the global implementation of the rules of international humanitarian law and continues to collaborate with the International Committee of the Red Cross and its various associations in the noble endeavour of disseminating the teaching of and respect for international humanitarian law. 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the UN General Assembly on Item 86: The Status of the Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflicts, 13 October 2010, p. 2.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
According to a report on the promotion and implementation of IHL in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), IHL is taught in the law and political science faculties of universities. 
Mavungu Mvumbi-di-Ngoma, Report on the Promotion and Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in the Republic of Zaire, September 1996, p. 22.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated:
Since its publication in the Official Journal in April 1999, the dissemination of the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] has made remarkable headway. It is pursued in the general framework of dissemination embodied [in] the Constitution, which provides in article 45 (6) and (7): “The authorities have a duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights, and all the duly ratified regional and international conventions relating to human rights and international humanitarian law” and “The State has an obligation to incorporate the rights of the individual into all the training programmes of the armed forces, the police and the security services.” 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 July 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/COD/2, submitted 23 October 2007, § 60.
Denmark
In 2008, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Denmark stated:
The Schools Service of the Danish Red Cross carries … [out] teaching of students in secondary school, i.e. the 9th and 10th school years. This initiative, which is supported by the Government’s Red Cross Committee, involves certain dilemmas relating to humanitarian international law, also including the involvement of children in armed conflicts. 
Denmark, Fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 22 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/DNK/4, submitted 19 August 2008, § 598; see also § 613.
Denmark
In 2008, in a statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the representative of Sweden stated: “To uphold respect for international humanitarian law, we must work in a preventive manner through such means as awareness raising campaigns for, and education in, international humanitarian law.” 
Denmark, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly made by the representative of Sweden on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden on “Item 76: Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts”, 23 October 2008.
Egypt
According to the Report on the Practice of Egypt, IHL is taught to second-year and postgraduate university students.  
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
El Salvador
In 2009, in its sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, El Salvador stated:
191. The Inter-institutional Committee on International Humanitarian Law in El Salvador (CIDIH-ES) disseminates information in various sectors of the population on international humanitarian law and its application in armed conflicts, and to that end, it has held training and refresher courses for civil … authorities, interested institutions and the public at large.
192. These activities, which have helped to spread information on international humanitarian law, have focused on a culture of peace to prevent war and [encourage] respect for the application of international humanitarian norms in times of armed conflict … .
193. In conjunction with the National Council for Culture and the Arts and the Ministry of Education, the CIDIH-ES has introduced practical information on international humanitarian law in textbooks for students studying for first-level degrees. In June 2007, a page informing children about international humanitarian law was published in one of the biggest national newspapers.
194. The above-mentioned measures promote knowledge of the importance of international humanitarian law and respect of its norms, thereby heightening the awareness and improving the education of the population with regard to this issue. 
El Salvador, Sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 2 June 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SLV/6, submitted 13 January 2009, §§ 191–194.
El Salvador
In 2009, in its written replies to the Committee against Torture concerning its second periodic report, El Salvador stated:
The main international human rights and international humanitarian law instruments have been published and given to state and academic institutions … , the last of these having taken place in 2004. The publications incorporate the basic instruments applicable in El Salvador, and have contributed to the promotion and dissemination of human rights in the country. 
El Salvador, Written replies by the Government of El Salvador to the list of issues formulated by the Committee against Torture in connection with its consideration of the second periodic report of El Salvador, 12 October 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/SLV/Q/2/Add.1, submitted 1 October 2009, Question 32, § 66.
Finland
In 2004, in a report to Parliament on the human rights policy of Finland, Finland stated: “Together with the other Member States of the EU, Finland [has] pledged to raise public awareness in relation to international humanitarian law, particularly among youth and peacekeeping forces.” 
Finland, Government report to Parliament on the human rights policy of Finland 2004, Helsinki: Publications of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2004, pp. 82–83.
[W]e must have a stronger policy for protecting children’s rights in peacekeeping operations. The recent serious allegations in the Central African Republic bear tragic witness to the importance of this. It is essential that personnel deployed in the field have adequate training in the rights of the child. Among the many steps needed, one could be to include child protection structures, including child protection focal points, in all missions and make pre-deployment training of peacekeepers in child protection mandatory. The coming United Nations Child Protection Training of Trainers Course that will be hosted by the Swedish Armed Forces this autumn will contribute to this. 
Finland, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
Germany
In 1996, in reply to a formal question from a member of parliament, a Minister of State of Germany, referring to Article 83(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 19 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, stated:
The Federal Government supports the dissemination of International Humanitarian Law in all areas and at all levels of state. It hereby fulfils its duties resulting from international public law. The four Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols oblige all contracting parties to disseminate the wording of the Conventions as widely as possible … This shall be done in particular by … stimulating the civilian population to study the Conventions. Military and civil offices shall, in times of an armed conflict [and] with regard to their responsibilit[ies], be entirely familiar with the wording of the Conventions and the Additional Protocols. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Reply of a Minister of State to a parliamentary question, 20 November 1996, BT-Drucksache 13/6197, 22 November 1996, p. 2.
The Minister of State further stated that, in addition to members of the armed forces, civil defence personnel, fire brigades and border guards receive instruction in IHL. According to the Minister, “aspects of international humanitarian law” are part of the general instruction in first aid given to the civilian population by aid organizations. He also pointed out the commitment of the German Red Cross Society with respect to the dissemination of IHL among the civilian population and stated that the material for the teaching of soldiers is, within certain limits, available free of charge for interested citizens. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Reply of a Minister of State to a parliamentary question, 20 November 1996, BT-Drucksache 13/6197, 22 November 1996, pp. 2–4.
Germany
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
The protection of children in armed conflicts is guaranteed by article 77 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts and article 4 of the Additional Protocol relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Both of these protocols were ratified by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 and thus became national law. The Federal Government contributes to spreading knowledge about the rules of international humanitarian law in armed conflicts, especially by relevant training in the armed forces. Above and beyond this, it provides general information that is mainly used in training staff and helpers in the medical and other aid organizations. 
Germany, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.7, 24 July 2003, submitted 23 July 2001, § 807.
Germany
In 2009, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Germany stated:
Germany actively promotes and disseminates International Humanitarian Law. In 2007 the German Federal Foreign Office, the German Federal Ministry of Defence and the German Red Cross … published and broadly distributed the collection “Documents on International Humanitarian Law”, containing documents of central importance to international humanitarian law in the English and German languages. 
Germany, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 9 January 2009, § 12.
Greece
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Greece pledged to “enhance dissemination of international humanitarian law … by reviewing existing educational and training curricula so as to integrate international humanitarian law into … universities, schools, media and public administration”. 
Greece, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Greece
In 1999, the Greek authorities, namely the Hellenic Armed Forces and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Justice and Education, made commitments to enhance awareness and knowledge of IHL among various groups (the military, diplomats, judges, lawyers, detention personnel, students and youth in general). 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 32.
Guatemala
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
One of the recommendations made by the Commission for Historical Clarification in Guatemala, which was established under the peace agreements, was that the provisions of international humanitarian law should be widely circulated in peacetime to all sections of the population. 
Guatemala, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/1, submitted 17 May 2006, § 160.
Holy See
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the Holy See pledged “to take suitable initiatives in favour of instruction in international humanitarian law for religious personnel in the armed forces (Catholic military chaplains)”. 
Holy See, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Iceland
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Iceland, jointly with the Icelandic Red Cross, pledged “to cooperate on disseminating international humanitarian law together by … organizing seminars and workshops for relevant government officials and other groups”. 
Iceland, Pledge made together with the Icelandic Red Cross at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
India
According to the Report on the Practice of India, there is no dissemination activity for the civilian population in general. IHL is taught at graduate level in Indian universities. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Indonesia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Indonesia pledged to “intensify the dissemination and education in International Humanitarian Law and the works of humanitarian organizations to the civilian community”. 
Indonesia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Indonesia
According to the Report on the Practice of Indonesia, IHL is part of the curriculum of some academic institutions in Indonesia. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 6.6
Iraq
According to the Report on the Practice of Iraq, IHL is taught at university in Iraq. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Iraq
In 2011, the Iraqi National Human Rights Plan, adopted by the Council of Ministers, stated:
With regard to the plan of action aspects and ongoing efforts to promote the human rights culture in the country, the plan mainly focuses on the following steps … :
9. Conduct trainings on … international humanitarian laws [and] ways of its enactment in the context of respect for human rights in armed conflicts. 
Iraq, Iraqi National Human Rights Plan, adopted by the Council of Ministers, 27 September 2011, p. 21.
Iraq
In 2012, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Iraq stated:
Dissemination of the Optional Protocol
15. The Government of the Republic of Iraq attaches great importance to raising public awareness of human rights and children’s rights. In the context of fulfilling its constitutional responsibilities, it promotes a culture of non-violence, respect for human rights and the protection of children through:
- Conducting training programmes, implemented by the National Institute for Human Rights in the Ministry of Human Rights, for all groups of Iraqi society, some with a focus on the rights of the child;
- Printing posters, booklets, pamphlets and advertisements to disseminate and raise awareness of the purpose of the Protocol;
- Incorporating human rights principles in general and the rights of the child in particular in school curriculums at all stages of education, throughout Iraq.
Measures taken to increase awareness of the Optional Protocol
33. The National Institute for Human Rights organizes training courses on human rights in general and on the rights of the child in particular, all of which include material relating to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Protocols thereto, in addition to information on human trafficking and anti-trafficking measures. From 2005 to date, it has held 135 training courses for a total of 3,061 participants and 19 workshops for a total of 501 participants.
34. The target groups of these courses, which were organized throughout Iraq, included government officials from the various ministries as well as teachers, schoolchildren, human rights activists and members of non-governmental organizations.
35. In 2008 and 2009, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo in Italy, in cooperation with the Ministry of Human Rights and with funding from the Italian Government (Embassy of Italy in Baghdad), organized two training sessions on international humanitarian law for personnel in the Ministry of Human Rights, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Justice and in other ministries. The training programme made clear reference to the criminalization of the involvement of children in armed conflict.
36. The Human Rights Department in the Ministry of Defence and the Centre for Military Values and Principles organizes training sessions on human rights and international humanitarian law on a regular basis. During the period from 2008 to 2011, they held:
- 84 training courses on international humanitarian law and human rights for training institutions and teams;
- Courses on international humanitarian law and human rights organized by the San Remo International Institute of Humanitarian Law (see paragraph 35, above);
- Five training sessions in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross;
- In addition, representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross delivered lectures at 16 other sessions, at which a wide range of conventions on international humanitarian law and human rights were distributed, in addition to informational materials. 
Iraq, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 18 October 2013, UN Doc. CAT/C/OPAC/IRQ/1, submitted 9 May 2012, §§ 15 and 33–36.
Iraq
In 2012, Iraq’s Ministry of Human Rights issued a press release entitled “General Inspector of Human Rights [M]inistry inaugurates a training course on []International Humanitarian Law”, which stated:
[T]he general inspector of the [M]inistry of [H]uman [R]ights[] inaugurated on Sunday, May 27 2012 the training course on … international humanitarian law, organized by the [San] Remo [Institute of International Humanitarian Law] in coordination with the Italian embassy [in] the green zone in Baghdad. …
In his speech, the general inspector conveyed the greetings of H.E the [M]inister of Human Rights … to the organizers of the course and all participants, stating the importance of this course [which] is complementary to a series of courses organized by [the San] Remo institute for the employees of the [M]inistry of [H]uman [R]ights and other ministries related to … international law. He appraised the positive outcome of these courses in terms of raising the level of efficiency of participants, adding that such courses helped to raise the awareness of participants [from the] [H]uman [R]ights [M]inistry [regarding] the concept of international humanitarian law[,] which will help to upgrade … capabilities of the ministry staff when applying what they have learned in their work[].
At the end of his address, the inspector stated that he looked forward [to] continued cooperation with the institute and the Italian embassy in organizing such courses[,] deemed useful for all participants thereof. 
Iraq, Ministry of Human Rights, “General Inspector of Human Rights [M]inistry inaugurates a training course on []International Humanitarian Law”, Press Release, 27 May 2012, pp. 1–2.
Italy
In 1997, in its Final Report on the Events in Somalia, the Italian Government Commission of Inquiry stated that it was necessary to establish a compulsory course on IHL and on human rights not only for the armed forces but also for civilians, and that instruction in these subjects should be introduced in military and non-military schools. 
Italy, Government Commission of Inquiry, Final Report on the Events in Somalia, 8 August 1997, pp. 44–46.
Kenya
In 2010, in a report on the work of the National Committee on Implementation of International Humanitarian Law, Kenya stated:
IV. … The National Committee is now in the process of drafting its own version of a[n IHL] Training Manual that would be used widely in all sectors of the population regardless of the degree of maturity of the audience. The idea is to ensure a systematic approach in dissemination of IHL in Kenya.
VII. … This training will be linked to the guidelines and substance of the nearly completed Training Manual and will target policy makers and implementers to assist them in appreciating the Government’s obligations under IHL. 
Kenya, Report on the Work of the National Committee on Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (Kenya), presented at the 10th Annual Regional Seminar on International Humanitarian law, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, 4–7 May 2010, §§ IV and VII.
Kuwait
According to the Report on the Practice of Kuwait, IHL is taught at Kuwait University. 
Report on the Practice of Kuwait, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) stated:
I. General implementing measures
23. In addition to what was stated in the first report (paras. 39 to 42), with the assistance of the Australian Government, the Finnish Government, the European Commission and UNDP [United Nation Development Programme], the Department of Treaties and Law of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had translated into the Lao language a number of international instruments concerning human rights to which the Lao PDR is a signatory. These included: … the [1968] Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity … the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child, … The above texts have been reproduced in two handbooks and distributed to State employees and the public to familiarize them with their rights and duties.
VIII. Special protection measures (arts. … 38 and 39 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child], …)
2. Children in armed conflict (art. 38), including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration (art. 39)
121. The Lao PDR is a signatory to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, as well as the Additional Protocols to the Conventions and has, in practice, always complied with the provisions of those instruments, particularly the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Protocol I relating to the Protection of Victims of International Conflicts and Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Conflicts. … In addition, with the help of the ICRC, the Lao Red Cross has had the four [1949] Geneva Conventions and the two [1977] Additional Protocols translated into Lao and published, so that they can be distributed, for study purposes, to the various State organizations and the wider public.  
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 10 August 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LAO/2, submitted 22 April 2009, §§ 23 and 121.
Malaysia
According to the Report on the Practice of Malaysia, Malaysian legislation does not provide specifically for the dissemination of IHL among the civilian population. According to the report, which refers to an interview conducted with the Ministry of Home Affairs, in practice efforts to disseminate IHL among the civilian population have been undertaken by the Malaysian Red Crescent Society and by the law faculty of the University of Malaya. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Malaysia
In 2006, during the consideration of the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols by the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, a statement of the delegation of Malaysia was summarized by the Committee in its records as follows:
64. [The delegate of Malaysia said that] … [Malaysia] … took seriously its obligation to ensure proper dissemination of the principles and rules of international humanitarian law, as codified in the [1949] Geneva Conventions, to which it was a party, and their [1977] Additional Protocols, to which it had not acceded. 
Malaysia, Statement by the delegation of Malaysia before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, 18 October 2006, as published in the summary record of the 8th meeting,15 November 2006, UN Doc. A/C.6/61/SR.8, § 64.
The Committee’s meeting records also provide:
65. [The delegate of Malaysia said that] … Knowledge, awareness and understanding of the principles of international humanitarian law were the cornerstone of compliance therewith. In that connection, Malaysia was working on the establishment of a national committee on international humanitarian law which would … disseminate international humanitarian law in general. 
Malaysia, Statement by the delegation of Malaysia before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, 18 October 2006, as published in the summary record of the 8th meeting,15 November 2006, UN Doc. A/C.6/61/SR.8, § 65.
Malaysia
In 2010, during the consideration of the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols by the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, a statement of the delegation of Malaysia was summarized by the Committee in its records as follows: “[The delegate of Malaysia] said that … [t]he Malaysian Ministry of Education, together with ICRC, had incorporated international humanitarian law into the secondary school curriculum.” 
Malaysia, Statement by the delegation of Malaysia before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, 18 October 2010, as published in the summary record of the 13th meeting, 8 December 2010, UN Doc. A/C.6/65/SR.13, §§ 8 and 12.
Malawi
In 1999, a seminar on implementation of IHL organized by Malawi’s Ministry of Defence, the Law Commissioner, the ICRC and the National Red Cross Society encouraged Malawi to include IHL in training programmes for the police, prison and immigration services and in university curricula. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 44.
Mexico
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Mexico stated:
The Commission is a permanent advisory and technical body of the Federal Executive branch; its main purpose is to coordinate the Federal Government’s efforts with respect to international humanitarian law by disseminating … the rules, principles and institutions pertaining to such law and facilitating harmonization of domestic law with Mexico’s international commitments. 
Mexico, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 29 September 2010, § 7.
Mexico also stated that “the Federal Public Administration, in collaboration with ICRC, has held a number of training courses for public servants with a view to educating them about matters relating to international humanitarian law.” 
Mexico, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 29 September 2010, § 7.
Mexico
In 2010, in its written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning Mexico’s initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Mexico stated:
18. The Inter-Ministerial International Humanitarian Law Commission (CIDIH-Mexico) is launching an annual nationwide course on international humanitarian law for public officials and the general public. The course covers the special protection afforded children in armed conflicts under international humanitarian law and international human rights law.
19. The course is being organized to fulfil one of the promises made by the Government of Mexico at the Thirtieth International Conference of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent (Geneva, November 2007), on the promotion and respect of international humanitarian law. 
Mexico, Written replies of the Government of Mexico to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Mexico under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 December 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/MEX/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 23 August 2010, §§ 18–19.
Mozambique
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Mozambique pledged to “undertake efforts aimed at disseminating and promoting the International Humanitarian Law in … educational institutions particularly at the university level”. 
Mozambique, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Nepal
In 2004, in a declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, the Prime Minister of Nepal stated:
Human rights groups, other non-government organizations and human rights activists working for the implementation of the principles of human rights and international humanitarian laws shall be protected. 
Nepal, Declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, 26 March 2004, § 18.
Netherlands
In an explanatory memorandum submitted to the Dutch Parliament in the context of the ratification procedure of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, both the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence expressed themselves in favour of information on IHL being given not only to soldiers, but also to a broader group of people. However, it was stressed that to support governmental activities in this field, non-governmental activities were also needed. 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Explanatory memorandum on the ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 1983–1984 Session, Doc. 18 278 (R 1248), Nos. 1–3, p. 9.
Niger
In 2002, at the African Parliamentary Conference on International Humanitarian Law for the Protection of Civilians during Armed Conflict, the President of the National Assembly of Niger committed the National Assembly and the deputies of Niger:
3) To observe that the government disseminates international humanitarian law through the education of the Forces of Defence and Security and the sensitization of the population.
4) To fully engage in the process of sensitization, information and education of the citizens. 
Niger, Pledge made at the African Parliamentary Conference on International Humanitarian Law for the Protection of Civilians during Armed Conflict, Niamey, 18–20 February 2002, §§ 3–4.
Norway
In 2008, in a statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the representative of Sweden stated: “To uphold respect for international humanitarian law, we must work in a preventive manner through such means as awareness raising campaigns for, and education in, international humanitarian law.” 
Norway, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly by the representative of Sweden made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden on “Item 76: Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts”, 23 October 2008.
[W]e must have a stronger policy for protecting children’s rights in peacekeeping operations. The recent serious allegations in the Central African Republic bear tragic witness to the importance of this. It is essential that personnel deployed in the field have adequate training in the rights of the child. Among the many steps needed, one could be to include child protection structures, including child protection focal points, in all missions and make pre-deployment training of peacekeepers in child protection mandatory. The coming United Nations Child Protection Training of Trainers Course that will be hosted by the Swedish Armed Forces this autumn will contribute to this.  
Norway, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
Peru
According to the Report on the Practice of Peru, which refers to various university programmes and curricula, IHL is taught at university level. 
Report on the Practice of Peru, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Peru
In 2004, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Peru stated:
281. According to the new legislation [Act No. 27741 promulgated on 28 May 2002, which amended article 1 of Act No. 25211], the Political Constitution of Peru, as well as human rights law and international humanitarian law, must be disseminated and systematically and uninterruptedly taught at all levels of the educational system, both civil and military, as well as in university and non-university higher education.
282. According to the general framework described above, the compulsory teaching of human rights law and international humanitarian law must include the full application and strict implementation of all international acts and agreements, as well as the protection of fundamental rights at national and international level. 
Peru, Fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 27 May 2005, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.697, submitted 15 November 2004, §§ 281–282.
Poland
In 2005, in a cooperation agreement concluded between the Minister of National Defence and the Polish Red Cross, the Government of Poland stated:
1. Organizational units of the Ministry of National Defence and the organizational units subordinated to the Minister of National Defence or supervised by him, hereinafter referred to as the national defence agency, and the Polish Red Cross, hereinafter referred to as the PRC shall cooperate to:
2) disseminate information on international humanitarian law of armed conflicts. 
PolandCooperation Agreement Between the Minister of National Defence and the Polish Red Cross, Warsaw, 8 February 2005, published in MON Official Journal of 2005, No. 3, item 18, § 1(2).
Rwanda
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Rwanda stated:
Dissemination of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict], in all relevant languages to all children and adults, in particular to people responsible for recruitment of soldiers, and training offered to members of all professional categories who work with children and advocate for them
122. MIGEPROF [Ministry in the Office of the Prime Minister in charge of Gender and Promotion of the Family] annually organizes campaigns to explain the … [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] … , the Law [Relating to] the Rights and Protection of the [C]hild [A]gainst [V]iolence [(2001)] … as well as the National policy on Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children. These campaigns target all brackets of the population such as teachers, social workers, representatives of NGOs and various local religious confessions, local government authorities. The campaigns also target the population in general since popular meetings are organized for this purpose.
123. With the support of UNDP, NHRC [National Human Rights Commission] has just translated the Protocol into Kinyarwanda and the next step is its dissemination. 
Rwanda, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 December 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/RWA/1, submitted 20 January 2010, §§ 122 and 123.
Senegal
In 2011, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Senegal stated:
37. The Senegalese authorities have continued to work to advance the institution-building process that began following independence. A great deal has been accomplished in this respect, with one example being the creation in 2004 of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Promotion of Peace, whose mission is to protect and promote all human rights as an absolute priority.
38. The Office of the High Commissioner, which is attached to the Office of the President, includes:
- A human rights desk, which can receive complaints from any individual or body corporate and from organizations working in the field of human rights and international humanitarian law.
- A follow-up unit, which is also responsible for documentation and the promotion of human rights and international humanitarian law. It is tasked with the preparation of national reports on the human rights situation and of replies to communications and questions addressed to Senegal by regional and international bodies responsible for monitoring the situation with respect to human rights and international humanitarian law.
Article 10 of the [1984] Convention [against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment]
134. Education and information concerning the prohibition of torture features prominently in the curricula of training academies for police, the gendarmerie, customs officials, health officials, and members of the Armed Forces and the judiciary as well as in human rights institutions.
136. Each year the Peace and Human Rights Institute of the Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar offers a master’s degree programme on citizenship, human rights and humanitarian action. Students in this programme receive training in human rights, international humanitarian law and, particularly, specific methods for protecting the physical integrity of persons. A number of members of the country’s security forces have received this training.
137. The High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Promotion of Peace and the Senegalese Human Rights Committee are conducting public education and training programmes. 
Senegal, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 5 October 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/SEN/3, submitted 9 February 2011, §§ 37–38, 134 and 136–137.
Senegal
In 2013, in its third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Senegal stated:
A. Protection of the rights of child victims and strengthening of the protection of children’s rights
26. Senegal has continued to build on these efforts by strengthening the legal and regulatory frameworks and by becoming party to several international instruments, including … the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. During the reporting period, the National Assembly authorized the President of the Republic to ratify the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance and adopted the Social Policy Orientation Act on the rights of persons with disabilities. … These laws together with other older legislation have been disseminated in the form of a compendium of laws on children’s rights in Senegal …
N. Measures adopted to disseminate the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child
140. The State has adopted several measures to improve the dissemination of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. … Training colleges, including the Special Social Work Training College and those for the Police and the Gendarmerie, have included the Convention in their modules on the rights of the child.
141. Thanks to the support of some development partners … , coalitions working for children have been established, made up of civil society organizations such as the National Coalition of Children’s Associations and NGOs (CONAFE). These organizations, collectively and individually, have organized workshops, sports tournaments … and outdoor activities in all regions of the country, where the content of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Committee’s recommendations were disseminated.
142. These organizations, taking advantage of the Day of the African Child celebrated on 16 June, have also led campaigns to raise awareness of, popularize and promote the [1990] African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child[.] 
Senegal, Third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 March 2015, UN Doc. CRC/C/SEN/3–5, submitted 29 April 2013, §§ 26 and 140–142.
Serbia
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Serbia stated: “The new training programmes for the MUP RS [Ministry of Internal Affairs] personnel also cover the provisions of the law of international conflicts and humanitarian law, code of conduct for law enforcement officers, etc.” 
Serbia, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 8 February 2007, UN Doc. CAT/C/SRB/1, submitted 3 May 2006, as amended by CAT/C/SRB/2/Corr.1, 23 September 2008, § 326; see also § 335.
Slovenia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Slovenia pledged to give “support to the dissemination of the Geneva Conventions with the Additional Protocols and other instruments of International Humanitarian Law within … educational, health and other institutions”. 
Slovenia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Spain
In 2008, in its written replies to the Human Rights Committee concerning its fifth periodic report, Spain stated with regard to the training given to law enforcement civil servants that “numerous courses are offered at the levels of lifelong learning, refresher training, further training and continuous training, including … [a] [c]ourse on international humanitarian law”. 
Spain, Written replies by the Government of Spain to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues raised in connection with the fifth periodic report of Spain, 14 October 2008, UN Doc. CCPR/C/ESP/Q/5/Add.1, Question 9, p. 23.
Spain
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Spain stated:
Higher studies in national defence cover such areas as peace, security, defence and military policy, and are designed not only for professionals in the armed forces but also those in public administration and members of society in general.
Every year the following courses are offered (as part of either advanced military training or higher studies in national defence) and incorporate aspects of the [1949] Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols:
- Law of armed conflict
- General staff
- Observers for peacekeeping operations
- Peacekeeping operations
- Civil and military cooperation
- Civil and military cooperation for reservists. 
Spain, Report on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, 5 May 2010, Section 1.2.
[W]e must have a stronger policy for protecting children’s rights in peacekeeping operations. The recent serious allegations in the Central African Republic bear tragic witness to the importance of this. It is essential that personnel deployed in the field have adequate training in the rights of the child. Among the many steps needed, one could be to include child protection structures, including child protection focal points, in all missions and make pre-deployment training of peacekeepers in child protection mandatory. The coming United Nations Child Protection Training of Trainers Course that will be hosted by the Swedish Armed Forces this autumn will contribute to this. 
Sweden, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
Switzerland
In 2009, the Swiss Federal Council created the “Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law”. Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs stated:
Switzerland is obliged to implement and to further promote International Humanitarian Law at home as well. The Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law (ICIHL) fosters and coordinates activities in this area.
The Interdepartmental Committee is tasked with the administration/internal exchange of experience and information on International Humanitarian Law and its implementation in Switzerland. It ensures optimum coordination among the Federal authorities and maintains relations with the scientific community, civil society, and other organizations concerned with International Humanitarian Law, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
Activities
The Interdepartmental Committee participates in the training of the Swiss authorities personnel and persons outside the Federal administration in matters of International Humanitarian Law. 
Switzerland, Mandate of the Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law, 2009.
[emphasis in original]
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Strategy (2009) states:
3. International Response
Strengthening the normative framework and its instruments of implementation
A number of treaties and other instruments intended to improve the protection of civilians in armed conflict have been adopted or have entered into force in recent years. Constant efforts are required to ensure that these instruments are strengthened and disseminated. …
4. Strategic Choices
The FDFA has thus defined three strategic objectives with corresponding specific outcomes for the next four years:
- The normative framework ensuring the protection of civilians in armed conflict is adequate, known and respected by all parties involved
- The normative framework ensuring the protection of civilians in armed conflict is clarified, strengthened and disseminated. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict Strategy, 2009, pp. 7 and 15; see also pp. 18–19.
[emphasis in original]
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Dissemination
… The States Parties are also required to incorporate the provisions of the Geneva Conventions into their own national legislation and to work for the dissemination of international humanitarian law in peacetime as well as during Armed conflict.
Implementation
… States are also responsible for disseminating international humanitarian law. …
Promotion of international humanitarian law
… It is therefore important that the actors concerned ensure a higher degree of respect for and implementation of international humanitarian law, in particular through the reaffirmation and the dissemination of the existing rules as well as through the further clarification of some of them. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, pp. 16–17, 24 and 35–36.
Switzerland
In 2010, in its Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
5 Possible action by Switzerland
The following list offers a glimpse of the initiatives being carried out, or having been recently concluded, that aim to develop or reinforce the content of international humanitarian law:
- Switzerland participates in the dissemination of the particularly pertinent study of the ICRC on the state of customary international humanitarian law;
- … Switzerland is working on the elaboration of a strategy that aims to ensure the broadest dissemination and implementation of the [Air and Missile Warfare] manual[.] 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, 17 September 2010, Section 5, pp. 25–26.
[footnotes in original omitted]
In light of the challenges in securing and sustaining humanitarian access and the central role access plays in contributing to the protection of civilians, Switzerland launched an initiative in 2009 to develop two practical resources on humanitarian access in situations of armed conflict: this Handbook on the normative framework on humanitarian access and an accompanying Field Manual. These products contribute directly to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) Strategy on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (2009 – 2012) pertaining to humanitarian access.
Switzerland
In 2012, in a speech on the occasion of Public International Law Day, the head of Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs stated:
To be complete, I must add that Switzerland does not forget that, as a High Contracting Party to the [1949] Geneva Conventions, it, too, has the obligation to implement and disseminate international humanitarian law on its own territory. In 2009, the Federal Council, following insofar the example of numerous countries, decided to establish an Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law. Switzerland thus reinforces further its commitment on this matter with the support of the Swiss Red Cross. 
Switzerland, Speech by the head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs on the occasion of Public International Law Day, 19 October 2012.
Switzerland
In 2013, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs stated in the “Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts”:
Axis 1 – Achieve greater compliance with the normative framework
In order to ensure that the law protects victims of armed conflicts, it is important that action be taken before conflicts arise. Examples of measures include the dissemination of information on international humanitarian law, …
Area of activities 2
Ensure greater understanding of the normative framework
One of the obstacles preventing compliance with the normative framework by parties to armed conflicts is the lack of knowledge (or lack of suitable familiarity) with this framework on the part of those called upon to comply with it.
Familiarity with the normative framework must not only be theoretical, but also practical. Each actor involved in an armed conflict must have sufficient awareness of its obligations in order to comply with them. It is also important that information about the normative framework be disseminated within the population. …
Lines of action
Switzerland will implement and disseminate information on international humanitarian law on its own territory through the Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law (ICIHL). The ICIHL will be responsible for ensuring the exchange of experiences and information on international humanitarian law within the Federal Administration and how it is implemented in Switzerland. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, 2013, pp. 11 and 13.
In 2009, the Federal Council established the Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law [which is a mechanism for exchanging experiences and information on international humanitarian law within the Federal Administration as well as ensuring the implementation of this law in Switzerland] in response to a recommendation by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. In 2014, the Committee organized a course on international humanitarian law for members of staff from the Federal Administration. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and Directorate of International Law, Report on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts (2012-2014), 30 May 2014, § 9.
[footnote in original omitted]
Tajikistan
In 2008, in its report to the UN Secretary-General on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Tajikistan stated: “International humanitarian law is taught as an optional subject in the law departments of the Republic’s leading universities.” 
Tajikistan, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 14 October 2008, § 6.
Thailand
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Thailand pledged “to raise awareness of and promote respect for International Humanitarian Law and Principles in Thai society”.  
Thailand, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Thailand
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Thailand stated:
4.1 Dissemination
11.(1) The translation of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] into Thai [was done] and [it has been] disseminated to various agencies, including government and nongovernmental agencies, local administrative organizations and the media since 2001, even before Thailand’s ratification of the Optional Protocol in 2006. Following the ratification, the Optional Protocol has been printed and incorporated into the copies of the Convention, along with its summary, and distributed to relevant agencies to inform them of Thailand’s obligations under the Optional Protocol, in particular, and the Convention, in general. Copies of the translation have also been distributed to various academic institutes and local administrative organizations nationwide.
12. In addition, numerous meetings and seminars have been organized at the national and regional levels specifically to disseminate knowledge on the Convention and the Optional Protocol to a wide range of audiences, including representatives of relevant agencies, law practitioners, academicians, training facilitators, child rights volunteers, community leaders, and child and youth groups. Key content of the Optional Protocol has also been incorporated into wider meetings and seminars concerning children and disseminated via the internet.
4.2 Training
16.(3) Sensitization and training on the Convention and the Optional Protocol. Training is organized by such agencies as the Ministries of Interior, Education, Justice, Labour, Public Health, Social Development and Human Security; the Office of the General-Attorney; the Royal Thai Police; and non-governmental organizations, such as Holt Sahathai, the Foundation for Child Development; the Centre for the Protection of Child Rights Foundation, and the Buddhist Youth for Development Foundation. The Convention and its Optional Protocol have been incorporated into both general training curricula on child rights and specialized training.
17. Child rights sensitization training was initiated in 1997 for child rights practitioners in government and non-governmental agencies. From 2003 onwards, child rights sensitization and training of trainers has been conducted regularly at the national, international and local levels to raise awareness on child rights, the Convention and its Optional Protocols. Training activities conducted each year include:
18. (1) Two 12-day international training modules, namely child rights sensitization training of trainers and child participation training, for child rights practitioners from 13 countries in the Asia and the Pacific regions.
19. (2) A five-day national child rights sensitization module for child rights practitioners from various government and nongovernmental agencies, child and youth groups and local administrative organizations.
20. (3) A one- or two-day local child rights sensitization module for local leaders, children, youth, parents, guardians, teachers, child minders, child rights volunteers and the general public. This training is aimed at creating networks for the development and protection of children. 
Thailand, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 19 July 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/1, submitted 30 October 2009, §§ 11–12 and 16–20.
United States of America
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the United States pledged that “the United States will work to broaden and enhance efforts for dissemination of IHL, including in co-operation with the American Red Cross”. 
United States, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Uruguay
According to the Report on the Practice of Uruguay, which contains, as annexes, several syllabi of courses of the faculty of law of the University of Uruguay, IHL is part of the teaching in public international law and human rights law in the university’s law faculty. 
Uruguay, Syllabi of the courses in Public International Law and Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of the Republic, 1990, Report on the Practice of Uruguay, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Uruguay
By a ministerial decree, a national committee on humanitarian law was created within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay to study and formulate recommendations on the dissemination of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols at all levels of public and private education, and on the implementation of IHL through legislation, regulations, and measures guaranteeing the effective application of the Conventions. 
Uruguay, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Decree No. 677/1992 creating the National Commission of Humanitarian Law, 24 November 1992, Article 1, Diario Oficial, 1 March 1993, p. 498-A.
Uruguay
In 2003, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Uruguay stated:
327. … At the domestic level, since 1992 an inter-ministerial commission has been working to incorporate the norms of international humanitarian law into domestic law and to disseminate information and provide training on that subject.
328. One of the most significant achievements has been the inclusion in primary, secondary and university (law school) curricula of States’ obligations under international humanitarian law. 
Uruguay, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 October 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/URY/2, submitted 18 December 2003, §§ 327–328.
Uzbekistan
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uzbekistan stated:
It should be noted that the population of Uzbekistan has been informed about the provisions of the [2000 Optional] Protocol [to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] thanks to an extensive information and education campaign based on the study of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child (including art. 38), as well as within the context of educational activities in the field of international humanitarian law. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 50.
In the report, Uzbekistan also stated:
After Uzbekistan acceded to the two [2000] Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 2010, a book in Uzbek entitled “The Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child” was published in an edition of 2,000 copies. The Protocols were also published in the book “The Legal Basis for the Protection of the Rights of the Child: International Standards and National Legislation” (1,000 copies). 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 54.
In the report, Uzbekistan further stated:
Inasmuch as the legislation of Uzbekistan is in complete conformity with the provisions of article 38 of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict, it is planned to intensify informational/awareness-raising, educational and publishing activities in this field, improve the efficiency of the national system for monitoring observance of the rights of the child, including in matters covered by the Optional Protocol, and stimulate the social partnership between the State and civil society institutions in this sphere. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 68.
In the report, Uzbekistan also stated:
186. Uzbekistan devotes considerable attention to informing the general public, civil servants, parliamentarians, judges, public prosecutors, internal affairs and defence department personnel, social workers, teachers and parents about the provisions of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child and its [2000] Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
187. The Protocol’s principles and provisions are widely covered by the national and regional mass media, studied in educational institutions, dealt with in the curricula of institutes and staff retraining and further training courses, published in the form of books, brochures, booklets and scholarly and popular articles in specialized children’s publications and feature on television and radio and in competitions and olympiads for schoolchildren and students of institutes of higher education. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, §§ 186–187.
In the report, Uzbekistan further stated:
193. The curriculum for students in the law faculty of the Mirzo Ulugbek National University of Uzbekistan includes such courses as “Human Rights” (54 hours) and “International Law” (81 hours). These courses explore in detail questions relating to the involvement of children in armed conflict. Law and philosophy students following the course on the Idea of National Independence and Foundations of Spirituality and Law are conversant with the [2000] Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. Moreover, law students are informed about the offence of recruiting children and involving them in hostilities during their lectures on criminal law.
195. Meetings, seminars, and training sessions on issues pertaining to the involvement of children in armed conflict are regularly held in the Law Faculty of the Mirzo Ulugbek National University. These events are organized by the “Theory of the State and Law and International Law” sub-faculty.
196. By organizing higher-level courses, the Office of the Procurator-General takes steps to disseminate the contents of the Optional [Protocol] to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict … and to educate employees of the prosecution service in the basic standards laid down in these international instruments. In particular, in 2010, in the Republican Centre for the Social Adaptation of Children, a seminar cum training session was held on the theme: Questions relating to the Prevention of Criminal Offences against Children. At the training session the problems of safeguarding the rights and freedoms of children were discussed. Proposals were made, including with respect to the development of measures to prevent criminal offences against children in accordance with the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
197. The TGYuI [Tashkent State Law Institute] has published a textbook entitled International Humanitarian Law. One of the important topics dealt with in this textbook is the problem of protecting the rights of the child in situations of armed conflict. Accordingly, special attention is paid to explaining the rights and freedoms of children, who under the rules of humanitarian law are included in the “protected persons” group.
198. The specific facts relating to the forced recruitment of minors into the armed forces … are described in the textbook from the standpoint of the pernicious consequences of the involvement of children in hostilities.
200. In connection with the introduction into the curriculum of the institutes of higher legal education of a new course on the rights of the child, the TGYuI is currently in the process of preparing a textbook with the same title, one chapter (chap. 5) of which is directly devoted to the “Protection of the Rights of the Child within the Framework of International Humanitarian Law”. Section 3 of this chapter is devoted to an analysis of the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The attention of students is particularly drawn to the key provisions of humanitarian law concerning the age threshold for the recruitment of children into the armed forces, the variable approach of States to the question of the mobilization of children on the basis of their having attained their majority, and their deliberate turning of juveniles into soldiers.
201. Within the context of the implementation of the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, the bachelor’s programme of the University of World Economy and Diplomacy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs offers, as part of its “Human Rights” course, instruction in such subjects as the concept and significance of the rights of the child, the international agreements and national legislation of Uzbekistan on the protection of the rights of the child, international and national institutional mechanisms for protecting the rights of the child and aspects of Uzbekistan’s international cooperation in the area of protection and observance of child rights. The course on “Fundamentals of International Humanitarian Law” includes instruction in the principles of international law governing the protection of the rights of the child during periods of armed conflict, while students following the course on criminal law study issues relating to criminal liability for violation of the laws and customs of war.
202. At master’s degree level, under the specialty “International Law” within the framework of the course on “International Human Rights Law”, the following topics are studied: the protection of the rights of the child in international law; the substance and significance of the Protocol; international monitoring mechanisms; procedures for protecting the rights of the child; and matters relating to the implementation of the provisions of the Protocol in the national legislation. At the same time, the course on “International Humanitarian Law” covers contemporary problems of international humanitarian law and theoretical and practical problems relating to the protection of the rights of the child during periods of armed conflict. Students of international humanitarian law take part in such international competitions as the Central Asian competition between student teams of the institutes of higher education of the Republics of Central Asia and the Jean-Pictet international competition, in which student teams from all over the world participate. In the International Law Faculty degree work is done and master’s theses are written on subjects relating to the protection of the rights of the child and international humanitarian law.
203. The Advanced Training Centre for Jurists attached to the Ministry of Justice takes measures to raise students’ awareness of the role and significance of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
204. The training programmes for district (municipal) criminal court judges and for military judges include as a special subject the observance of human rights and freedoms in the course of armed conflicts.
205. The Centre’s curriculum includes courses on: “The Rights of the Child: International Standards and National Legislations”; “The Legal Basis for the Fight against International Crime”; and “The Place and Role of International Standards on the Protection of Human Rights in the Activities of Law Enforcement Agencies”.
206. Within the context of these courses, students are informed about the requirements of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, the obligations of States in this respect, and the legal, administrative and other measures that need to be introduced by countries to ensure that the obligations assumed are actually fulfilled. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, §§ 193, 195–198 and 200–206.
In the report, Uzbekistan also stated:
Uzbekistan will continue to work together with the ICRC and other international organizations with a view to keeping the population and State employees … informed about issues relating to international humanitarian law and the study of the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 238.
Venezuela
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Venezuela stated:
75. The Directorate of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law of the Ministry of Defence is charged with disseminating the provisions of the human rights treaties that have been signed by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Accordingly, a number of activities have been carried out for the purpose of publicizing the content of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict].
106. To fulfil its obligation to disseminate the Optional Protocol, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela created the Autonomous Institute and National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents as part of the National System for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents. The Institute is responsible for advocating and raising awareness about the rights, guarantees and duties of children and adolescents, as well as representing their interests and concerns before the other agencies and stakeholders in the system.
108. The Venezuelan State, acting through the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its Office of the State Representative for Human Rights and the Ministry of Communes and Social Protection and its subsidiary agency, the Autonomous Institute and National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents, reiterates its commitment to disseminating the Optional Protocol among the general public and the country’s military and police forces.
109. Specifically, in order to raise awareness regarding the rights of children and adolescents, prevent the use of children and adolescents in armed hostilities and conflicts and fulfil the mandate set forth in the Optional Protocol, the Office of the State Representative for Human Rights of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has implemented mechanisms for disseminating the Optional Protocol among government institutions, encouraging them to effectively inform the public about the principles set forth in this international instrument and raise awareness about the Optional Protocol. 
Venezuela, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 12 September 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/VEN/1, submitted 5 July 2011, §§ 75, 106 and 108–109.
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of
The Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia notes that dissemination activities should be carried out in a much more systematic manner and that the curricula of law faculties and faculties of political sciences, which include subjects on international law, do not pay sufficient attention to IHL. 
Report on the Practice of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Zimbabwe
The Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe notes: “Little has been done to educate civilians [in IHL].” 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council underlined the importance of the widest possible dissemination of IHL and of relevant training for civilian police, armed forces, members of the judicial and legal professions, civil society and personnel of international and regional organizations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1265, 17 September 1999, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Recognizing the important role that education can play in supporting efforts to halt and prevent abuses committed against civilians affected by armed conflict, in particular efforts to prevent sexual exploitation, trafficking in humans, and violations of applicable international law regarding the recruitment and re-recruitment of child soldiers.
17. Reaffirms that, where appropriate, United Nations peacekeeping and other relevant missions should provide for the dissemination of information about international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law and the application of relevant Security Council resolutions. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, preamble and § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1972 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
2. Calls upon all parties to armed conflicts to observe the international humanitarian rules which are applicable, in particular the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the Geneva [Gas] Protocol of 1925 and the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and, to this end, to provide … information concerning the same rules to the civilian population;
3. Requests the UN Secretary-General to encourage the study and teaching of principles of respect for international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflict. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 3032 (XXVII), 18 December 1972, §§ 2–3, voting record: 103-0-25-4.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1973 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly urged that “information concerning the [rules of IHL] be given to civilians everywhere, with a view to securing their strict observance”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 3102 (XXVIII), 12 December 1973, § 5, voting record: 107-0-6-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of UN personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Requests the Secretary-General to take the necessary measures to ensure that United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation are properly informed about … the standards that they are required to meet, including those contained in relevant domestic and international law, and that adequate training in security, human rights and international humanitarian law is provided so as to enhance their security and effectiveness in accomplishing their functions, and reaffirms the necessity for all other humanitarian organizations to provide their personnel with similar support. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/122, 17 December 2003, § 18, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
Stressing further the need to consolidate the existing body of international humanitarian law through its universal acceptance and the need for wide dissemination and full implementation of such law at the national level, and expressing concern about all violations of the Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols,
Noting with satisfaction the increasing number of national commissions and other bodies involved in advising authorities at the national level on the implementation, dissemination and development of international humanitarian law,
Noting with appreciation the meetings of representatives of those bodies organized by the International Committee of the Red Cross to facilitate the sharing of concrete experience and the exchange of views on their roles and on the challenges they face,
5. Calls upon all States parties to the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions to ensure their wide dissemination and full implementation;
6. Notes with appreciation the Declaration and Agenda for Humanitarian Action adopted by the Twenty-eighth International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which noted that all States must take national measures to implement international humanitarian law, including training of the armed forces and making this law known among the general public, as well as the adoption of legislation to punish war crimes in accordance with their international obligations;
9. Also welcomes the increasing number of national commissions or committees for the implementation of international humanitarian law and for promoting the incorporation of treaties on international humanitarian law into national law and disseminating the rules of international humanitarian law;
11. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-first session a report on the status of the Additional Protocols relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, as well as on measures taken to strengthen the existing body of international humanitarian law, inter alia, with respect to its dissemination and full implementation at the national level, based on information received from Member States and the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/36, 2 December 2004, preamble and §§ 5–6, 9 and 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN General Assembly:
Encourages Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to organize training programmes and to support projects with a view to training or educating military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials in human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work and to include a gender perspective in such training, and appeals to the international community and requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to support endeavours to that end. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/197, 20 December 2004, § 9, voting record: 142-0-43-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of UN personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Requests the Secretary-General to take the necessary measures to ensure that United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation are properly informed about … the standards that they are required to meet, including those contained in relevant national and international law, and that adequate training in security, human rights law and international humanitarian law is provided so as to enhance their security and effectiveness in accomplishing their functions, and reaffirms the necessity for all other humanitarian organizations to provide their personnel with similar support. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/211, 20 December 2004, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of UN personnel, the UN General Assembly:
Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take the necessary measures to ensure that United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation are properly informed about … the standards that they are required to meet, including those contained in relevant national and international law, and that adequate training in security, human rights law and international humanitarian law is provided so as to enhance their security and effectiveness in accomplishing their functions, and reaffirms the necessity for all other humanitarian organizations to provide their personnel with similar support. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/123, 15 December 2005, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, the UN General Assembly:
Stressing further the need to consolidate the existing body of international humanitarian law through its universal acceptance and the need for wide dissemination and full implementation of such law at the national level, and expressing concern about all violations of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols,
Noting with satisfaction the increasing number of national commissions and other bodies involved in advising authorities at the national level on the implementation, dissemination and development of international humanitarian law,
Noting with appreciation the continuing efforts of the International Committee of the Red Cross to promote and disseminate knowledge of international humanitarian law, in particular the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols,
Calling upon Member States to disseminate knowledge of international humanitarian law as widely as possible, and calling upon all parties to armed conflict to apply international humanitarian law,
5. Calls upon all States parties to the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions to ensure their wide dissemination and full implementation;
6. Notes with appreciation the Declaration and Agenda for Humanitarian Action adopted by the Twenty-eighth International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which noted that all States must take national measures to implement international humanitarian law, including training of the armed forces and making this law known among the general public, as well as the adoption of legislation to punish war crimes in accordance with their international obligations;
9. Also welcomes the increasing number of national commissions or committees for the implementation of international humanitarian law and for promoting the incorporation of treaties on international humanitarian law into national law and disseminating the rules of international humanitarian law;
11. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-third session a report on the status of the Additional Protocols relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, as well as on measures taken to strengthen the existing body of international humanitarian law, inter alia, with respect to its dissemination and full implementation at the national level, based on information received from Member States and the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/30, 4 December 2006, preamble and §§ 5–6, 9 and 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on human rights in the administration of justice, in particular juvenile justice, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Invites Governments to provide comprehensive and continuing training in human rights … and, where appropriate, on international humanitarian law, to all judges, lawyers, prosecutors, social workers, immigration and police officers and other professionals concerned, including personnel deployed in international field presences. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/43, 19 April 2004, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on impunity, the UN Commission on Human Rights encouraged States to “strengthen training of police, investigative, prosecutorial and judicial personnel in human rights and international humanitarian law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/72, 21 April 2004, § 15, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all States … to ensure, through education, training and other measures, that police, law enforcement officials, armed forces and other government officials act with restraint and in conformity with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and to include a gender perspective in such measures.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/34, 19 April 2005, § 7, voting record: 36-0-17.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
14. Emphasizes that States must ensure education and training for personnel who may be involved in the custody, interrogation or treatment of any individual subjected to any form of arrest, detention or imprisonment, and calls upon the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in conformity with the mandate established in General Assembly resolution 48/141 of 20 December 1993, to provide, at the request of Governments, advisory services in this regard, as well as technical assistance in the development, production and distribution of appropriate teaching material for this purpose;
15. Invites donor countries, recipient countries and relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes, in particular the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, to consider, where appropriate, including in their respective bilateral programmes and technical cooperation projects relating to the training of relevant personnel, inter alia armed forces, security forces, border guards, prison and police personnel and health-care personnel, matters relating to the protection of human rights, including the prevention of torture, while bearing in mind a gender perspective. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/39, 19 April 2005, §§ 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on impunity, the UN Commission on Human Rights encouraged States to “strengthen training of police, investigative, prosecutorial and judicial personnel in human rights and international humanitarian law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/81, 21 April 2005, § 18, adopted without a vote.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1982, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly stressed that “past experience in armed conflict has established the need for the Geneva Conventions and the two protocols to be disseminated as widely as possible … among the civilian population”. It recommended that the Committee of Ministers invite the governments of member States “to ensure that international humanitarian law becomes known by disseminating and teaching the Geneva Conventions … and their [Additional] protocols among the … civilian population”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 945, 2 July 1982, §§ 10 and 11(b).
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the OAU Council of Ministers requested that member States “educate their population on the fundamental rules and principles of the International Humanitarian Law”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, 6–11 June 1994, Res. 1526 (LX), § 7.
First OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
The First OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1994, concluded that “it is necessary to lay emphasis on the creation and improvement of the teaching materials [of IHL], particularly in the field of teaching even to the civilian education starting with primary schools”. 
OAU/ICRC, First Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, Addis Ababa, 7 April 1994, Conclusions and Recommendations, § 3.
The OAU Council of Ministers took note of the recommendations of the seminar. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1526 (LX), 11 June 1994, § 1.
Second OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
The Second OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1995, recommended the “implementation of specific sensitization and information activities on the International Humanitarian Law … for the people in general”. 
OAU/ICRC, Second Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, Addis Ababa, 11–12 April 1995, Recommendations, § 1(b).
International Conference of the Red Cross (1934)
The 15th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1934 adopted a resolution in which it asked the ICRC and the League of Red Cross Societies to prepare a small booklet designed for youth – children between 10 and 14 years of age – with respect to the Geneva Convention and the activity of the Red Cross. 
15th International Conference of the Red Cross, Tokyo, 20–29 October 1934, Res. IX.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1957)
The 19th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1957 adopted a resolution on young people and the 1949 Geneva Conventions stating that it considered that Article 144 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV “makes it incumbent on the Governments which have ratified that Convention to make known the letter and spirit thereof to the whole population”. It recommended that “in negotiations with the Governments, the National Societies endeavour to obtain space in the school curricula for the history and aims of [the] Red Cross and for the basic principles of the Geneva Conventions”. 
19th International Conference of the Red Cross, New Delhi, 28 October–7 November 1957, Res. XXIX.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1957)
The 19th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1957 adopted a resolution on practical means of spreading knowledge of the 1949 Geneva Conventions among young people in which it stated: “The Geneva Conventions constitute a sound basis for social education.” The Conference recommended that “radio and television broadcasts dealing with the questions [of the history of the Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions] be regularly organized” and invited the ICRC and the League of Red Cross Societies to “examine, with National Societies, the possibilities of producing one or more films for Juniors covering the history, subject matter and aims of the Geneva Conventions”. The Conference further recommended that the ICRC and the League of Red Cross Societies “issue informative publications suitable for children and young people, dealing with the history of the Red Cross and the fundamental principles of the Geneva Conventions”. 
19th International Conference of the Red Cross, New Delhi, 28 October–7 November 1957, Res. XXX.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1965)
The 20th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1965 adopted a resolution on instruction of medical personnel in the 1949 Geneva Conventions in which it urged
the Governments and National Societies to intensify and co-ordinate their efforts to disseminate the 1949 Geneva Conventions among the medical personnel of their country, by introducing this subject in the compulsory syllabi of nursing and assistant nurses’ schools, and including it in all courses for Red Cross voluntary auxiliaries and first aiders. 
20th International Conference of the Red Cross, Vienna, 2–9 October 1965, Res. XXXIII.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1973)
The 22nd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1973 adopted a resolution on the implementation and dissemination of the Geneva Conventions in which it called upon governments and National Societies:
to intensify their efforts with a view, on the one hand, to making known to the population as a whole the basic principles of the Red Cross and international humanitarian law by all effective means available to competent authorities at all levels, and on the other hand, to imparting clear concepts regarding the Geneva Conventions to specialized spheres such as … civil administrations, institutes of higher learning, the medical and para-medical professions, etc.
It requested that the ICRC “support the efforts of governments and National Societies in their dissemination of and instruction in the Geneva Conventions”. 
22nd International Conference of the Red Cross, Tehran, 8–15 November 1973, Res. XII.
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
In a resolution adopted in 1977 on dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, the CDDH invited
the signatory States to take all appropriate measures to ensure that knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, and of the fundamental principles on which that law is based, is effectively disseminated, particularly by:
(c) recommending that the appropriate authorities intensify the teaching of international humanitarian law in universities (faculties of law, political science, medicine, etc.);
(d) recommending to educational authorities the introduction of courses on the principles of international humanitarian law in secondary and similar schools. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. I, CDDH/446, 7 June 1977, Resolution 21, Dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, Article 2.
The resolution was adopted by 63 votes in favour, 2 against and 21 abstentions. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.55, 7 June 1977, § 48.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1977)
The 23rd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1977 adopted a resolution stating that it considered that “the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts is one of the vital conditions for its observance”. The Conference invited “National Societies to intensify their efforts, in collaboration with their governments, for the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law and of its principles as widely as possible among the population and especially among youth”. It also recognized “the role of UNESCO in the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law” and invited “the ICRC and the League [of Red Cross Societies] to intensify their collaboration with UNESCO with a view in particular to the award of training fellowships at specialized institutes”.  
23rd International Conference of the Red Cross, Bucharest, 15–21 October 1977, Res. VII, preamble and §§ 2 and 4.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution on protection of the civilian population in armed conflicts in which it recommended “a universal campaign to make known to all, not only to the armed forces, but to the civilians, the rights of the latter according to international law”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. VIII, § 3.
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims
The Final Declaration adopted by the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in 1993 urged all States to make every effort to
disseminate international humanitarian law in a systematic way by teaching its rules to the general population, including incorporating them in education programmes and by increasing media awareness, so that people may assimilate that law and have the strength to react in accordance with these rules to violations thereof. 
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993, Final Declaration, § II(1), ILM, Vol. 33, 1994, p. 299.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In 1993, the 90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference adopted a resolution in which it called on all States “to increase public awareness of and to promote respect for international humanitarian law through education and information programmes”. 
90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Canberra, 13–18 September 1993, Resolution on Respect for International Humanitarian Law and Support for Humanitarian Action in Armed Conflicts, § 2(c).
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent proposed that:
States examine their educational and training curricula to ensure that international humanitarian law is integrated in an appropriate manner in their programmes for … relevant civil servants. States promote knowledge of international humanitarian law among decision-makers and the media and work for the inclusion of international humanitarian law in the general educational programmes of relevant organizations, professional bodies and educational institutions. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.4, § 16.
African Parliamentary Conference on International Humanitarian Law for the Protection of Civilians during Armed Conflict
In the Final Declaration adopted in 2002 by the African Parliamentary Conference on International Humanitarian Law for the Protection of Civilians during Armed Conflict, the participants stated:
15. We undertake to promote knowledge of International Humanitarian Law and humanitarian norms as well as International Refugee Law among parliamentarians at national, regional and sub-regional levels.
16. We wish that seminars and workshops be organized for parliamentarians on these issues at the national, regional and sub-regional levels with the cooperation of competent organizations, particularly through the APU [African Parliamentary Union] and other African parliamentary organizations.
17. We encourage the ICRC and National Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent to intensify their efforts to disseminate the rules of International Humanitarian Law in our States. 
African Parliamentary Conference on International Humanitarian Law for the Protection of Civilians during Armed Conflict, Final Declaration, Niamey, 18–20 February 2002, §§ 15–17.
No data.
ICRC
The ICRC Commentary on the First Geneva Convention notes with respect to Article 47 of the Convention:
The provision is, however, qualified by the words “if possible”, not because the Diplomatic Conference of 1949 thought civilian instruction any less imperative than military instruction, but because education comes under the provincial authorities in certain countries with federal constitutions, and not under the central Government. Constitutional scruples, the propriety of which is open to question, led some delegations to safeguard the freedom of provincial decisions. 
Jean S. Pictet et al. (eds.), Commentary on the First Geneva Convention, ICRC, Geneva, 1952, p. 349.
Council of Delegates (1987)
At its Rio de Janeiro Session in 1987, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on information and dissemination of IHL in which it invited the entire Movement “to continue and expand its activities for the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law and the Fundamental Principles in various circles, including young people, nationally, regionally and internationally”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Rio de Janeiro, 27 November 1987, Res. 4, §§ 1 and 2.
ICRC
In 1993, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the protection of the environment in time of armed conflict, the ICRC stated:
The treaties of international humanitarian law provide various mechanisms … for implementing their substantive provisions. Among these mechanisms it is worth mentioning the following:
(c) the obligation of States to ensure that the provisions of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are known as widely as possible …
Each State Party to the Geneva Conventions or to their Additional Protocols must ensure that the text of these treaties is disseminated as widely as possible throughout its territory in both peacetime and wartime. The States must, inter alia, incorporate study of the subject [if possible] into their programmes of … civilian instruction. 
ICRC, Report on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict submitted to the 48th Session of the UN General Assembly, reprinted in Report of the UN Secretary-General on the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, UN Doc. A/48/269, 29 July 1993, §§ 45 and 51.
International Institute of Humanitarian Law
In 1995, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, commenting on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, stated:
The importance of making known, disseminating and teaching these minimum humanitarian standards should be underlined. A clause on that subject could form a special article at the end of the declaration, which could read:
“The minimum humanitarian standards, defined in this Declaration, should be made known and disseminated to all the authorities concerned, and to individuals who may be potential victims”. 
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Comments on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards submitted to the UN Secretary-General, § 23, reprinted in Report of the UN Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/29, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/80, 28 November 1995, p. 11.