Practice Relating to Rule 142. Instruction in International Humanitarian Law within Armed Forces

Geneva Convention (1906)
Article 26 of the 1906 Geneva Convention provides: “The signatory governments shall take the necessary steps to acquaint their troops, and particularly the protected personnel, with the provisions of this convention and to make them known to the people at large.” 
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 6 July 1906, Article 26.
Geneva Convention (1929)
Article 27 of the 1929 Geneva Convention provides: “The High Contracting Parties shall take the necessary steps to instruct their troops, and in particular the personnel protected, in the provisions of the present Convention, and to bring them to the notice of the civil population.” 
Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, Geneva, 27 July 1929, Article 27.
Geneva Conventions (1949)
Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 48 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II, Article 127 of the 1949 Geneva Convention III and Article 144 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provide:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military … instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population, in particular the armed fighting forces, the medical personnel and the chaplains. 
Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 47; Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 48; Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 127; Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 144.
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property
Article 25 of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property provides:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the text of the present Convention and the Regulations for its execution as widely as possible in their respective countries. They undertake, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military … training, so that its principles are made known … especially the armed forces and personnel engaged in the protection of cultural property. 
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 14 May 1954, Article 25.
Additional Protocol I
Article 83 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 83. Article 83 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 260.
Additional Protocol II
Article 19 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “This Protocol shall be disseminated as widely as possible.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 19. Article 19 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.53, 6 June 1977, p. 151.
Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 6 of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate this Convention and those of its annexed Protocols by which they are bound as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction, so that those instruments may become known to their armed forces. 
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 10 October 1980, Article 6.
Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
Article 14(3) of the 1996 Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons provides:
Each High Contracting Party shall also require that its armed forces issue relevant military instructions and operating procedures and that armed forces personnel receive training commensurate with their duties and responsibilities to comply with the provisions of this Protocol. 
Protocol on Prohibitions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended, to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Geneva, 3 May 1996, Article 14(3).
Second Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property
Article 30 of the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property provides:
2. The Parties shall disseminate this Protocol, as widely as possible, both in time of peace and in time of armed conflict.
3. Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities with respect to the application of this Protocol, shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof. To this end the Parties shall, as appropriate:
(a) incorporate guidelines and instructions on the protection of cultural property in their military regulations;
(b) develop and implement, in cooperation with UNESCO and relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations, peacetime training and educational programmes;
(c) communicate to one another, as soon as possible, through the Director-General, information on the laws, administrative provisions and measures taken under sub-paragraphs (a) and (b). 
Second Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 26 March 1999, Article 30.
Convention on Enforced Disappearance
The 2006 Convention on Enforced Disappearance provides:
Recalling … relevant international instruments in the fields of human rights, humanitarian law and international criminal law,
Article 23
1. Each State Party shall ensure that the training of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, … includes the necessary education and information regarding the relevant provisions of this Convention, in order to:
(a) Prevent the involvement of such officials in enforced disappearances;
(b) Emphasize the importance of prevention and investigations in relation to enforced disappearances;
(c) Ensure that the urgent need to resolve cases of enforced disappearance is recognized. 
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 61/177, 20 December 2006, Annex, Preamble and Article 23.
New Delhi Draft Rules
Article 20 of the 1956 New Delhi Draft Rules provides: “All States or Parties concerned shall make the terms of the provisions of the present rules known to their armed forces.”  
Draft Rules for the Limitation of the Dangers Incurred by the Civilian Population in Time of War, drafted by the International Committee of the Red Cross, September 1956, submitted to governments for their consideration on behalf of the 19th International Conference of the Red Cross, New Delhi, 28 October–7 November, Res. XIII, Article 20.
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Article 3(2) of the 1986 Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, dealing with tasks of the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, provides that the National Societies “disseminate and assist their governments in disseminating international humanitarian law; they take initiatives in this respect”. 
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, adopted by the 25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Article 3(2).
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Article 5(2)(g) of the 1986 Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in the context of the tasks of the ICRC, provides:
The role of the International Committee, in accordance with its Statutes, is in particular: … to work for the understanding and dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts and to prepare any development thereof. 
Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, adopted by the 25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Article 5(2)(g).
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
Paragraph 19 of the 1990 Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials provides:
Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that all law enforcement officials are provided with training and are tested in accordance with appropriate proficiency standards in the use of force. Those law enforcement officials who are required to carry firearms should be authorized to do so only upon completion of special training in their use. 
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August–7 September 1990, UN Doc. A/CONF.144/28/Rev.1, 1990, p. 112, § 19.
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
Paragraph 20 of the 1990 Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials provides:
In the training of law enforcement officials, Governments and law enforcement agencies shall give special attention to issues of police ethics and human rights, especially in the investigative process, to alternatives to the use of force and firearms, including the peaceful settlement of conflicts, the understanding of crowd behaviour, and the methods of persuasion, negotiation and mediation, as well as to technical means, with a view to limiting the use of force and firearms. Law enforcement agencies should review their training programmes and operational procedures in the light of particular incidents. 
Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August–7 September 1990, UN Doc. A/CONF.144/28/Rev.1, 1990, p. 112, § 20.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 13 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia provides:
The parties undertake to spread knowledge of and promote respect for the principles and rules of international humanitarian law and the terms of the present agreement, especially among combatants. This shall be done in particular:
–by providing appropriate instruction on the rules of international humanitarian law to all units under their command, control or political influence, and to paramilitary or irregular units not formally under their command, control or influence;
–by facilitating the dissemination of ICRC appeals urging respect for international humanitarian law;
–via articles in the press, and radio and television programmes prepared also in cooperation with the ICRC and broadcast simultaneously;
–by distributing ICRC publications. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 13.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 4 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides:
The parties undertake to spread knowledge of and promote respect for the principles and rules of international humanitarian law and the terms of the present agreement, especially among combatants. This shall be done in particular:
–by providing appropriate instruction on the rules of international humanitarian law to all units under their command, control or political influence;
–by facilitating the dissemination of ICRC appeals urging respect for international humanitarian law;
–by distributing ICRC publications. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 4.
Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action
In paragraph II(10) of the 1992 Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action, the ICRC requested that the parties “undertake to ensure that the principles and rules of international humanitarian law and, in particular, [the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina] are known to all combatants”. 
Agreement No. 3 between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community) on the ICRC Plan of Action, Geneva, 6 June 1992, § II(10).
Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action
Paragraph IV of the 1992 Agreement No. 3 between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the ICRC Plan of Action states: “The ICRC considers it essential to launch a major information campaign without delay in order to ensure that all combat units are aware of the humanitarian rules governing the conduct of hostilities.” 
Agreement No. 3 between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community) on the ICRC Plan of Action, Geneva, 6 June 1992, § IV.
(emphasis in original)
Guidelines on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict
Paragraph 17 of the 1994 Guidelines on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict provides: “States shall disseminate these rules, make them known as widely as possible in their respective countries and include them in their programmes of military … instruction.” 
Revised Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict, prepared by the International Committee of the Red Cross and presented to the UN Secretary-General, annexed to Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Decade of International Law, UN Doc. A/49/323, 19 August 1994, pp. 49–53, § 17.
CSCE Code of Conduct
Paragraph 29 of the 1994 CSCE Code of Conduct provides: “The participating States will make widely available in their respective countries the international humanitarian law of war. They will reflect, in accordance with national practice, their commitments in this field in their military training programmes and regulations.” 
The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted at the 91st Plenary Meeting of the Special Committee of the CSCE Forum for Security Co-operation, Budapest, 3 December 1994, incorporated as Decision IV in the CSCE Budapest Document, Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era, Doc. RC/1/95, corrected version of 21 December 1994, § 29.
CSCE Code of Conduct
Paragraph 30 of the 1994 CSCE Code of Conduct provides: “Each participating State will instruct its armed forces personnel in international humanitarian law, rules, conventions and commitments governing armed conflict.”  
The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted at the 91st Plenary Meeting of the Special Committee of the CSCE Forum for Security Co-operation, Budapest, 3 December 1994, incorporated as Decision IV in the CSCE Budapest Document, Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era, Doc. RC/1/95, corrected version of 21 December 1994, § 30.
CSCE Code of Conduct
Paragraph 34 of the 1994 CSCE Code of Conduct provides:
Each participating State will ensure that its armed forces are, in peace and in war, commanded, manned, trained and equipped in ways that are consistent with the provisions of international law and its respective obligations and commitments related to the use of armed forces in armed conflict, including as applicable the Hague Conventions of 1907 and 1954, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the 1977 Protocols Additional thereto, as well as the 1980 Convention on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons. 
The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted at the 91st Plenary Meeting of the Special Committee of the CSCE Forum for Security Co-operation, Budapest, 3 December 1994, incorporated as Decision IV in the CSCE Budapest Document, Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Era, Doc. RC/1/95, corrected version of 21 December 1994, § 34.
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 3 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin provides:
The United Nations also undertakes to ensure that members of the military personnel of the force are fully acquainted with the principles and rules of those international instruments [principles and rules of the general conventions applicable to the conduct of military personnel]. 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 3.
Cairo Plan of Action
Paragraph 52 of the 2000 Cairo Plan of Action urges States “to implement international humanitarian law in full, in particular by … ensuring that international humanitarian law is fully integrated into the training programmes and operational procedures of armed forces and the police force”. 
Cairo Plan of Action, adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit, held under the Aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union, Cairo, 3–4 April 2000, § 52.
Note: Numerous States have issued military manuals, teaching manuals and similar documents which serve as educational tools for their armed forces. These manuals and documents are not listed here. Full references can be found in the list of Military Manuals.
Argentina
Argentina’s Navy Regulations (1986) state: “An adequate knowledge of the relevant rules of international law, as well as of relevant conventions, must be demanded at all levels.” 
Argentina, Reglamento General del Servicio Naval, Tomo 1, Del Servicio en General, Publicación R.G-1-003, Armada Argentina, Estado Mayor General de la Armada, 3ra. Edición, 1986, Article 11.702.014.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) states that its objectives include to:
1. Disseminate lawful methods and means of warfare.
2. Disseminate the rules regulating the conduct of the military forces in operation.
3. Disseminate the rules that the military forces must observe in their relations with the enemy populations and the occupied territories. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, Introduction, p. IX.
The manual also points out that the duty to disseminate the 1977 Additional Protocols and to train qualified persons applies already in peacetime. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, Annex 9, § 9.
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) stipulates that Australian Defence Force (ADF) members “are to be trained in [LOAC] basic principles and therefore avoid breaches of these laws”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 1202.
The Guide also states: “The training adviser for LOAC training in the ADF is the Director-General of Defence Force Legal Services.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 109.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states that Australian Defence Force (ADF) members “are to be trained in basic [LOAC] principles and avoid breaches of these laws”. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1302.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Training Manual (1994) states:
4. … the Government of Australia is required to disseminate the text of the conventions [the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocols I and II and the 1907 Hague Convention (IV)] as widely as possible, so that the principles become known to the members of the ADF [Australian Defence Forces] …
5. The aim of this Instruction is to set out LOAC training policy and objectives for the ADF …
6. The training adviser for LOAC training is the Director-General of Defence Force Legal Services …
7. The requirement for training in LOAC in the Australian Defence Force is based on the following considerations:
a. Australia is bound by the Hague and Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols to disseminate their texts for study by the military. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict Training, DI(G) OPS 33-1, 24 January 1994, §§ 4–7.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
13.2 All ADF [Australian Defence Force] members are responsible for ensuring that their conduct complies with LOAC. They are to be trained in its basic principles and avoid breaches of these laws.
13.9 … There is a specific requirement to instruct medical personnel, chaplains and those responsible for handling prisoners of war (PW) and the administration of protected persons. There is a general requirement to disseminate to the armed forces as a whole. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 13.2 and 13.9.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s Law of War Manual (1983) states: “The study [of the law of war] is required for those who may be concerned by its provisions.” 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 2.
It further states that “States signatory to the [1949 Geneva] Conventions undertook to take a series of measures to promote the respect thereof”, among which it lists “the widest dissemination possible of the content of the Conventions … among military personnel”. 
Belgium, Droit Pénal et Disciplinaire Militaire et Droit de la Guerre, Deuxième Partie, Droit de la Guerre, Ecole Royale Militaire, par J. Maes, Chargé de cours, Avocat-général près la Cour Militaire, D/1983/1187/029, 1983, p. 55.
Belgium
Belgium’s LOAC Teaching Directive (1996) states: “The dissemination of the LOAC is a legal obligation fulfilled by incorporating its instruction in military teaching programmes and by training the personnel.” 
Belgium, Directive sur l’enseignement du droit des conflits armés et des règles d’engagement au sein des Forces Armées belges, Ordre Général J/185, Forces Armées, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 8 February 1996, Section 1.
The Directive refers to the teaching of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols I and II. 
Belgium, Directive sur l’enseignement du droit des conflits armés et des règles d’engagement au sein des Forces Armées belges, Ordre Général J/185, Forces Armées, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 8 February 1996, preamble.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers states: “Every soldier must know the essential rules of the law of war … and their meaning in order to be able to apply them.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 1.
The manual further states: “Since respect for humanitarian rules depends on the degree of discipline of a unit, their instruction is logically included in general military instruction.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 4.
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) provides: “The law of war must be incorporated in the military instruction programmes in the different military units.” 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule II, p. 15.
The manual adds:
The instruction of individual combatants is a priority. The aim is to develop automatic behaviours. Such automatic behaviours shall: be obtained by an individual instruction and practice; be controlled during combat exercises. 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule II, p. 16.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (1975) states:
The military commander must incorporate in his programmes the legal problems that shall permit all members of the Armed Forces not only to realistically complete their knowledge of the international law of war, but also to solve, in time of peace, problems he will face in case of armed conflict. This instruction, in addition to military training, must be the object of instruction sessions in all military units and schools. 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline dans les Forces Armées, Décret No. 75/700, 6 November 1975, Article 35.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “The teaching and dissemination of the Law of War is of prime importance to Cameroon, in civilian as well as military circles.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 2.
The manual further states: “Each member [of the armed forces] shall receive an instruction in accordance with … his function … Instruction in the law of war must be specific, simple and must refer to concrete situations.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 71, §§ 251.2 and 253.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “The teaching and dissemination of the law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law is of prime importance for Cameroon at both the military and civilian level.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 1.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (2007) states:
Article 35. Responsibility and instruction
Within the framework of the rules of this chapter, the soldiers of the Cameroonian Defence Forces must make themselves thoroughly familiar with their responsibility as regards respect for international humanitarian law and the law of armed conflicts …
Thus, respect for the rules of international law must be a natural duty for the Cameroonian soldier. If, in a particular situation, he is in doubt as regards the rules of international law, he must ask his superior for a decision; if that is impossible to him, he acts in accordance with his conscience.
Consequently, the military command must incorporate in its programmes the legal problems that will permit all members of the Defence Forces not only to complete in a realistic way their knowledge in the area of the Law of Armed Conflicts and International Humanitarian Law, but also to solve, already in time of peace, problems of international law such as they will arise in the case of armed conflict. This instruction, complementary to military training, must be the object of instruction sessions in all units, instruction centres and military schools. 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline générale dans les forces de défense, Décret N° 2007/199, Président de la République, 7 July 2007, Article 35.
Canada
Canada’s Unit Guide (1990) states:
1. The aim of this manual is to acquaint all ranks with the principles of the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims signed on August 12, 1949.
2. Each of the 1949 Geneva Conventions contains a provision requiring participating nations to distribute the text of the Convention as widely as possible and, in particular, to include a study of these texts in programmes of military instruction. 
Canada, Unit Guide for the Geneva Conventions, Canadian Forces Publication C 318(4), 1990, § 101.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) notes that it is designed “to be used as the main source for the preparation of lesson plans required for the training of all members of the CF [Canadian Forces] on the LOAC”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, Introduction, p. i, § 5.
The manual also states:
The most important factor in ensuring that the LOAC is applied by all parties to an armed conflict is knowledge of the law. Canada has the obligation, as a party to the Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (AP I), to instruct the CF on the LOAC, in time of peace as well as in time of armed conflict. Canada also has the obligation to include the study of LOAC in military instruction programmes. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 15-1, § 6.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) states:
CF [Canadian Forces] members are not expected to know all the details of the various treaties and international customs that make up the Law of Armed Conflict. They are, however, expected to know at least the basic principles which, when followed, will ensure CF members carry out their duties in accordance with the spirit and principles of the Law of Armed Conflict. These principles of the Law of Armed Conflict are set out in the CF Code of Conduct. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Introduction, § 8.
The Code of Conduct further states: “It is CF policy to respect and abide by the Law of Armed Conflict in all circumstances. To meet this commitment, every CF member must know and understand, as a minimum, the basic principles of the Law of Armed Conflict.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Rule 11, § 1.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states:
1. The aim of the Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels [LOAC Manual] is to provide a working level publication on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) and a practical guide for the use of commanders, staff officers and LOAC instructors.
2. The Manual is designed to apply to the tactical/operational levels of doctrine related to the LOAC and to be used as the main source for the preparation of lesson plans required for the training of all members of the CF [Canadian Forces] on the LOAC. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, p. i.
In its chapter entitled “Preventative and enforcement measures and the role of protecting powers”, the manual further states:
The most important factor in ensuring that the LOAC is applied by all parties to an armed conflict is knowledge of the law. Canada has the obligation, as a party to Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (AP I), to instruct the CF on the LOAC, in time of peace as well as in time of armed conflict. Canada also has the obligation to include the study of LOAC in military instruction programmes and to encourage the study of the LOAC by the civilian population. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1503.
Canada
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states:
The GCs [1949 Geneva Conventions] and AP I [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] place a duty on their signatories in time of both peace and war to circulate the texts as widely as possible within their countries. They are especially required to ensure that the implications of the GCs and AP I are clearly understood by the members of their Armed Forces and by the civilian population. In order to assist this process, the GCs and AP I place an obligation on signatories to disseminate the text of the Conventions to appropriate military and civilian personnel. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 104.1.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) explains in its introduction:
4. Operational missions often require CF [Canadian Forces] members to make decisions under considerable stress and in times of confusion. Moreover, the course of action one elects to make during operations can have serious consequences. Decisions must often be made very quickly. Compliance with this simple Code of Conduct helps to ensure that split second decisions are consistent with the Law of Armed Conflict and Canadian law.
5. The purpose of the Code, therefore, is to provide simple and understandable instructions to ensure that CF members apply as a minimum, the spirit and principles of the Law of Armed Conflict in all CF operations other than Canadian domestic operations.
8. CF members are not expected to know all the details of the various treaties and international customs that make up the Law of Armed Conflict. They are, however, expected to know at least the basic principles which, when followed, will ensure CF members carry out their duties in accordance with the spirit and principles of the Law of Armed Conflict. These principles of the Law of Armed Conflict are set out in the CF Code of Conduct.
9. The CF Code of Conduct consists of eleven rules which capture the essence of the Law of Armed Conflict. This Code does not in any way replace or alter the existing treaties and conventions to which Canada is a party. Actually, it represents a summary of the Law of Armed Conflict. It is designed to assist you, your commanders and your fellow members of the armed forces to achieve legitimate military objectives while ensuring operations are carried out in accordance with the Law of Armed Conflict. You must, therefore, know and faithfully comply with these eleven rules. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Introduction, §§ 4–5 and 8–9.
Rule 11 of the Code of Conduct further states:
It is CF policy to respect and abide by the Law of Armed Conflict in all circumstances. To meet this commitment, every CF member must know and understand, as a minimum, the basic principles of the Law of Armed Conflict. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Rule 11, § 1.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 2 (Instruction for group and patrol leaders):
The main objective of teaching the law of war is to ensure that soldiers’ spontaneous reactions are in compliance with the principles of the law of war. Soldiers must know that respecting these rules is part of military discipline and that any violations will result in disciplinary or penal sanctions.
The law of war must be incorporated into the military instruction programmes of military units.
The instruction of individual combatants is a priority. The aim is to develop automatic behaviours. Such behaviours are to be:
- obtained by individual instruction and practice;
- controlled during combat exercises at the group, section or platoon level. 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 2: Formation pour l’obtention du certificat technique No. 2 (Chef de Groupe), du certificat Inter-Armé (CIA), du certificat d’aptitude de Chef de Patrouille (CACP), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter IV, Section III, see also Introduction, Section II.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “The main aim in teaching a law of war is to ensure full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces, regardless of their rank, time, location or situation. … The law of war must be incorporated into military instruction programmes.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 80; see also p. 91.
The manual also states:
Respect for IHL by combatants depends on two factors, prevention and repression.
(a) The measures and means of prevention [include]:
- Dissemination (teaching and training). 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 107.
The manual further states: that “the law of armed conflict must be taught and members of the armed forces must be familiar with it at all times”. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 100.
Colombia
Colombia’s Directive on IHL issued in 1993 by the Colombian Ministry of National Defence states:
The Ministry of National Defence is issuing instructions intended to intensify the development of training programmes for members of the police in subjects pertaining to respect for human rights and compliance with the rules of international humanitarian law, with the aim of preventing and rectifying conduct that violates those rules. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Section IV(A).
Colombia
In Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1993), the Minister of National Defence defines various priorities, including:
We are trying to firmly establish within the Armed Forces and the National Police a culture and an ethic of respect, and to this end, activities of dissemination, instruction and capacity building with respect to human rights and humanitarian law have been started and developed. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. XIV.
The Minister adds:
The publication today of this Manual is intended to increase the dissemination and application of the instruments of international humanitarian law to which we are party. With it, we are fulfilling the obligation contained in the four Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols to disseminate their content as widely as possible, in time of peace as well as in time of war, and to incorporate their study in the programmes of military instruction. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, pp. XIV and XV.
The manual stresses that, before conflicts occur, there is an obligation “to adopt plans and programmes of dissemination and capacity building through which IHL is made known to … the Armed Forces”. It further states that this obligation to instruct also binds organized armed opposition groups. Lastly, in a chapter dealing with the 1977 Additional Protocol II, the manual states: “It is important to underline the obligation incumbent upon States to organize periodical and systematic instruction on the content of the Protocol, so that the Public Force … can apply and insist on respect for its norms.” 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, pp. 27, 28, 37 and 46.
Colombia
Colombia’s Instructors’ Manual (1999) states that it “aims to serve as a tool, as a guiding instrument by which the instructor presents in a simple form to the soldiers and seamen the minimum rules regarding persons, objects, the wounded and others, in times of peace, war and conflict”. 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual de Instrucción de la Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. 15.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) states in Book I (Basic instruction):
In 1961, Côte d’Ivoire acceded to the four Geneva Conventions. In 1977, it signed the two Additional Protocols, and ratified them in 1989. Since then, it has committed itself to respect and to ensure respect for the law of war … [D]irective No. 472/MEMDPC/DIRDEF/SD-RI of 4 March 2002 orders the integration of the law of war into the instruction programmes of military training.
This course teaches the elementary notions of the law of war indispensable to the military and must therefore be integrated into the initial training …
The objective of this instruction is to trigger within the soldier a spontaneous reaction which is to conform with the principles of that law. The soldier must know that respect for these rules is part of military discipline and that every violation leads to disciplinary and/or penal sanctions. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 5 and 7.
In Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
I. Obligations
The law of armed conflicts [LOAC] contains a series of obligations to which States have subscribed by its ratification. They are mainly:
- the obligation to disseminate and to control the knowledge in the area of LOAC,
I.3. Obligation to disseminate and to control knowledge
I.3.1. Obligation to disseminate
“The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction and to encourage the study thereof by the civilian population, so that those instruments may become known to the armed forces and to the civilian population.”
Dissemination comprises:
- general information intended to popularize and to update;
- instruction intended to implant the fundamental principles;
- instruction intended to create collective and individual reflexes integrating the application of the legal rules.
III.4. Mechanisms to engage the responsibility of the State
Signatory States to the Geneva Conventions undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the Conventions in all circumstances. They further undertake to make sure that the text of the Conventions is disseminated as widely as possible, in particular to the members of the armed forces. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 35–36 and 41; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 65.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) states: “Law of war training has to be integrated into normal military activity.” 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, § 22.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Disciplinary Regulations (1982) states: “Servicemen of Djibouti shall be instructed about their responsibility with regard to respect for the international law of war”. 
Djibouti, Décret no. 82-028/PR/DEF du 5 mai 1982 portant règlement de la discipline générale dans les Forces armées, Article 33.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states: “States are bound to respect [international] humanitarian law. The preventive mechanisms include in particular … the training of personnel in order to facilitate the application of IHL …”. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 13.
Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic’s Military Manual (1980) notes:
Although all [Dominicans] – soldiers, citizens, and leaders – have a legal obligation to know, understand and abide by these laws of war, soldiers must be especially aware of them … This publication is intended to help you, today’s soldier, know and understand these laws. 
Dominican Republic, La Conducta en Combate según las Leyes de la Guerra, Escuela Superior de las FF. AA. “General de Brigada Pablo Duarte”, Secretaría de Estado de las Fuerzas Armadas, May 1980, p. 2.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) provides: “Combatants … must be made aware of the rules of the law of armed conflicts, which essentially includes the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions.” 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 1.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) notes that it “is to be used for the instruction of any military personnel of the French armed forces, in the context of the instruction given in schools”. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, preamble, p. 7.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) notes that it “shall serve soldiers and civilian personnel of all command levels in training courses, military exercises and in general training”. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 1.
It also states:
The four Geneva Conventions and [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] oblige all contracting parties to disseminate the text of the conventions as widely as possible … This shall particularly be accomplished through programmes of instruction for the armed forces … Considering their responsibility in times of armed conflict, military … authorities shall be fully acquainted with the text of the Conventions and the Protocol Additional to them. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 136.
The manual further states:
All soldiers of the Federal Armed Forces shall receive instruction in international law. It is conducted in the military units by the superiors and the legal advisers and at the armed forces schools by teachers of law … This instruction has the purpose not only of disseminating knowledge, but also and primarily of developing an awareness of what is right and what is wrong. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 137.
Lastly, the manual stresses:
Effective implementation is depending on dissemination of humanitarian law. Providing information about it is the necessary basis to create common consciousness and to further the attitude of the peoples towards a greater acceptance of these principles as an achievement of the social and cultural development of mankind. 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 1223.
Germany
Germany’s IHL Manual (1996) states:
All enforcement methods of international humanitarian law are … incomplete without extensive dissemination of the basic principles of international humanitarian law and the personal sense of the individual to take responsibility for their respect. 
Germany, ZDv 15/1, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, DSK VV230120023, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, June 1996, § 806.
Referring to common Article 1 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Article 1(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, the manual states:
It necessarily follows that each soldier of the [German Armed Forces] must know the rules of international humanitarian law in armed conflicts … Therefore, the four Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols oblige all Contracting Parties to disseminate the content of the Conventions in their countries and to incorporate it in the programmes of military education. 
Germany, ZDv 15/1, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Grundsätze, DSK VV230120023, Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, June 1996, §§ 107 and 108.
Guinea
Guinea’s Code of Conduct (2011) states:
Article 5: Defence forces personnel receive specific training in the areas of human rights, international humanitarian law, rules, conventions and engagements dealing with armed conflict.
Article 27: Defence forces must strengthen their capacities to respond to new challenges. Consequently, defence personnel, in addition to their traditional classic training, must receive appropriate training in constitutional law, human rights, international humanitarian law …
Article 36: The Code of Conduct shall be taught, disseminated and applied amongst the defence forces units. It shall be the object of a wide public awareness campaign on the whole national territory. 
Guinea, Code de Conduite des Forces de Défense (Code of Conduct of the Defence Forces), 2011, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, approved by Presidential Decree No. D 289/PRG/SGG/2011, 28 November 2011, Articles 5, 27 and 36.
Guinea
Guinea’s Code of Conduct (2014) states:
Article 5: Defence forces personnel receive specific training in the areas of human rights, international humanitarian law, rules, conventions and engagements dealing with armed conflict.
Article 27: Defence forces must strengthen their capacities to respond to new challenges. Consequently, defence personnel, in addition to their traditional classic training, must receive appropriate training in constitutional law, human rights, international humanitarian law …
Article 36: The Code of Conduct shall be taught, disseminated and applied amongst the defence forces units. It shall be the object of a wide public awareness campaign on the whole national territory. 
Guinea, Code de Conduite des Forces de Défense (Code of Conduct of the Defence Forces), 2014 edition, Ministère de la Défense Nationale, 28 November 2011, Articles 5, 27 and 36.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “Everybody must know the rules [of war].” 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 31.
India
India’s Army Training Note (1995) states that its aim is “to educate all ranks in maintaining and upholding Human Dignity and protecting Human Rights in accordance with the law of the land and National and International conventions, during peace and war”. 
India, Army Training Note, Chief of Staff, Army Training Command, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1995, p. 1/2.
The Training Note also states: “A soldier is trained to do only the correct and proper things from the time he is enrolled into the Service. Any violation is strictly dealt with by the superior authorities.” 
India, Army Training Note, Chief of Staff, Army Training Command, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1995, p. 5/1.
Israel
Israel’s Manual on the Laws of War (1998) states: “There is room for and importance to being familiar with the laws of war and directing our conduct in accordance therewith.” 
Israel, Laws of War in the Battlefield, Manual, Military Advocate General Headquarters, Military School, 1998, p. 9.
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “Law of war training has to be integrated into normal military activity.” 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, § 22.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) notes:
The need for dissemination is as old as International Humanitarian Law itself. The law can only be respected if it is known.
To be effective, dissemination must take place in peacetime. It is too late for dissemination once a conflict has started since the authorities concerned have by then turned to questions of greater priority that may overwhelm any argument in favour of humanitarian conduct.
It is not enough for States to ratify the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols; besides the legal obligation for dissemination they contain, there must also be a genuine political will to apply them. Their content and “directions for use” must be known so that those responsible for their implementation take the appropriate steps at the proper time. For this reason, their dissemination is mandatory, as ignorance of International Humanitarian Law can cost human lives. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 1, p. vi.
The manual further explains: “Behaviour is the reflection of training. This means that all members of a fighting force must undergo training such as to ensure the enforcement of the existing rules at all levels of the military hierarchy.” 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, p. 1.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) notes:
Madagascar ratified the Geneva Conventions in 1963 and their two Additional Protocols in 1992 and has the obligation to promote the instruction [and] dissemination of international humanitarian law, in particular within the Armed Forces, and to ensure their application, if needed …
In the framework of dissemination of international humanitarian law (IHL), the law of armed conflict or law of war shall from now on be included in the general programme of instruction of the military personnel of the Armed Forces …
The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Additional Protocol I of 1977 stipulate in some of their articles that “all States parties to the conventions and/or to the Additional Protocols are obliged to disseminate IHL in their respective countries”.
The ultimate goal of the dissemination of International Humanitarian Law is to create through a wide knowledge of its principles, inherent rights and duties, a true humanitarian consciousness, imperatively guiding troops’ behaviour in conflict situations. 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, preamble, pp. 2–4; see also presentation, p. 9.
The manual also provides: “Law of war training has to be integrated into normal military activity.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 4-O, § 22.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states:
The publication of this manual by the Ministry of National Defence of Mexico contributes to fulfilling the obligation undertaken by the Government of Mexico on signing the [1949] Geneva Conventions to ensure that these instruments are disseminated as widely as possible in both peacetime and wartime and that their study is incorporated into the military instruction and training system, so that the members of the armed forces are familiar with the principles enshrined in them.
The High Command, which is responsible for organizing, managing, preparing, educating, instructing, training and developing the land and air forces, has taken the steps necessary to ensure that the members of these forces are aware of their obligations under the above-mentioned Conventions, with a view to preventing violations of the provisions of international humanitarian law. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, foreword.
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention II, the manual also states:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace and in time of war, to disseminate the text of the Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study of the Convention in their programmes of military … instruction, so that the principles that it contains may become known … to the armed forces. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos , Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 137.
Nepal
Nepal’s IHL and IHRL Integration Order (2008) states:
4. Since Nepal has ratified the Geneva Convention of 1949, it is our obligation that during peace or armed conflict, the provisions of the convention be disseminated in military education and training, [that] awareness of military personnel [be] raised …
5. Article 33 (m) under the Interim Constitution defines the obligation on the part of the signatory state to regulate the provisions of the treaty as would be relevantly applicable in domestic law. Subsequently, article 144 (4) under the Interim Constitution states that members of the Nepalese Army will be trained and educated in IHL and IHRL. In compliance with the aforementioned legal stipulation, article 20(1) under the Military Act 2006, sets down the mandatory legal provisions to impart education and training to all military personnel in the field of IHL and IHRL.
6. In accordance with the Geneva Conventions that Nepal has ratified and the subsequent legal provisions in the Interim Constitution, the Nepalese Army will integrate IHL and IHRL in the following areas:
(a) Doctrine
(b) Education
(c) Training: Career development training as per Appendix “A”
(d) Equipment
(e) Sanction System. 
Nepal, IHL and IHRL Integration Order for the Nepalese Army, Chief of the Army Staff, Army Headquarters Kathmandu, File Ref. 14644/9/A/064/65/22/874, 22 February 2008, §§ 4–6.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “States must disseminate the treaties as widely as possible in time of peace and include the law of war in their military training.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IX-1.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
The States which are parties to the conventions on the law of war should take all necessary steps to meet their obligations under those conventions. They should give orders and instructions to ensure compliance and supervise their application. These States should disseminate the conventions on the widest possible scale during peacetime, and include the law of war in military training. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1103.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states:
1. The first step to ensuring observance of the law is to make the law known to those whose conduct it is intended to regulate. With this in view, the various Conventions relating to the law of armed conflict impose an obligation upon their parties to disseminate the particular Convention among their armed forces.
2. The manner in which dissemination is effected is left to the various States, but is normally carried out by means of instruction courses or through the medium of commentaries upon particular Conventions or manuals devoted to the law of armed conflict. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1602.
The manual further states that in the armed forces, in addition to courses conducted at various rank levels, “the publications of the International Committee of the Red Cross are available for reference”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1602.2, footnote 6.
Nicaragua
Nicaragua’s Military Manual (1996) states that the objective of the manual is
to give Commanders, Officers, Troops, Soldiers and Seamen of the Nicaraguan Armed Forces knowledge of how to behave in situations of peace, war, internal disturbances … in the theatre of military operations and in their relations with the civilian population. 
Nicaragua, Manual de Comportamiento y Proceder de las Unidades Militares y de los Miembros del Ejército de Nicaragua en Tiempo de Paz, Conflictos Armados, Situaciones Irregulares o Desastres Naturales, Ejército de Nicaragua, Estado Mayor General, Asesoría Jurídica del Nicaragua, 1996, Objetivo, p. 1.
The manual further states:
The study of and respect for the Constitution of the Republic, Military Laws, other Laws, Directives, Norms and Ordinances, especially those that regulate the actions of the Armed Forces in the fulfilment of their missions, are obligatory. 
Nicaragua, Manual de Comportamiento y Proceder de las Unidades Militares y de los Miembros del Ejército de Nicaragua en Tiempo de Paz, Conflictos Armados, Situaciones Irregulares o Desastres Naturales, Ejército de Nicaragua, Estado Mayor General, Asesoría Jurídica del Nicaragua, 1996, Article 5.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) incorporates the content of Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I and adds:
Dissemination simply means that in the law of armed conflict, the obligation is that States make the principles of the law known to its armed forces … by teaching them in military training programmes. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 29, § 1.
The manual further states:
[The 1977 Additional Protocol I] in its Article 6 further provides that the High Contracting Parties with the assistance of the various national Red Cross Societies and under the guidance and general superintendence of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), shall train qualified personnel to facilitate the application of the [1949 Geneva] conventions and [the 1977 Additional Protocols I and II] … Furthermore the ICRC shall hold at the disposal of the High Contracting Parties the lists of the persons so trained which the High Contracting Parties may have established and may have transmitted to it for that purpose.
The dissemination of the [1949 Geneva] conventions and the protocols therefore must be as orderly as possible in the respective countries and in particular to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction … The purpose therefore is that any military … authorities, who in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the [1949 Geneva] conventions and the protocols, shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, pp. 29–30, §§ 2–3.
In addition, the manual states: “The law of war training is aimed at ensuring full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces irrespective of their function, time, location and situation.” 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 41, § 8.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
a. Preventive measures and mechanisms
The obligations assumed by States Parties to international humanitarian law treaties require them to ensure the proper implementation of the preventive measures and mechanisms provided for in these treaties, including, in particular, the following:
(2) Dissemination of international humanitarian law in State institutions (government ministries, municipal authorities, universities, higher education establishments, military academies and State and private education establishments), with particular reference to the rights that all civilians have in armed conflict situations. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 10.a.(2).
The manual defines the term “dissemination” as: “The obligation of States to teach the rules of international humanitarian law in military training programmes and to encourage the civilian population to study them.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, Annex 9, Glossary of Terms.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
(a) Preventive measures and mechanisms
The obligations assumed by States Parties to international humanitarian law treaties require them to ensure the proper implementation of the preventive measures and mechanisms provided for in these treaties, including, in particular, the following:
(2) Dissemination of international humanitarian law in State institutions (government ministries, municipal authorities, universities, higher education establishments, military academies and State and private education establishments), with particular reference to the rights that all civilians have in armed conflict situations. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 10(a)(2), p. 221.
In its Glossary of Terms, the manual defines “dissemination” as: “The obligation of States to teach the rules of international humanitarian law in military training programmes and to encourage the civilian population to study them.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, p. 403.
Philippines
The Joint Circular on Adherence to IHL and Human Rights (1991) of the Philippines provides:
These provisions [among which the relevant provisions of the 1949 Geneva Conventions] shall be integrated into the regular Program of Instructions for AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] and PNP [Philippine National Police] troops/police information and education sessions in all levels of command/office. 
Philippines, Joint Circular on Adherence to IHL and Human Rights, 1991, § 3(d).
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Military Regulation 187 (1991) provides that all members of the armed forces must have training in the laws of war. 
Republic of Korea, Military Regulation 187, 1 January 1991, Article 5.1.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) states that, in time of peace, commanders must
promote among the members of the USSR Armed Forces knowledge of IHL, to study it within the system of military … training, to distribute among subordinates texts of international legal instruments and legislative acts defining the conduct of the members of the army and the navy during an armed conflict. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 14(a).
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
171. International humanitarian law shall be trained both in peacetime and in time of war as part of servicemen’s training and education. International humanitarian law training shall be integrated in combat (commanders’) training curricula …
172. The aim of international humanitarian law training is to prepare servicemen to discharge their duty in a complex situation in compliance with international humanitarian law. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, §§ 171–172.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) states:
IHL principles are the best mankind can get in armed conflict situations …
Irrespective of rank, all members of the [Republic of Sierra Leone armed forces] must adhere to these rules religiously to avert prosecution for war crimes at the newly instituted Court Martial. The production of this manual is in part fulfilment of Government’s obligation to instruct its armed forces and civilian population alike in the provisions of international humanitarian law. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, Introduction (unnumbered page).
South Africa
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides that it is “imperative that every member of the SANDF [South African National Defence Force] has a good knowledge of, and is able to apply, the law of armed conflict (LOAC)”. It also states: “In the circumstances of combat, soldiers may often not have time to consider the principles of the LOAC before acting. Soldiers must therefore not only know these principles but must be trained so that the proper response to specific situations is second nature.” 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, §§ 4 and 14.
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
In the circumstances of combat, soldiers may often not have time to consider the principles of the LOAC before acting. Soldiers must therefore not only know these principles but must be trained so that the proper response to specific situations is second nature. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 38.
Spain
Spain’s Order 60/1992 on Military Instruction for High-Ranking Officers (1992) includes the subjects “international law of war”, “law of armed conflicts” and “humanitarian principles” in the instruction plan of high-ranking officers. 
Spain, Orden 60/1992 sobre Planes de Estudio para la Enseñanza Militar de Formación de Grado Superior de los Cuerpos Generales de los Ejércitos e Infantería de Marina, Ministry of Defence, 30 July 1992, Boletín Oficial de Defensa, No. 160, 17 August 1992, p. 7.789, Article 1 and Annex.
Spain
Spain’s Order 63/1993 on Military Instruction for Other Officers (1993) includes the subjects “the International Conventions of the Hague and Geneva” and “Public International Law” in the instruction plan of the Military Intervention Corps and of the specialized branches of the Army Medical Service, and the subject “International Law and the Law of War” and “the International Conventions of Geneva and the Hague” in the instruction plan of the Military Legal Corps. 
Spain, Orden 63/1993 sobre Planes de Estudio de la Enseñanza Militar de Formación de los Cuerpos Comunes de las Fuerzas Armadas, Escala Superior y Media, Ministry of Defence, 31 May 1993, Boletín Oficial de Defensa, No. 110, 8 June 1993, p. 3.786, Article 1 and Annex.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “The instruction and dissemination of [IHL] are established as obligatory, so that the State has the duty to introduce it in its programmes of military … instruction.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.1.a; see also §§ 1.1.d.(7) and 11.3.b.(2) (which add that the instruction must take place in time of peace as well as in time of war) and § 6.2.a.(1).
Thus, the Ministry of Defence “shall programme courses on the Law regulating Armed Conflicts at different levels for the various Commanding Officers”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 6.2.a.(5).
The manual also states: “Law of war training has to be integrated into normal military activity.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.8.c.(2).
A chapter of the manual devoted to “Dissemination of the Law of Armed Conflict” establishes a detailed programme including instructional methods, guidelines, priorities based on hierarchical levels within the military sector, a general framework for the instruction of the law of armed conflict, norms and models of instruction according to hierarchical levels, a summary of the law of armed conflict for non-commissioned officers, officers and superior officers, model curricula and a model course for the national and international levels. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, §§ 10.1–10.11.
The manual further stresses: “It is very important to include the Law of War in instruction courses for the military personnel who are going to take part in [peacekeeping] operations.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, Annex B.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “The law of armed conflict contains provisions making the teaching and dissemination of its rules compulsory. Consequently, States are under an obligation to incorporate them in their programmes of military … instruction.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.1; see also § 11.3.b.(2).
The manual stipulates that the following measures are to be adopted in peacetime: “Through the Ministry of Defence or the Army General Staff, courses [to disseminate the law of armed conflict] must be planned at different levels to teach officers about the law of armed conflict.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 6.2.a.(5); see also § 6.2.a.(1).
A chapter of the manual on “Dissemination of the Law of Armed Conflict” provides guidance on instructional methods, teaching aids and types and models of instruction (including practical exercises) to be followed. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.1–10.3.g.(7).
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) notes:
The undertaking of the parties concerning information and instruction in international humanitarian law is stressed in Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (AP I, Art. 83), which, however, goes further than the earlier conventions. According to the Protocol, the military and civilian authorities responsible for their application during a conflict shall possess full knowledge of the texts both of the Protocol and of the Conventions. Thus a definite tightening of the demands has been introduced. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 4.1, pp. 91 and 92.
The manual further states: “By its ratification in 1977 of the Additional Protocols to the Geneva 1949 Conventions, Sweden pledged herself to inform and instruct the authorities and personnel responsible for total defence … on the rules of international humanitarian law.” 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 10.1, p. 168.
Tajikistan
In Order No. 148 on Law of Armed Conflict Courses (1997), Tajikistan’s Minister of Defence decided “to include in the curricula … of the S. Safarov Tajik Higher Military College and of the Military Lycees of the Republic of Tajikistan, the subject ‘Law of Armed Conflict’”. 
Tajikistan, Order No. 148 on the Implementation of the “Law of Armed Conflict” Courses at the Military Chairs of Civilian Institutions of Higher Education, at the S. Safarov Tajik Higher Military College and at the Military Schools of the Republic of Tajikistan, Ministry of Defence, 8 August 1997, § II.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
4 Respect for and implementation of the legal rules in all types of operation are a command task and an integral part of individual discipline.
8 … All servicemen must know the rules in force for their mission. …
9 Understanding of the ten basic rules of the law of armed conflict is part of the armed forces’ basic readiness and is thus indispensable for all servicemen (see “Ten Basic Rules of the International Law of Armed Conflict”).
151 Understanding of the international law of armed conflict during operations is part of the armed forces’ basic readiness.
169 All military personnel must be familiar with the four principles [distinction, military necessity, proportionality and limitation] in a way that allows them to automatically make the right decision in the heat of battle. 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 4, 8–9, 151 and 169.
[emphasis in original]
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) provides: “The law of war must be incorporated in the military instruction programmes in the different military units.” It adds:
The instruction of individual combatants is a priority. The aim is to develop automatic behaviours. Such behaviours shall: be obtained by individual instruction and practice; be controlled during exercises of combat. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule II, pp. 15 and 16.
The manual also contains the text of a Note de Service of Togo’s Armed Forces, which states:
The follow-up committee of the ICRC activities within the FAT [Togo’s Armed Forces], in charge of the instruction of [IHL], shall elaborate in collaboration with the ICRC delegation in Lomé programmes adapted to each training level of the personnel of the FAT. 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule I, p. 24, Fascicule II, p. 23 and Fascicule III, p. 23.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) notes:
Violations of the law of war have often been shown to have been the deeds of subordinates who acted through ignorance or excess of zeal or the result of orders issued by superiors who acted either in ignorance or disregard of the laws of war. Care must therefore be taken that all ranks are acquainted with the laws of war and that they endeavour to observe them. Under the 1949 [Geneva] Conventions the parties are bound, both in time of peace and in war, to disseminate the text of the Conventions in their countries and to include the study of them in their programmes of military instruction. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 120.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states that the manual “is designed for use by personnel of all ranks who need to study or give instruction in the law of armed conflict”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, p. iii, § 1.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Enforcement of the law of armed conflict can involve a wide variety of measures. “Enforcement” is taken here to mean action to ensure observance of the law and also action that may be taken following alleged or actual violations. Action aimed at effective enforcement of the law can include, but is not limited to:
a. Disseminating knowledge of the law within the armed forces, training and equipping forces in accordance with legal requirements and establishing an effective system for taking legal considerations into account in military planning and decision-making. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 16.1.
The manual further states:
The manner in which dissemination is done is left to the states themselves and may be by means of orders, courses of instructions, commentaries or manuals. There is a specific requirement to instruct medical personnel, chaplains and those responsible for handling prisoners of war and the administration of protected persons. There is a general requirement to disseminate to the armed forces as a whole. Any military or civilian authorities with responsibility for applying the conventions or protocol must be fully acquainted with the text. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 16.3.1.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) states: “The purpose of this Manual is to provide authoritative guidance to military personnel on the customary and treaty law applicable to the conduct of warfare on land.” 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 1.
The manual further incorporates the content of Article 47 of the 1949 Geneva Convention I, Article 48 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II, Article 127 of the 1949 Geneva Convention III and Article 144 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 14.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) quotes a directive of the Department of Defense which provides:
The Armed Forces of the United States will insure that programs to prevent violations of the law of war to include training and dissemination as required by the Geneva Conventions … and by [the 1907] Hague Convention IV … are instituted and implemented …
The Secretaries of the Military Departments will develop internal policies and procedures consistent with this Directive in support of the [Department of Defense] law of war program in order to:
1. Provide publications, instructions, and training so that the principles and rules of the law of war will be known to members of their respective departments, the extent of such knowledge to be commensurate with each individual’s duties and responsibilities. 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 1-4(c).
The Pamphlet also stipulates: “All states must include the text of the Conventions in programs of military … instruction.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 15-2(b).
United States of America
The US Soldier’s Manual (1984) states:
Although all Americans – soldiers, citizens, and leaders – have a legal obligation to know and abide by these laws of war, soldiers must be especially aware of them … This publication is intended to help you, today’s soldier, know and understand these laws of war. 
United States, Your Conduct in Combat under the Law of War, Publication No. FM 27-2, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, November 1984, p. 3.
United States of America
The US Instructor’s Guide (1985) states: “All soldiers must know about [the 1907 Hague Conventions and the 1949 Geneva Conventions] and customary laws and understand how they work.” 
United States, Instructor’s Guide – The Law of War, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, April 1985, p. 5.
The Guide also specifies:
This circular provides guidance, lesson outlines, and courses for required training in the law of war which includes the Hague Convention Number IV of 1907, the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and the customary law of war. 
United States, Instructor’s Guide – The Law of War, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, April 1985, p. ii.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) provides:
It is the responsibility of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps … to ensure that:
All service members of the Department of the Navy, commensurate with their duties and responsibilities, receive, through publications, instructions, training programs and exercises, training and education in the law of armed conflict. 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 6.1.2.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states: “All service members of the Department of the Navy, commensurate with their duties and responsibilities, must receive, through publications, instructions, training programs and exercises, training and education in the law of armed conflict.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, p. 19.
United States of America
The US Manual on Detainee Operations (2008) states:
Training for Detainee Operations
… When U.S. forces conduct detainee operations, they must possess the text of the applicable [1949] Geneva Conventions and be instructed as to their provisions. Because the Armed Forces of the United States comply with the law of war as a matter of DOD [Department of Defense] policy during all operations, this requirement is applicable as a matter of policy to all detention operations. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, p. III-14.
Argentina
Argentina’s National Committee on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CADIH) (1994) was established by a national decree to undertake studies on the teaching and dissemination of the rules of IHL. 
Argentina, Decree on the Creation of the National Committee on IHL, 1994, Article 1(b).
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War (1995) states:
The appropriate authorities and governmental bodies of the Azerbaijan Republic ensure that all the citizens learn the provisions of this law on civil defence and ensure the preparation of military servicemen of all categories within the framework of training programmes.
If the Azerbaijan Republic is one of the parties to the conflict, the necessary instruction is given to the civilian population in such a conflict area and to the personnel staff of the Armed Forces of the Azerbaijan Republic involved in the solution of this conflict. 
Azerbaijan, Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War, 1995, Article 30.
Belarus
Belarus’s Order on Study and Dissemination of IHL (1997), whose aim is “the implementation of international obligations of the Republic of Belarus with respect to the study and dissemination of international humanitarian law”, provides for the adoption of an annexed “Regulation on the application of the rules of international humanitarian law for the officers of the Belarusian armed forces”. It further provides for the establishment, within the Ministry of Defence, of a commission on the study and the dissemination of IHL in charge of, inter alia, the preparation of measures for the study of IHL within the armed forces. The Order also provides for the preparation of manuals on IHL designed for the armed forces. 
Belarus, Order on Study and Dissemination of IHL, 1997, preamble and Articles 1, 2, 3(d) and 4(b).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Emblem Law (2002) states: “Competent bodies within the armed forces … shall inform the persons in the armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina … about the text of the [1949] Geneva Conventions.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Emblem Law, 2002, Article 18.
Burundi
Burundi’s Constitution (2005) provides: “The members of the defence corps and the security corps at all levels [of the military hierarchy] are to be trained in international humanitarian law”. 
Burundi, Constitution, 2005, Article 260.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Interdepartmental Order on the Dissemination of IHL (2008) states:
Art. 1: A Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian Law to the Defence and Security Forces is created.
Art. 2: The committee is responsible for the coordination and the efficiency of International Humanitarian Law activities within the Defence and Security Forces.
In this respect, it is responsible for:
- Elaborating the instruction and training manual on IHL;
- Designing the training programmes;
- Disseminating International Humanitarian Law to the Defence and Security Forces;
- Elaborating and updating … the strategies for training on, and dissemination of, International Humanitarian Law in the security sector, in line with the recommendations of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 
Central African Republic, Interdepartmental Order on the Dissemination of IHL, 2008, Articles 1–2.
Chad
Chad’s Order on the Establishment of a School for the Training of Trainers in IHL (2007) states:
Having considered Decree No. 424/PR/MDNACVG/92 of August 15, 1992 on the establishment of a group of joint service military schools within the Chadian national army;
Having considered Decree N ° 59/have/EMP/2002 of March 11, 2002 on the establishment and remit of a center of reference in International Humanitarian Law for Armed and Security Forces;
Having considered Decree No. 085/PR/MON/EMP/2006 of May 19, 2006 on the integration of teaching of International Humanitarian Law in the Armed and Security Forces training program;
Having considered Decree N ° 129/MDNACVG/EMP/2004 of August 17, 2004, on the establishment of a training center on peace-keeping operations.
ORDER
Article 1: A school for the training of trainers in international humanitarian law and peacekeeping has been created within the group of military schools referred to as (EFFDIH-MP).
Article 2: The school for the training of trainers in International humanitarian law and peacekeeping is responsible for:
- Developing a national program for teaching international humanitarian law (IHL);
- Designing and printing educational materials;
- Planning recycling seminars for the benefit of the personnel of the Armed and Security Forces;
- Setting up a system of annual assessment of the teaching of IHL and of the technical and practical knowledge of peace-keeping operations;
- Carrying out education and training of the personnel of the Armed and Security Forces, of troops waiting for deployment to peace operations with international, regional and/or sub- regional organizations; on the rules of engagement, of behaviour and reports. 
Chad, Order on the Establishment of a School for the Training of Trainers on IHL, 2007, Preamble and Articles 1–2.
Chad
Chad’s Emblem Law (2014) states:
The Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Defence ensure at all times strict compliance with the rules governing the use of the emblems of the red cross or the red crescent, the denomination “Red Cross” and “Red Crescent” and the distinctive signals. …
These Ministries shall take every appropriate step to prevent misuse, in particular:
- by disseminating the rules in question as widely as possible among the armed forces, the police forces, the administrative authorities and the civilian population;
- by issuing directives to the national civil and military authorities concerning the use of the emblem, in accordance with the [1949] Geneva Conventions and their [1977] Additional Protocols. 
Chad, Emblem Law, 2014, Article 8(1)–(2).
Colombia
Colombia’s Decree No. 138 (2005) states:
The Ministry of National Defence must carry out dissemination programmes through the General Command of the Armed Forces and the National Police and must take pertinent measures in order to include the norms on the protection of the Red Cross emblems and other distinctive emblems in the military and police doctrine. 
Colombia, Decree No. 138, 2005, Article 2; see also Article 14.
Côte d’Ivoire
By a decree in 1999, Côte d’Ivoire set up a national IHL bureau in charge of dissemination and training for the armed forces. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 22, referring to Côte d’Ivoire, Decree on Dissemination and Training for the Armed Forces, 1999.
Croatia
Croatia’s Emblem Law (1993) provides:
In accordance with the commitments made on [the] international level concerning the promotion of [the 1949] Geneva Conventions, it is necessary to elaborate adequate programmes and ensure their implementation among:
–members of [the] armed forces of the Republic of Croatia – Ministry of Defence. 
Croatia, Emblem Law, 1993, Article 14.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Constitution of the Transition (2003) provides:
The Plenum of the Intercongolese Dialogue has adopted,
The President of the Republic promulgates the Constitution of the Transition with the following content:
Article 47
The State has the duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as of all duly ratified regional and international instruments relative to human rights and international humanitarian law.
The State has the obligation to integrate the rights of the human person in all training programmes of the armed forces, the police and security services. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Constitution of the Transition, 2003, Article 47.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Constitution (2006) provides:
The public authorities have the duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as of all duly ratified regional and international conventions relative to human rights and international humanitarian law.
The State has the obligation to integrate the rights of the human person in all training programmes of the armed forces, the police and security services. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Constitution, 2006, Article 45.
France
France’s Code of Defence (2004), as amended in 2008, states: “Every member of the military shall be trained on the knowledge of and respect for the rules of international law applicable to armed conflicts.” 
France, Code of Defence, 2004, as amended in 2008, Article D4122-11.
Germany
Germany’s Law on the Legal Status of Military Personnel (1995) provides: “Soldiers are to be instructed with regard to their duties and rights under … public international law in times of peace and in times of war.” 
Germany, Law on the Legal Status of Military Personnel, 1995, § 33(2).
Nepal
Nepal’s Army Act (2006) states:
Any individual who shall be included in the organization of the Nepalese Army shall be provided trainings on topics including military education, ethics, physical exercise, human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Nepal, Army Act, 2006, Section 20(1).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Compulsory Human Rights Education (2002) provides for the establishment of a national plan on the teaching of human rights and IHL in establishments for military and police training. It states:
The duty to teach human rights and international humanitarian law must aim at full implementation and strict compliance with the international treaties and conventions as well as the protection of fundamental rights in the national and international arena. 
Peru, Law on Compulsory Human Rights Education, 2002, Article 3.
Peru
Peru’s Directive on the Instruction of IHL within the Armed Forces (2004) states that its object is “[t]o establish the criteria and provisions for the planning, organization, conduct, coordination and control of the inclusion of international humanitarian law (IHL) applicable in situations of armed conflict into the doctrine and training of the armed forces”. 
Peru, Directive on the Instruction of IHL within the Armed Forces, 2004, Article 1.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Order on the Publication of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols (1990) requires the Vice-Ministers of Defence and commanders at several levels:
–to ensure, in the context of the legal preparation of the personnel, the study of the Geneva Conventions … the Protocols and the instructions on the application of the rules of international humanitarian law by the armed forces of the USSR;
–to take into account the provisions of the [above-]mentioned documents during studies and teaching. 
Russian Federation, Order on the Publication of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols, 1990, § 2.
Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro’s Decision on the Establishment of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law (2004) states:
1. The Commission for International Humanitarian Law of Serbia and Montenegro (in further text: the Commission) is established in order to follow the development and implementation of International Humanitarian Law.
3. Tasks of the Commission are the following:
(4) To consider and propose measures undertaken in Serbia and in Montenegro on spreading knowledge of International Humanitarian Law in the Armed Forces … and other institutions which implement the rules of International Humanitarian Law. 
Serbia and Montenegro, Decision on the Establishment of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law, 2004, Articles 1 and 3(4).
Spain
Spain’s Royal Ordinances for the Armed Forces (2009) states in an article on duties with regard to international humanitarian law:
Members of the armed forces … must disseminate … in the conduct of any armed conflict or military operation, the international conventions ratified by Spain relating to alleviating the plight of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked [members] of the armed forces, to the treatment of prisoners and the protection of civilians, as well as those concerning the protection of cultural property and the prohibition or restriction of the use of certain weapons. 
Spain, Royal Ordinances for the Armed Forces, 2009, Article 106.
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka’s Geneva Conventions Act (2006) reproduces the following from the 1949 Geneva Convention IV:
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population.
Any [c]ivilian[,] military, police or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions. 
Sri Lanka, Geneva Conventions Act, 2006, Schedule IV: Article 144; see also Schedule III: Article 127.
Sweden
Sweden’s Total Defence Ordinance relating to IHL (1990) states:
The [Armed Forces and the authorities having functional responsibilities under the Emergency Preparedness Ordinance] shall ensure that the personnel in this field receive satisfactory instruction and information about the rules of international humanitarian law in war and during neutrality. The Swedish Agency for Civil Emergency Planning shall co-ordinate the training in the civil part of the Total Defence. 
Sweden, Total Defence Ordinance relating to IHL, 1990, Section 20.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Order of the Ministry of Interior on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1996) states:
II. The Head of the [D]epartment [for] [E]ducational [W]ork [of the Ministry of Interior], together with experts of the International Committee of the Red Cross (and the National Red Crescent Society) shall develop a syllabus on international humanitarian law.
III 1. Military unit commanders and their deputies shall work with [the] staff to include International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in an additional program of social and humanitarian training and any other relevant training program;
2. [Military unit commanders and their deputies shall also] organize work on the … [training] of the Interior Troops of the Republic of Tajikistan on the main provisions of the Geneva Conventions on the Protection of Victims of War of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977. 
Tajikistan, Order of the Ministry of Interior on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1996, Articles II–III.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Order of the Minister of Defence on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1996) states:
II. The Chief of Combat Training and Universities of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan, together with experts of the International Committee of the Red Cross and National Red Crescent Society of Tajikistan, shall develop a syllabus on international humanitarian law.
III. 1. The Chief Directorate-Deputy Minister of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan in charge of personnel shall include International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in an additional program of social and humanitarian training;
2. [The Chief Directorate-Deputy Minister of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan shall also] organize work on the … [training] of Armed Forces personnel of the Republic of Tajikistan on the main provisions of the Geneva Conventions on the Protection of Victims of War of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977.
IV. The Head of Administration of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan shall develop a project incorporating the norms and principles of international humanitarian law in the respective military regulations. 
Tajikistan, Order of the Minister of Defence on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1996, Articles II–IV.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Order of the Committee for State Border Protection on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols (1998) states:
II. The Chief of Combat Training of the [Committee for State Border Protection] under the Government of Tajikistan jointly with experts of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the National Red Crescent Society shall arrange a training program on international humanitarian law.
III. 1. The Chief of the Office of Human Resources and educational work, the Deputy Chairman of the Committee for State Border Protection on educational work and personnel shall include an additional legal training program in international humanitarian law (IHL);
2. [The Chief of the Office of Human Resources and educational work, the Deputy Chairman of the Committee for State Border Protection on educational work and personnel shall also] organize work on the … [training] of the Border Troops of the Republic of Tajikistan on the main provisions of the Geneva Conventions on the Protection of Victims of War of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977. 
Tajikistan, Order of the Committee for State Border Protection on Measures to Comply with the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, 1998, Articles II–III.
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Regulations of the Commission on IHL Implementation (1999) states:
3. The main task of the Commission shall be to promote the implementation of international obligations of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of international humanitarian law …
4. In order to fulfill the main task, the Commission shall have the following functions:
- Participating in the development of training programs on the subject for all levels of … personnel of military units and law enforcement agencies. 
Tajikistan, Regulations of the Commission on IHL Implementation, 1999, Articles 3–4.
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on the National Armed Forces (1983) provides: “The personnel of the National Armed Forces shall know and strictly comply with all the principles and rules provided for in the Conventions and Conferences on the International Law of War which have been ratified by the Republic.” 
Uruguay, Law on the National Armed Forces, 1983, Article 362; see also Article 363.
Uruguay
Uruguay’s Law on Cooperation with the ICC (2006) states:
The State is obliged to inform and disseminate to the widest extent possible the norms of domestic and international law that regulate the aforementioned crimes and offences [including war crimes]. Education and training programmes must be implemented for public officials, in particular for all levels of … military … personnel. For military personnel, special programmes must be established for continuous comprehensive education in international humanitarian law. 
Uruguay, Law on Cooperation with the ICC, 2006, Article 30.
Venezuela
Venezuela’s Law on the Bolivarian National Armed Forces (2008) states:
Article 136. Instruction and training
Members of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces must be instructed and trained permanently in human rights and international humanitarian law[.] 
Venezuela, Law on the Bolivarian National Armed Forces, 2008, Article 136.
Venezuela
Venezuela’s Law on the Bolivarian National Armed Forces (2008), as amended to 2011, states:
Article 139. Instruction and training
Male and female members of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces must be instructed and trained permanently in human rights and international humanitarian law[.] 
Venezuela, Law on the Bolivarian National Armed Forces, 2008, as amended to 2011, Article 139.
Venezuela
Venezuela’s Ministerial General Directive on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Courses for the Bolivarian National Armed Forces (2012) states:
III. Background
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has subscribed to a number of international agreements, treaties and conventions which impose on the State the obligation to disseminate their provisions. This is the case in particular of agreements or conventions related to human rights and international humanitarian law. In order to comply with this obligation, courses on such fields of law must be included in the Venezuelan military education, thus fulfilling the commitment to disseminate both in times of peace and armed conflict the provisions contained in the international instruments that govern them.
The incorporation of such courses into the military training aims at ensuring that their principles are known and respected by all members of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces, in order to foster and promote a culture of respect, protection and realization of human rights and application of international humanitarian law, required at all times.
IV. Provisions
A. General provisions
1. To incorporate at least two hours a week of human rights and international humanitarian law courses into the training of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces per academic term.
2. The courses on human rights and international humanitarian law must be mandatory for all military personnel of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces.
B. Specific provisions
2. The minimum content for the syllabus of the international humanitarian law course will be the following depending on the level of education:
Basic level:
Addressed to the enlisted troop
Synopsis of the content:
Topic 1. Introduction to international humanitarian law: concept, application and importance. Legal basis.
Topic 2. Treatment of prisoners of war. Detainees and persons deprived of their liberty. Practical exercises and behaviour.
Topic 3. Treatment of the civilian population and specifically protected objects. The wounded and the sick. Disabled persons and pregnant women. Children. Refugees and stateless persons. Cultural property: historical monuments, works of art, places of worship, scientific work and other distinctive emblems. Practical exercise.
Topic 4. Violations of international humanitarian law. Situations where troop personnel might be susceptible to violating international humanitarian law.
Intermediate level:
Addressed to cadet personnel, students from military institutes and professional troops
Synopsis of the content:
Topic 1. Introduction to international humanitarian law: concept, evolution. Antecedents of international humanitarian law in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law. International human rights law and international refugee law.
Topic 2. Law of The Hague. Law of Geneva. Mixed law. General knowledge of relevant treaties. International legislation regarding international humanitarian law. The 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 and 2005 Additional Protocols.
Topic 3. Application of international humanitarian law. Charter of the United Nations. International and non-international/internal armed conflicts. Internal disturbances, tensions and demonstrations: differences. The case of Colombia.
Topic 4. International humanitarian law in Venezuelan legislation. Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (1999). Organic Law on the Safety and Defence of the Nation. Decree with Rank, Value and Force of Organic Law of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces. Organic Code of Military Justice. Venezuelan Penal Code.
Topic 5: Fundamental categories of persons and objects. Combatants. Military objectives. Civilians. Medical personnel. Religious personnel. Civilian, religious and cultural objects. Signs. Means and methods of warfare.
Topic 6. International refugee law. Fundamental concepts: refugee, displaced person, economic migrant. Differences. Organic Law on Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Mass influxes. Role of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces with regard to refugees.
Topic 7. Violations of international humanitarian law. Specific situations that violate international humanitarian law. Importance of the respect for international humanitarian law. Responsibility in the area of international humanitarian law. Individual criminal responsibility and State responsibility. International Criminal Court.
Advanced level:
Addressed to junior officers
Synopsis of the content:
Topic 1. International humanitarian law. Importance of the respect for and compliance with international humanitarian law, legal framework. Fundamental concepts: insurgency, belligerency, mercenaries. Protecting power. Preparatory measures in peacetime.
Topic 2. Armed conflicts: introduction and evolution of conflicts. Charter of the United Nations as an instrument regulating the use of force. Beginning of an armed conflict. Requirements for the existence of an armed conflict. Tactics and means of combat employed.
Topic 3. Post-armed conflict measures. Repatriation. Liberation of persons and objects. Missing and dead persons. Role of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces.
Topic 4. International refugee law. International and domestic legal framework. Role of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces regarding refugees.
Topic 5. Command responsibility. Responsibility in military operations and command responsibility with regard to international humanitarian law. Obligation to provide instruction to military personnel in the law of armed conflicts.
Topic 6. Exercising command: introduction, mission, elements, decision-making and control over the execution.
Topic 7. Breaches of international humanitarian law provided for in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the Organic Code of Military Justice. Criminal responsibility in international humanitarian law. Individual responsibility. State responsibility for violations of the rules of international humanitarian law. International Criminal Court. Rome Statute.
Topic 8. Practical aspects of the implementation of international humanitarian law. Humanitarian rules: civilian populations, non-combatants, humanitarian assistance to the wounded, sick or detained.
Superior level:
Addressed to superior officers
Synopsis of the content:
Topic 1. International humanitarian law: general information, fundamental principles. Armed forces and international humanitarian law.
Topic 2. Handling armed conflicts. General strategic concepts related to the prevention and handling of armed conflicts. Role of superiors/commanders. The case of Colombia.
Topic 3. Planning and conduct of military operations. Strategies. International humanitarian law in the decision-making process. The role of intelligence. Personnel. Logistics. Planning and conduct of military operations: civilian matters and operations from the perspective of international humanitarian law. The case of Kosovo, Serbia, Bosnia. Armed conflict Las Malvinas.
Topic 4. Occupation and neutrality. Principles related to occupation. Security measures. Combat actions. Inviolable neutral space. Duties of the parties to a conflict. Neutral State.
Topic 5. International refugee law. Asylum application. Procedure. Preliminary asylum records. Provisional refugee document. Procedure in cases of mass influxes. National and international bodies related to refuge. The case of Darfur (Sudan). The case of the Colombian refugees in Venezuela.
Topic 6. International Criminal Court: general information, antecedents, complementarity, justification, jurisdiction and functioning. Difference from the International Court of Justice.
Topic 7. Crimes under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. Genocide. Crimes against humanity. War crimes. Crime of aggression. Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
Venezuela, Ministerial General Directive on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Courses for the Bolivarian National Armed Forces, 2012, pp. 2 and 6–10.
Israel
In its judgment in Physicians for Human Rights v Commander of IDF Forces in the Gaza Strip in 2004, Israel’s High Court of Justice stated:
34. According to the humanitarian principles of international law, military activities require the following: First, that the rules of conduct be taught to, and that they be internalized by, all combat soldiers, from the Chief of General Staff down to new recruits. See Physicians for Human Rights, at 5. Second, that procedures be drawn up that allow implementation of these rules, and which allow them to be put into practice during combat. An examination of the conduct of the army while fighting in Rafah, as detailed in the petition before us – and we have nothing other than what has been presented to us – indicates significant progress compared to the situation two years ago. See Barake; Physicians for Human Rights and other decisions. This is the case regarding the implementation of the duty to ensure water, medical equipment, medicines, food, evacuation of the wounded and the burial of the dead. This is also the case regarding the preparation of the army, and the design of procedures that allow humanitarian obligations to be satisfied. The establishment of the Humanitarian Hotline and the District Coordination Office, as well as the assignment of a liaison officer of the Coordination Office to every battalion, greatly aided the implementation of humanitarian principles.
35. In the framework of our discussion regarding the internalization of humanitarian laws, we emphasize that it is the duty of the military commander not only to prevent the army from harming the lives and dignity of the local residents (the “negative” duty: see supra para. 11). He also has a “positive” duty (para. 11). He must protect the lives and dignity of the local residents … The recognition that the basic duty belongs to the military commander must be internalized, and it is his job to adopt different measures from the outset so that he can fulfill his duty on the battlefield. 
Israel, High Court of Justice, Physicians for Human Rights v. Commander of IDF Forces in the Gaza Strip, Judgment, 30 May 2004, §§ 34–35.
Note: As of 1 September 2011, 100 States had created national committees and other national bodies on international humanitarian law to assist them in ensuring respect for their obligations under IHL. These are not listed here individually. 
The States in question are:Africa: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago and Uruguay.Asia & Pacific: Australia, Indonesia, China, Cook Islands, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.Europe: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Information on the composition and mandate of the committees can be found in the Table of National Committees and Other National Bodies on International Humanitarian Law, Advisory Service on International Humanitarian Law, ICRC, 1 January 2010, available on www.icrc.org/ihl.
The tasks of these committees and bodies usually include dissemination of IHL or the promotion of such dissemination.
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
Children and armed conflict
275. The MoD [Ministry of Defence] has prepared policies on international laws of armed conflict and has instructed the armed units of the National Army for its implementation. The said Ministry and the Red Cross has also presented “lessons learnt” and experiences on the law of armed conflict for soldiers and officers of the army and cases of human rights abuses. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 275.
Algeria
According to the Report on the Practice of Algeria, introductory lectures in IHL are given at the largest military academies for the armed forces. The teaching is based on the study of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols. 
Report on the Practice of Algeria, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Argentina
Article 10 of the Internal Rules of Procedure of the Argentine National Committee on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CADIH) states: “The CADIH will establish its working methods with regard to legal measures of application and teaching and dissemination, in the civil and military fields respectively.”  
Argentina, Committee on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CADIH), Internal Rules of Procedure, Article 10.
Argentina
In 1997, at the first meeting of the Argentine and Chilean national committees on the implementation of IHL, a legal adviser of the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that Argentina recognized the importance of efforts made by States to disseminate IHL in peacetime and that persons be trained to apply the law in situations described in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols. 
Argentina, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Religion, Statement by a Legal Adviser, First Meeting of the Argentine and Chilean Committees on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law, Buenos Aires, 17–18 April 1997, p. 5.
Argentina
The Report on the Practice of Argentina contains, as annexes, documents which aim to provide teaching material for the armed forces in which rules of IHL have been incorporated. 
Argentina, Model curriculum for instruction in the law of war for the armed forces (undated); Curriculum for Senior Officers at the Escuela Superior de Guerra (Higher College of War), 1997; Curriculum for the course on international law applicable in armed conflicts, Escuela Superior de Guerra (Higher College of War), 1996; Programme on International Law, Escuela de Guerra Naval (Naval War College), 1996; Report on the Practice of Algeria, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Armenia
In 2010, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Armenia stated:
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Armenia in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross organises regular trainings for the Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia on the elements and principles of international humanitarian law, as well as prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment at military detention facilities by higher commandership against captives, prisoners of war, and military servicemen having committed a crime. 
Armenia, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 7 December 2010, UN Doc. CAT/C/ARM/3, submitted 22 December 2009, § 88.
Australia
In 1984, in an assessment of the military implications of the 1977 Additional Protocols I and II, Australia’s Joint Military Operations and Plans Division of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) stated:
In recognition of the requirement for training in the laws of armed conflict, COSC [Chiefs of Staff Committee], in February 1983, agreed to the introduction of a formal training programme in the laws of armed conflict in the ADF to meet the provisions of The Hague and Geneva Conventions, [Additional] Protocols I and II and customary law …
However, the requirement for the Convention and Protocols to be disseminated “as widely as possible in respective countries” has not been addressed by Defence, as this is not a Defence responsibility. 
Australia, Joint Military Operations and Plans Division of the ADF, Assessment of the Military Implications of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, September 1984, Series No. AA-A1838/376, File No. AA-1710/10/3/1 Pt 2, §§ 12 and 15; see also § 23.
Australia
Enumerating the matters which Australia believed must receive priority attention in the outcomes of the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995, the head of the Australian delegation noted:
All States must take effective action to disseminate the law [of armed conflict] within their armed forces … States and relevant international organizations must work together to ensure that dissemination programs are given the highest priority in terms of funding and materials. 
Australia, Statement at the 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, reprinted in Australian Year Book of International Law, Vol. 17, 1996, p. 787.
Australia
In 2000, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of UN personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in conflict zones, Australia stated:
Practical measures can be taken by Governments to promote understanding and observance of international humanitarian law within their own communities, especially among military and security forces … including by disseminating information about international humanitarian law. 
Australia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4100 (Resumption 1), 9 February 2000, p. 6.
Australia
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Australia stated:
All ADF [Australian Defence Force] members both full time and part time are required to undergo training in law of armed conflict in accordance with Defence policy. The single services (Navy, Army, Air Force) Chiefs are responsible for ensuring their members are adequately trained. … Training is delivered during initial and professional development courses, specific specialist courses and pre-deployment training. Members are trained to a level of understanding commensurate with their duties and responsibilities. 
Australia, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 September 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/AUS/1, submitted October 2008. § 53.
Austria
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Austria pledged to “strengthen its efforts to provide internationally deployed members of the armed forces with training in international humanitarian law”. 
Austria, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Bangladesh
In 2007, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Bangladesh stated:
The Government has taken initiatives in disseminating the … [1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child], [the 2000] Optional … [Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict], Concluding Observations [of the Committee on the Rights of the Child] and written reports to a wider audience including the army. 
Bangladesh, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 29 October 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/BGD/4, submitted 4 September 2007, § 450.
Belarus
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Belarus pledged to “continue the dissemination of information on the fundamental norms and principles of [IHL] among the population of the Republic of Belarus as well as among military forces personnel and attached to them medical and religious staff”. 
Belarus, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Belgium
In 1999, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Belgium stated:
Mention should be made of certain administrative and educational measures for the enforcement of humanitarian law:
- a course in the law of armed conflicts, education and training, is provided to all army ranks;
- members of the armed forces trained in the law of armed conflicts serve at all levels of the army, from company to division. 
Belgium, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 25 October 2000, UN Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.2, submitted 7 May 1999, § 675.
Belgium
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Belgium, jointly with the Belgian Red Cross, pledged to:
implement training programmes in international humanitarian law targeted at those who are most directly concerned by the application of and respect for this body of law, namely … the armed forces:
2. The armed forces not only have advisers in the law of armed conflict, but training in international humanitarian law is given at every level. Because of the increasing number of international operations under way, in particular those relating to peace-keeping and peace-making, it has become necessary to supplement the training already given with practical experience in applying international humanitarian law and improved knowledge of relations between the military and humanitarian workers. Accordingly, instruction in this subject will be given as part of the preparations for each departure on such an operation, and exercises on this material will be systematically included in training and manoeuvres. 
Belgium, Pledge made together with the Belgian Red Cross at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Belgium
In 2001, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Belgium stated:
The courses organized for the armed forces on armed conflict law and the rules of engagement, which include the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, provide for the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.  
Belgium, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 8 July 2002, UN Doc. CAT/C/52/Add. 2, submitted 14 August 2001, § 156.
Belgium
In 2006, in its written replies to the questions raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to Belgium’s initial periodic report under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Belgium stated:
The question of protecting children in armed conflicts is addressed in the training given to all military personnel. It is brought to the attention of all categories of personnel on several occasions during basic and in-service training courses on the law of armed conflict. The general training programme for all categories of military personnel is contained in the “Directive on teaching the law of armed conflict and the rules of engagement in the armed forces”, which describes the training of military personnel of all levels (volunteers, non-commissioned officers and officers) during basic training and in-service training. Manuals are provided for each category of personnel and level of training, and can be obtained by each unit. 
Belgium, Written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Belgium to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 3 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 30 March 2006, pp. 6–7.
Belgium further stated:
During basic training, volunteer candidates follow a four-hour course on the law of armed conflict that includes two hours of teaching on the humanitarian rules for combatants. The instructor deals with the protection of various categories of person (civilians, prisoners of war, the wounded and medical personnel).
Non-commissioned officer candidates receive the same basic training in the law of armed conflict, with an additional hour of teaching on their duties and responsibilities as leaders, especially as regards breaches of the law of armed conflict (murder, rape, torture, etc.).
The same concepts are covered eight years later on a course for non-commissioned officers aspiring to promotion to the rank of warrant officer (“Prevention and punishment of breaches of the law of armed conflict”).
Officer candidates receive 11 hours of training in the law of armed conflict. In addition to basic training in the humanitarian rules for combatants, they receive an hour’s training on their responsibilities as leaders in this area (“Prevention and punishment of breaches of the law of armed conflict”).
As part of their in-service training, officers follow a technical course for staff officers. Six hours of the course are devoted to the law of armed conflict. Part of the course is spent on revision of the concepts studied earlier (by officer candidates) as they apply to a higher level of command.
The course for senior officer candidates (followed by those wishing to be promoted to the rank of major) devotes 12 hours to the law of armed conflict. One hour is spent on revision of the basic rules of humanitarian law, including the protection of persons (civilians, the wounded, prisoners of war and medical personnel). A further hour is spent on responsibilities and the punishment of serious breaches of the law of armed conflict.
[The higher course for staff officers] is intended for selected officers of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel. It includes 12 hours on the law of armed conflict, including the same in-depth revision as in the course for senior officer candidates, especially with regard to the punishment of violations and the responsibilities of military leaders in this respect. During basic training, each soldier is given a card on humanitarian rules for combatants as an aide-memoire. Before they leave on an operation, military personnel are reminded of the rules of the law of armed conflict and the rules of engagement and conduct applicable to each mission. The texts of all the conventions on the law of armed conflict ratified by Belgium are circulated within the armed forces. 
Belgium, Written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Belgium to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 3 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 30 March 2006, pp. 7–8.
Belgium further stated:
During their training, [the advisers on the law of armed conflict] are … given in-depth training in all the rules of the law of armed conflict. Although it is not a subject in its own right, the protection of children caught up in armed conflicts is, of course, addressed in the advisers’ training. 
Belgium, Written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Belgium to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 3 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 30 March 2006, p. 8.
Belgium further stated:
There is a military commission on the law of armed conflict within the defence forces which is responsible, together with the Office on the Law of Armed Conflict and Rules of Engagement (DCA-ROE) of the defence staff, for disseminating information within the defence forces. 
Belgium, Written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Belgium to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 3 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 30 March 2006, p. 8.
Belgium
In 2006, in its second periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Belgium stated:
185. The prohibition on torture as such is not currently the subject of any specific training within the Belgian armed forces. However, the issue is indeed addressed during all military training.
186. All categories of personnel are reminded at several points in their basic and in-service training on the prohibition on torture as part of the course on the law of armed conflict.
a) Volunteers:
(i) During basic training, volunteer candidates follow a four-hour course on the law of armed conflict that includes two hours of teaching on the humanitarian rules for combatants.
(ii) When the instructor deals with the protection of various categories of person, (civilians, prisoners of war, the wounded and medical personnel), candidates are explicitly reminded of the prohibition on torture.
(iii) N.B.: A reminder of the basic training in this field undergone by any soldier is given to all soldiers in a similar form before they leave on an operation, regardless of rank (officers, non-commissioned officers and volunteers).
b) Non-commissioned officers:
(i) Non-commissioned officer candidates: Non-commissioned officer candidates receive the same basic training in the law of armed conflict, with an additional hour of teaching on their duties and responsibilities as leaders, especially as regards breaches of the law of armed conflict (murder, rape, torture, etc.).
(ii) Elite non-commissioned officer candidates (warrant officers): The same concepts are covered eight years later on a course for non-commissioned officers aspiring to promotion to the rank of warrant officer (“Prevention and punishment of breaches of the law of armed conflict”).
c) Officers
(i) Officer candidates: Officer candidates receive 11 hours of training in the law of armed conflict. In addition to basic training in the humanitarian rules for combatants, they receive an hour’s training on their responsibilities as leaders in this area (“Prevention and punishment of breaches of the law of armed conflict”).
(ii) Technical course for staff officers: As part of their in-service training, officers follow a technical course for staff officers, six hours of which are devoted to the law of armed conflict. Part of the course is spent on revision of the concepts studied earlier (by officer candidates) as they apply to a higher level of command.
(iii) Senior officer candidates: The course for senior officer candidates (followed by those wishing to be promoted to the rank of major) devotes 12 hours to the law of armed conflict. One hour is spent on revision of the basic rules of humanitarian law, including the protection of persons (civilians, the wounded, prisoners of war and medical personnel). The prohibition on torture is one of the prohibitions of which candidates are reminded on this occasion. A further hour is spent on responsibilities and the punishment of serious breaches of the law of armed conflict.
(iv) Higher course for staff officers: This course is intended for selected officers of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel. It includes 12 hours on the law of armed conflict, including the same in-depth revision as in the course for senior officer candidates, especially with regard to the punishment of violations and the responsibilities of military leaders in this respect.
d) Advisers on the law of armed conflict: The armed forces have introduced a network of advisers on the law of armed conflict (CDCAs) in military units and headquarters who are responsible for advising commanders in this field. The advisers are officers who have undergone a five week specialized training course at the Higher Royal Defence Institute. During that course they are given detailed instruction in all the rules of the law of armed conflict. Four hours of the course are devoted to the status of prisoners of war, four hours to the treatment of the wounded and medical personnel and four hours to rules governing occupation.
187. Each of these training programmes includes a reminder of the prohibition on torture for each of the categories of persons protected. 
Belgium, Second periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 14 August 2007, UN Doc. CAT/C/BEL/2, submitted 21 September 2006, §§ 185–187.
Benin
In 1987, Benin’s Ministry of Defence and Popular Armed Forces established a committee for the supervision of the dissemination of IHL in the armed forces, the task of which being “the promotion and supervision of the dissemination of the principles of the law of war in the units of the Popular Armed Forces”. 
Benin, Ministry of Defence and Popular Armed Forces, Service Note No. 468/MDFAP/ DGM/DEP, 13 July 1987.
Benin
In 1991, by way of a service note, the Ministry of National Defence of Benin instituted the teaching of IHL in the school and training centres of the armed forces of Benin. 
Benin, Ministry of National Defence, Service Note No. 91-0034/EMA/BESS, 22 February 1991.
Bolivia
In 1999, the Bolivian military authorities began to provide instruction in IHL for the armed forces as part of the teaching programmes at military academies and other institutions. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 15.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
It is reported that in 1993 the new Herzegovinan Chief of Staff, in response to international criticism of the destruction of the Mostar Bridge by the Bosnian Croat forces, distributed to his officers and soldiers a brochure describing international provisions regarding IHL, war crimes and the protection of cultural heritage and prisoners of war. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on Culture and Education, Fourth information report on war damage to the cultural heritage in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, Doc. 6999, 19 January 1994, p. 23, § 71.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
According to the Report on the Practice of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the “training of all members of armed forces should be organized on a regular basis in order to disseminate the rules of international law of war”. 
Report on the Practice of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000, Chapter 1.6.
Brazil
According to the Report on the Practice of Brazil, the Government of Brazil has distributed an ICRC booklet on the essential rules of IHL to the members of its armed forces. 
Report on the Practice of Brazil, 1997, Chapter 6.6, referring to Folheto de difusão das normas essenciais do direito internacional humanitário (DIH) entre las Forcas Armadas, 30 March 1995.
Burkina Faso
In a decree in 1994, Burkina Faso’s Ministry of State and of Defence stated: “The teaching of international humanitarian law (IHL) in the Armed Forces is mandatory. It is disseminated at all levels of military hierarchy and forms an integral part of every programme of instruction, training or instruction.” 
Burkina Faso, Ministry of State and of Defence, Decree No. 94-0125/DEF/CAB, 26 December 1994.
Burkina Faso
In a decree in 1995, Burkina Faso’s Ministry of State and of Defence established a unit for the dissemination of IHL with the task, inter alia, of teaching and disseminating IHL within the armed forces. 
Burkina Faso, Ministry of State and of Defence, Decree No. 95-0026/DEF/CAB, Articles 1 and 3, 1 March 1995.
Burkina Faso
In 1999, Burkina Faso’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ICRC, in cooperation with the Burkinabé Red Cross Society, held the first national seminar on implementation of IHL. The seminar, inter alia, urged Burkina Faso to step up IHL training for the armed forces. A workshop was also held by the ICRC Advisory Service and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for government officials on specific issues, such as the application of IHL to non-international armed conflict, the 1997 Ottawa Convention and the 1998 ICC Statute. Another workshop organized the same year by the ICRC and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was held on the obligation of States to adopt legislation giving effect to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocols and the 1997 Ottawa Convention. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 16.
Burundi
In 2008, at the opening of the Seminar on Human Rights and IHL for the High Command of the National Defence Force, a spokesperson for Burundi’s Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants stated:
[T]he command of the FDN [National Defence Force], aware of the importance of its mission, has just implemented regulations for the teaching of international humanitarian law (IHL) to all servicemen … , together with the BINUB [United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi].
… Thus, by accepting to strengthen the dissemination of IHL and human rights within the FDN, the command shows its irreversible determination to break with those completely outdated backward practices which are not concerned with the respect for the human person. 
Burundi, Statement by the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants at the opening of the Seminar on Human Rights and IHL for the High Command of the National Defence Force, Bujumbura, 2 April 2008, pp. 3–4.
Cameroon
In a directive in 1994, Cameroon’s Ministry of Defence stated:
Military instruction must … fully integrate this new topic [IHL and LOAC] which it is imperative to teach … This instruction must figure … on the table of jobs of the units. A wider dissemination of the [Instructors’ Manual] will be carried out so that every unit possesses it. 
Cameroon, Ministry of Defence, Directive No. 00280/DV/MINDEF/1043, 14 February 1994.
Canada
The 1997 Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces (CF) to Somalia stated:
The training plan for Operation Cordon did not adequately provide for sufficient and appropriate training in relation to several non-combat skills that are essential for peacekeeping, including: … the Law of Armed Conflict, including arrest and detention procedures … The failure of the training plan to provide adequately for these non-combat skills arose primarily from the lack of any doctrine recognizing the need for such training, and the lack of supporting training materials and standards. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 586 and ES-27.
The report also stated:
The CF is obliged under international law to provide training in the LOAC … Documents that we have received indicate that in the mid-1980s, individual non-commissioned members within the CF were expected to have a “basic knowledge” of the Geneva Conventions, including treatment of prisoners of war and civilian detainees. Field officers attending the Command and Staff College would have received three hours of training in the LOAC in the mid-1980s, and some majors and most lieutenant-colonels would receive a full day session on the LOAC and ROE. According to the CF, there is considerable LOAC training taking place within the CF but it is not well co-ordinated.
• In 1992, there was insufficient training in the CF generally on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). This in turn resulted from a lack of institutional commitment within the CF regarding a systematic and thorough dissemination of the LOAC to all its members …
•There was a serious lack of training on the LOAC during the pre-deployment training for Somalia, as evidenced by the soldier’s confusion in theatre over how to treat detainees once they were captured.
•The lack of attention to the LOAC and its dissemination demonstrates a profound failure of the CF leadership, both in adequate preparation of Canadian troops sent to Somalia, and in Canada’s obligation to respect the elementary principles of international law in the field of armed conflict. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 613–615.
However, the report further stated:
In making recommendations on training, we are mindful of the developments that have occurred in the Canadian Forces since the incidents in Somalia in March 1993 … We … certainly endorse the specific attention being given to the Law of Armed Conflict and rules of engagement, and the increased emphasis on humanitarian and legal aspects of operations. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 625–626.
Canada
The Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces (CF) to Somalia recommended with respect to the training of the armed forces for peacekeeping missions, inter alia, that:
21.8 The Chief of the Defence Staff oversee the development of specialist expertise within the Canadian Forces in training in the Law of Armed Conflict and the rules of engagement …
21.9 The Chief of the Defence Staff ensure that the time and resources necessary for training a unit to a state of operational readiness be assessed before committing that unit’s participation in a peace support operation.
21.14 The Chief of the Defence Staff establish mechanisms to ensure that all members of units preparing for deployment on peace support operations receive sufficient and appropriate training on the local culture, history, and politics of the theatre of operations, together with refresher training on negotiation and conflict resolution and the Law of Armed Conflict.
21.15 The Chief of the Defence Staff establish in doctrine and policy that no unit be declared operationally ready unless all its members have received sufficient and appropriate training on mission-specific rules of engagement and steps have been taken to establish that the rules of engagement are fully understood.
21.16 The Chief of Defence Staff ensure that training standards and programs provide that training in the Law of Armed Conflict, rules of engagement, cross-cultural relations, and negotiation and conflict resolution be scenario-based and integrated into training exercises, in addition to classroom instruction or briefings, to permit the practice of skills and to provide a mechanism for confirming that instructions have been fully understood. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 628–631, Recommendations No. 21(8), 21(9), 21(14), 21(15) and 21(16).
Chad
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Chad stated:
37. The introduction of education in human rights and international humanitarian law in the syllabuses of the National Police, National Gendarmerie and Army Officers’ Colleges, as well as the creation of the Reference Centre for International Humanitarian Law, will make it possible to make good that deficiency [regarding the inadequate training of criminal investigation officers in interrogation techniques].
320. In order to adapt human rights and international humanitarian law to the context of national defence missions and operations for the maintenance of public order and security which have to be undertaken by the armed forces, an Order (No. 059/MNDR/EMP/02) establishing a reference centre on international humanitarian law (CRDIH) was signed by the Minister of National Defence in March 2002.
321. The tasks of this centre are:
- preparation of a national programme of training in international humanitarian law;
- design and publication of teaching materials.
322. Another regulatory instrument of the Minister of Defence (Order No. 24/MDNACVG/ENP/25 of 26 January 2005) permitted the establishment of a commission to prepare texts on international humanitarian law. It is fortunate in counting among its membership the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a magistrate who is an independent expert. This commission is also responsible for the revision of the Code of Ethics of the Gendarmerie with a view to incorporating the human rights and international humanitarian law dimension into it.
323. The next step was the integration of international humanitarian law into the training programmes of the armed forces and the security services (Order No. 85/MDN/ENP/05 of 19 May 2005). This order makes the teaching of international humanitarian law in the training establishments of the armed forces and the security services compulsory.
324. The reform process led to the publication of a document entitled “Instructor’s manual for use with the armed forces and the security services”. The manual was prepared with the participation of the national army, the group of inter-service military training colleges, the air force, the national gendarmerie, the National and Nomadic Guard and the national police. This manual is in fact a remodelled version of two volumes of the booklets published in cooperation with the LTDH [Chadian Human Rights League]. It contains new material and has been adapted for current training needs; it is printed in loose-leaf form and covers all the problems which the Chadian armed forces frequently encounter during hostilities. It consists of two parts.
325. The first part is devoted to humanitarian law. It is arranged in three levels. The content of the training is specific to each target group and corresponds to a particular level.
Level 1: common basic training imparted to all private soldiers and gendarmes (private soldiers and trainees in the gendarmerie, the Guard and the national police);
Level 2: training of first/year officer cadets, including non-commissioned officers;
Level 3: training of second/year officer, including subaltern officers.
326. The second part, which deals with human rights, is common to all levels. This is the part in which the subject of torture is treated.
327. The module on torture is based on the definition in article 1 of the relevant Convention and specifies that it is a fundamental violation of human rights. It also lays emphasis on the provisions of the basic legislation prohibiting torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
328. In this module the different forms of torture are listed together with the measures which can be taken in the light of other international human rights instruments. The 12 points of Amnesty International’s Programme for the Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment by Agents of the State are also reproduced in the manual for general use in the training colleges for members of the armed forces and security services. For example, they are taught how to conduct independent investigations into allegations of torture and the invalidity of statements extracted under torture.
329. Twenty-five trainers have already received training in the use of the manual, 500 copies of which are to be printed to make it available in all training establishments for members of the armed forces and security services in Chad. The content of the teaching on humanitarian law and human rights will henceforth be the same in all schools, since the programme is now of national scope. 
Chad, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 22 September 2008, UN Doc. CAT/C/TCD/1, submitted 4 September 2007, §§ 37 and 320–329.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated:
84. In order to adapt human rights and international humanitarian law to the context of national defence missions and operations for the maintenance of public order and security which have to be undertaken by the Armed Forces, a reference centre on international humanitarian law (CRDIH) was established by the Minister of National Defence in March 2002 by Order No. 059/MNDR/EMP/02.
85. Another regulatory instrument of the Minister of Defence (Order No. 24/MDNACVG/ENP/25 of 26 January 2005) permitted the establishment of a commission to prepare texts on international humanitarian law. This commission is also responsible for the revision of the Code of Ethics of the Gendarmerie to incorporate the human rights and international humanitarian law dimension. The next step was the integration of international humanitarian law into the training programme of the Armed Forces under Order No. 85/MDN/ENP/05. This order makes the teaching of international humanitarian law in the training establishments of the Armed Forces compulsory.
86. The reform process led to the publication of a document entitled “Instructor’s manual for use with the armed forces and the security services”. The manual was prepared with the participation of the national army, the group of inter-service military training colleges, the Air Force, the national gendarmerie, the Nomadic Guard and the national police, in cooperation with LTDH. It consists of two parts:
(a) The first part is devoted to humanitarian law. It is arranged in three levels. The content of the training is specific to each target group and corresponds to a particular level:
Level 1: common basic training for all private soldiers and gendarmes (private soldiers and cadets in the gendarmerie, the Guard and the national police);
Level 2: training for first-year cadets, including non-commissioned officers;
Level 3: training for second-year officer cadets, including subaltern officers.
(b) The second part deals with human rights and is common to all levels. This part deals with the subject of torture.
87. Twenty-five trainers have now received training in the use of the manual, 500 copies of which are to be printed to make it available in all training establishments for members of the Armed Forces and security services in Chad. The content of the teaching on humanitarian law and human rights will henceforth be the same in all military. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, §§ 84–87.
Chad also stated:
The recruitment into the army of minors under 18 is officially prohibited by law. Children can nevertheless be found in military camps and among armed groups, although there are no statistics on this. Awareness campaigns have been organized by United Nations agencies and international NGOs with a view to curbing the problem … In addition, international humanitarian law is taught in the gendarmerie and police academies. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 47.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
128. The Government’s resolve to bring to justice those responsible for serious human rights violations [committed during the events of February 2008 when armed groups entered the territory of Chad] was reflected in the setting up of a Commission of Inquiry. Having completed its task, that Commission submitted its findings [Report on the events that took place in the Republic of Chad between 28 January to 8 February 2008 and on their consequences]. The Government set up a technical committee to follow up its recommendations.
130. The [Human Rights] Committee had suggested that the Government should promptly implement … [the] recommendations [of the Commission of Inquiry]. It has done so by taking the following measures:
– Teaching of international humanitarian law to law enforcement services.
131. Furthermore, pursuant to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry into the events of 28 to January to 8 February 2008, the Government decided to establish by Decree No. 1126/PM/2008 a Committee to follow up those recommendations, composed of members of the Government and chaired by the Prime Minister. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 128 and 130–131.
Chile
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Chile pledged to “maintain and develop the study of international humanitarian law as part of regular armed forces instruction”. 
Chile, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Chile
In 1999, training in IHL was provided to the Chilean armed forces as part of the curricula at military academies and other institutions. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 20.
Chile
According to the Report on the Practice of Chile, official correspondence was exchanged in the 1990s between Chile’s National Committee on Humanitarian Law, an interministerial committee established with the aim of studying and proposing measures for the concrete application of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols, and the Ministry of National Defence reporting on the teaching of IHL within the armed forces. 
Report on the Practice of Chile, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Chile
In 2004, during the consideration of the third periodic report of Chile, a representative of Chile stated before the Committee against Torture:
Training on human rights and international humanitarian law in armed conflicts … [has] been introduced into military training at all levels, with a view in particular to inculcating the principle of accountability at all ranks of command. Human rights training ha[s] been added for peacekeeping forces, and in the air force training … [and has] been provided on human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Chile, Statement before the Committee against Torture during the consideration of the third periodic report of Chile, 21 May 2004, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.605, § 14.
China
The Report on the Practice of China notes that the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has published manuals and collections since 1954 compiling the main international conventions relative to the law of war and has distributed them to the armed forces. According to the report, regulations and orders of the PLA in China provide that officers and soldiers must be organized to study international law and the 1949 Geneva Conventions and must be familiar with the principles and rules of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
Report on the Practice of China, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Colombia
A directive issued in 1995 by the Colombian Ministry of National Defence stated, under the heading “Initial measures”, that “to achieve these objectives the Ministry of National Defence has taken the following action: … Training and instruction in human rights and international humanitarian law within the Armed Forces and the National Police are being substantially increased.” 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Permanent Directive No. 024, Development of Government Policy relating to Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law at the Ministry of National Defence, 5 July 1995, Section 3(C)(5).
The directive further stated:
The Armed Forces and the National Police shall draw up, by 30 September 1995, a national programme of training and instruction in human rights and international humanitarian law for all their members, for civilian personnel attached to them and for military Judge Advocates, in coordination with the Human Rights Secretariat of this Ministry. 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Permanent Directive No. 024, Development of Government Policy relating to Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law at the Ministry of National Defence, 5 July 1995, Section 4(B)(1).
In addition, the directive stated:
Directors of training schools for the Armed Forces and National Police shall be responsible for the education of their students in human rights and international humanitarian law and shall conduct all the activities necessary for implementation of the national training programme referred to in [Section 4(B)(1) above]. 
Colombia, Ministry of National Defence, Permanent Directive No. 024, Development of Government Policy relating to Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law at the Ministry of National Defence, 5 July 1995, Section 4(C)(4).
Colombia
In 2004, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Colombia stated:
As far as the role of the armed forces is concerned, their commitment to uphold human rights and international humanitarian law has been acknowledged. Consequently, the Government has taken educational, preventive and disciplinary measures that have led to improvements in the behaviour of agents of the State towards citizens. Training in this area has been decisive in improving the military’s performance of its tasks. Colombia is the leader in this field in Latin America: over 120,000 members of the public security forces have received special training in this topic in the last five years. 
Colombia, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/Add.129, submitted 28 June 2004, § 122.
Colombia
In 2006, the Government of Colombia stated before the Committee against Torture:
The soldiers undergo training in the region’s Army battalions and in the Navy’s marine infantry training bases for a period of 10 weeks, during which they are trained to protect their districts, special emphasis being placed … on respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. 
Colombia, Comments on the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture, 13 June 2006, UN Doc. CAT/C/COL/CO/3/Add.1, § 14.
Congo
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the Congo pledged to “promote the basic principles of international humanitarian law in the training of military personnel (in partnership)”. 
Congo, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Croatia
In 1999, the Croatian Ministry of Defence, in conjunction with the ICRC, held a seminar on the law of armed conflict for senior officers. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 23.
Croatia
According to the Report on the Practice of Croatia, training in IHL is provided in the Military Academy and during military service. 
Report on the Practice of Croatia, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Croatia
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Croatia stated:
[T]he education curricula of the officers of the Croatian Armed Forces include topics relating to the treatment of civilians in armed conflicts. Within this education the following issues are dealt with:
- General principles and starting points of the Geneva and the Hague Conventions;
- Basic prohibitions concerning the objective, weapons and tactics of the armed forces;
- Proper treatment of prisoners of war and other prisoners and members of protected categories. 
Croatia, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 11 January 2007, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/HRV/1, submitted 24 November 2006, § 48.
Cuba
According to the Report on the Practice of Cuba, the Centre for International Humanitarian Law Studies was established in November 1994. Since then, the Ministry of the Armed Forces has supported its operations by providing graduates of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo as instructors and by authorizing and requiring senior officers to take part in the courses. IHL is also taught in military academies for officers and cadets and is the subject of courses for privates and sergeants. The Ministry of Internal Order sends officials to these courses systematically. 
Report on the Practice of Cuba, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Cuba
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the Status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Cuba stated:
Cuba has a great deal of experience in the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law. The Centre for Studies in International Humanitarian Law was established in Cuba more than 15 years ago; with the assistance of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) it makes a significant contribution to the dissemination, teaching and development of international humanitarian law, for the leadership of the Revolutionary Armed Forces and staff and officials of the Ministry of the Interior, State bodies and agencies.
The Centre also has a documentation and information centre which is visited by officials and experts in the field, and organizes meetings for military attachés accredited to Cuba.
The Cuban Red Cross Society, the National Union of Jurists, universities and schools of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Public Health are also involved in the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law, for their respective audiences. 
Cuba, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 27 September 2010.
Cuba
In 2010, in a statement before the UN General Assembly on the status of the Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflicts, the representative of Cuba stated:
[Cuba] … has also accumulated experience in the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law. We have a Centre for the Study of International Humanitarian Law, … which has made a significant contribution to the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law to the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces … We have [also] contributed to the dissemination and instruction of international humanitarian law in Central American and Caribbean countries.
Finally, Cuba reiterates its willingness to work towards the global implementation of the rules of international humanitarian law and continues to collaborate with the International Committee of the Red Cross and its various associations in the noble endeavour of disseminating the teaching of and respect for international humanitarian law. 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the UN General Assembly on Item 86: The Status of the Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflicts, 13 October 2010, p. 2.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated:
Since its publication in the Official Journal in April 1999, the dissemination of the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] has made remarkable headway. It is pursued in the general framework of dissemination embodied [in] the Constitution, which provides in article 45 (6) and (7): “The authorities have a duty to ensure the dissemination and teaching of the Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights, and all the duly ratified regional and international conventions relating to human rights and international humanitarian law” and “The State has an obligation to incorporate the rights of the individual into all the training programmes of the armed forces, the police and the security services.” 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 July 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/COD/2, submitted 23 October 2007, § 60.
Denmark
In 2008, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Denmark stated:
The Corps of Military Prosecutors of the National Defence is responsible for the education of military legal advisors to the Danish Defence in the area of humanitarian international law. The rules of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as the rules of the [2000] Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts are considered part of humanitarian international law and the topic is therefore part of the education which the Chief Military Prosecutor’s Office provides to the military legal advisors. 
Denmark, Fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 22 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/DNK/4, submitted 19 August 2008, § 597; see also § 601.
Denmark
In 2008, in a statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the representative of Sweden stated: “The training of military and armed forces in international law remains a priority for many states and is paramount to ensuring respect [for IHL].” 
Denmark, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly made by the representative of Sweden on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden on “Item 76: Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts”, 23 October 2008.
Djibouti
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Djibouti stated:
Even though, the military training programme does not include education and information on the prohibition of torture, courses on such topics as “human rights and international humanitarian law” … are taught to criminal investigation police trainees. Moreover, for some years now these courses have been reinforced by training seminars on human rights in general and international humanitarian law in particular, as part of the dissemination and application of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the [1977] Additional Protocols thereto. 
Djibouti, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 18 January 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/DJI/1, submitted 21 July 2010, § 135.
Egypt
In 1999, the Egyptian Government, in cooperation with the National Red Crescent Society, the League of Arab States and the ICRC, organized a regional seminar commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions. The seminar adopted the Cairo Declaration, which urges Arab countries to implement IHL and set up national committees on IHL. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 24.
Egypt
According to the Report on the Practice of Egypt, IHL is taught in military camps and military institutions in cooperation with the ICRC. The report also notes that in 1991, the Egyptian Ministry of Defence published a manual entitled “Basic Principles of the Law of War and International Humanitarian Law”. 
Report on the Practice of Egypt, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
El Salvador
In 1999, efforts were made by El Salvador to encourage the inclusion of IHL in training programmes for the armed and security forces of El Salvador. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 25.
El Salvador
According to the Report on the Practice of El Salvador, a small handbook on basic rules of IHL was distributed by the National Red Cross Society to members of the armed forces of El Salvador. 
Report on the Practice of El Salvador, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
El Salvador
In 2006, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to El Salvador’s initial report under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, El Salvador stated:
Since the Peace Accords, the international law of armed conflict and human rights have been added to the course curriculum taught in the Armed Forces Education System; at present, teaching within that system includes 1,763 hours of instruction on the international law of armed conflict at different levels, and 573 class hours of instruction in human rights. 
El Salvador, Written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues in connection with the Committee’s consideration of the initial report of El Salvador under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 12 May 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/SLV/Q/1/Add.1, p. 4.
El Salvador
In 2009, in its sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, El Salvador stated:
To fulfil commitments with regard to … respect for international humanitarian law, the Inter-institutional Committee on International Humanitarian Law in El Salvador (CIDIH-ES) was created to advise the Government on measures for the application, interpretation and dissemination of international humanitarian law in order to meet its commitments. The Committee was legally established by Executive Decree No. 118 of 4 November 1997, published in the Diario Oficial No. 215, vol. No. 337, of 18 November 1997. 
El Salvador, Sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 2 June 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SLV/6, submitted 13 January 2009, § 78.
The report further stated:
191. The Inter-institutional Committee on International Humanitarian Law in El Salvador (CIDIH-ES) disseminates information in various sectors of the population on international humanitarian law and its application in armed conflicts, and to that end, it has held training and refresher courses for … military authorities … .
192. These activities, which have helped to spread information on international humanitarian law, have focused on a culture of peace to prevent war and [encourage] respect for the application of international humanitarian norms in times of armed conflict … .
194. The above-mentioned measures promote knowledge of the importance of international humanitarian law and respect of its norms, thereby heightening the awareness and improving the education of the population with regard to this issue. 
El Salvador, Sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 2 June 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SLV/6, submitted 13 January 2009, §§ 191–192 and 194.
Estonia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Estonia pledged to “continue dissemination of IHL in armed forces”. 
Estonia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Ethiopia
In 1996, in a report on the implementation of IHL in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated:
After the formation of a Federal Government the Federal army had taken steps to disseminate and educate the rules of International Humanitarian Laws to its members on a regular basis. To this effect the preparation of a new army training curriculum has been finalized and is in the implementation phase, with rules of international humanitarian law at its centrepiece. 
Ethiopia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Information on Measures Taken at National Level to Implement International Humanitarian Law Instruments in Ethiopia, 1996, p. 19.
Finland
In 2004, in a report to Parliament on the human rights policy of Finland, Finland stated: “Together with the other Member States of the EU, Finland [has] pledged to raise public awareness in relation to international humanitarian law, particularly among youth and peacekeeping forces.” 
Finland, Government report to Parliament on the human rights policy of Finland 2004, Helsinki: Publications of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2004, pp. 82–83.
Finland
In 2004, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Finland stated: “Peacekeepers are given, among other things, humanitarian law training and information about international agreements that are binding on Finland.”  
Finland, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 10 March 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/FIN/1, submitted 1 June 2004, § 17.
France
In a note in 1992, the French Ministry of Defence highlighted its cooperation with the ICRC in the production of an audio-visual document on the 1949 Geneva Conventions intended for distribution among the armed forces. 
France, Ministry of Defence, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, 16 March 1992.
France
In a directive issued in 2000 on the dissemination of the law of armed conflict within the armed forces, the French Ministry of Defence stated: “Since … 1991, significant efforts have been made. The fundamental basics of the law of armed conflict figure systematically in the cursus of military education, during both initial training and advanced courses”. The directive also provides that further measures, such as the production of videos and CD-Roms and training at the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo, must be taken in order to reinforce the implementation of IHL within the framework of the armed forces. In the same instrument, the Ministry of Defence, with respect to the LOAC Teaching Note (2000) attached to the directive, asks that it be disseminated within the French armed forces, as widely as possible and down to the most basic level. 
France, Ministry of Defence, Directive No. 147, 4 January 2000.
France
In 2008, in its fourth to sixth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, France stated:
170. With regard to the Committee’s question concerning the implementation of the Convention [against Torture] in territories outside the jurisdiction of the State party where its armed forces are deployed, the Government wishes to provide the following information.
172. Apart from having their attention drawn to this legal framework [on the prohibition of torture, duty to disobey unlawful orders by a superior officer and obligations regarding the treatment of the wounded, ill and shipwrecked], French military personnel awaiting deployment are reminded of these regulations as part of their preparation. They also receive oral instructions in that regard in the theatre of operations ... These regulations are also printed on the military identity card distributed to each soldier on arrival. 
France, Fourth to sixth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 23 July 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/FRA/4-6, submitted 30 June 2008, §§ 170 and 172.
Gambia
In 1999, at a seminar on national implementation of IHL, organized by the ICRC, the Gambia Red Cross Society and the Gambian Department of State for Justice, the participants encouraged the authorities to increase IHL training for the armed forces. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 28.
Germany, Federal Republic of
In 1973, during a debate in the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the protection of human rights in times of armed conflict, the Federal Republic of Germany stated that it thought “it necessary to promote the wider dissemination of international humanitarian law”. 
Germany, Federal Republic of, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.6/28/SR.1452, 3 December 1973, § 43.
Germany, Federal Republic of
At the CDDH, the representative of the Federal Republic of Germany stated:
The development of international humanitarian law would be merely theoretical unless vigorous efforts for a better dissemination, application and enforcement of international humanitarian law were undertaken at the same time. His government believed that it was by no means unrealistic to demand that armed forces and civil defence organizations should be thoroughly familiar with the rules of international law applicable in armed conflicts. 
Germany, Federal Republic of, Statement at the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. V, CDDH/SR.13, 6 March 1974, § 28.
Germany
At the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in 1993, Germany stated: “International humanitarian law must become the basis for the training of all members of armed forces.” 
Germany, Statement at the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August 1–September 1993, Bulletin, No. 69, Presse- und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung, Bonn, 4 September 1993, p. 733.
Germany
In reply to a formal question from a member of parliament in 1996, a Minister of State of Germany, referring to Article 83(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and Article 19 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, stated:
The Federal Government supports the dissemination of International Humanitarian Law in all areas and at all levels of state. It hereby fulfils its duties resulting from international public law. The four Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols oblige all contracting parties to disseminate the wording of the Conventions as widely as possible … This shall be done in particular by [providing] training programmes for the armed forces … Military and civil offices shall, in times of an armed conflict [and] with regard to their responsibilit[ies], be entirely familiar with the wording of the Conventions and the Additional Protocols … Since the [coming into] existence of the Bundeswehr [the Federal armed forces], the transmission of knowledge about International Humanitarian Law has formed an integral part of the training and further education of all soldiers. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Reply of a Minister of State to a parliamentary question, 20 November 1996, BT-Drucksache 13/6197, 22 November 1996, p. 2.
The Minister went on to outline the different levels of training provided for the armed forces: troops received instructions as laid down in the Military Manual; trainee sergeants and officers received IHL education as one of the main parts of their training; special training was given to members of the armed forces who participated in UN contingents, conducted immediately before the deployment of the troops; and teachers of law and legal advisers also participated in seminars on IHL, often held in cooperation with international partners. The Minister also listed a number of official regulations and teaching materials used for the education of soldiers. 
Germany, Lower House of Parliament, Reply of a Minister of State to a parliamentary question, 20 November 1996, BT-Drucksache 13/6197, 22 November 1996, pp. 2–4.
Germany
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
807. The protection of children in armed conflicts is guaranteed by article 77 of the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts and article 4 of the Additional Protocol relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Both of these protocols were ratified by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 and thus became national law. The Federal Government contributes to spreading knowledge about the rules of international humanitarian law in armed conflicts, especially by relevant training in the armed forces. Above and beyond this, it provides general information that is mainly used in training staff and helpers in the medical and other aid organizations.
817. Since the establishment of the Federal Armed Forces, military training in the Federal Republic of Germany has been based on the needs of international humanitarian law. Passing on knowledge in international humanitarian law is a permanent component of the basic and further training of soldiers of all ranks. For officers and non-commissioned officers it is part of the core area. The focus of the training of Federal Armed Forces soldiers in international law is on a practice-related representation. The soldiers are taught about dealing with issues relating to international law using specific examples. The purpose of international law teaching is not just to pass on knowledge, but above all to develop an awareness of right and wrong even in crises and war and to gear the individual soldier’s behaviour to the requirements of international humanitarian law in every situation. The legal advisers, law teachers and law lecturers of the Federal Armed Forces who teach international humanitarian law take part in an international scientific exchange of opinion about international humanitarian law. 
Germany, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.7, 24 July 2003, submitted 23 July 2001, §§ 807 and 817.
Germany
In 2007, in a reply to a minor interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Basic law and international law in deployments abroad of the Federal Armed Forces: Treatment of persons taken into custody”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
6. In what form and to what extent are or were servicewomen and servicemen informed on the legal status of persons taken into custody, before or during a deployment abroad?
In the context of the contingent training, the servicewomen and servicemen intended for a deployment abroad are instructed on the applicable international and national regulations and instructed on the taking into custody and on the treatment of persons taken into custody. We refer to the reply to question 1. The instruction is carried out by the official of the Legal Affairs Directorate of the Federal Ministry of Defence responsible for operational law Einsatzrechts-Referent/Einsatzrechts-Referentin, by female and male legal advisers, by lecturers of the Centre for Leadership Development and Civic Education in Koblenz Zentrum Innere Führung Koblenz, as well as by specially qualified staff (disciplinary superiors, their deputies, or also by specially trained military police officers). During the instruction, the general and specific provisions regarding detention or arrest in the respective pocket card (“Rules on the application of military force”) are addressed. The same applies to the order of 26 April 2007 on the “treatment of persons [taken into custody] by German servicemen or women during deployments abroad” and the five individual instructions supplementing it (comp. reply to question 1). Practical exercises regarding the taking of persons into custody, for example behaviour at a checkpoint (control of persons, stopping, searching, and detaining, as the case may be), complement the legal training. Also in the context of the training during deployments, servicewomen and servicemen are instructed on the legal status of persons taken into custody. In addition, during the deployment such information can be obtained also from the female or male legal adviser present on the ground.
11. What does the instruction for the training of German security forces in international deployments on the relevant rights anchored in the ICCPR [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights], mentioned by the Federal Government to the UN Human Rights Committee, concretely look like?
On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Defence, the working group “Law” of the Federal Academy for Defence Administration and Defence Technology Arbeitsgruppe Recht der Bundesakademie für Wehrverwaltung und Wehrtechnik has developed the teaching material, “The civil and political rights of human beings”, which has been integrated into the general and pre-deployment training of the armed forces. It reflects and explains the contents of the ICCPR, specially emphasizing that the members of the Federal Armed Forces need to respect the civil and political rights generally also during peace-making and peace-keeping measures during deployments abroad. 
Germany, Bundestag, Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by the Members Winfried Nachtwei, Alexander Bonde, Volker Beck (Cologne), further Members and the Parliamentary Group BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN – BT-Drs. 16/6174, Basic Law and international law in deployments abroad of the Federal Armed Forces: Treatment of persons taken into custody, BT-Drs. 16/6282, 29 August 2007, pp. 9–11.
Germany
In 2009, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Germany stated:
The Federal Ministry of Defence is responsible for the implementation of the norms of international humanitarian law within the German armed forces, the Bundeswehr. As provided for by the law governing the legal status of soldiers, instruction in international humanitarian law and in other international regulations, agreements and commitments constitutes part of the training programmes for all military personnel in the German armed forces. Courses are held by legal advisers, teachers of law and the superior officers responsible. On the basis of this fundamental knowledge, personnel receive further in-depth instruction in this subject as part of their training and education programme, preparing them to be commissioned and non-commissioned officers, commensurate with their respective level of service. Under Zentrale Dienstvorschrift (ZDv) 15/1 (Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts- Basic Principles), ZDv 15/2 (Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts- Manual), [and] ZDv 15/3 (Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts- Texts and Documents), soldiers and civilian employees at all command levels have access to the pertinent international treaties. Field cards with specific questions and description of situations supplement this information. Units selected for operations abroad receive extra training on legal components directly related to their mission and their operational area. 
Germany, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 9 January 2009, § 3.
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
1. In the regular training of soldiers, how much importance is given to the topic of child soldiers and Germany’s international legal obligations in this respect, and for what ranks are corresponding training modules envisaged (please respond by including the envisaged duration)?
The problem “Conduct towards Child Soldiers” is addressed in the training of all soldiers during lessons on “International Humanitarian Law” which form part of the General Basic Training and, pursuant to the concept “Training for Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management in Preparation of Deployment (EAKK)”, also during training in preparation for deployment as part of the modules on “Basic Approaches to Conflict Prevention and Crisis Mitigation (Legal Bases, Code of Conduct, Conduct as a Solider in Action, Conduct towards the Civilian Population)” and “Basics of Inter-cultural Competence”.
Furthermore legal questions concerning the protection of children in armed conflict are addressed in the training course “International Humanitarian Law and the Conduct of Military Operations” which is offered for members of staff working in the administration of justice, officers providing training and medical officers. Within a two-hour talk on the actors on today’s battlefields the pertinent provisions of the [1998] Convention on the Rights of the Child, the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict], the [1949] Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols as well as the International Crimes Code are introduced. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, p. 2.
Greece
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Greece pledged:
To enhance dissemination of international humanitarian law:
–by reviewing existing educational and training curricula so as to integrate international humanitarian law into the Hellenic armed forces, security forces, universities, schools, media and public administration.
–by providing training in international humanitarian law, the role and the mandate of the humanitarian organizations to military and security forces, administration and member[s] of NGO’s or volunteers participating in international missions. 
Greece, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Greece
In 1999, various national Greek authorities, including the Hellenic Armed Forces and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, of Justice and of Education, made commitments to enhance awareness and knowledge of IHL among various groups (the military, diplomats, judges, lawyers, detention personnel, students and youth in general). 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 32.
Guatemala
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Guatemala pledged to “pursue its policy to train armed forces members in international humanitarian law, with the help of the ICRC’s training guidelines and material”. 
Guatemala, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Guatemala
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
160. One of the recommendations made by the Commission for Historical Clarification in Guatemala, which was established under the peace agreements, was that the provisions of international humanitarian law should be widely circulated in peacetime to all sections of the population, and particularly to the armed forces.
161. In implementation of that recommendation, and as part of the internal reforms that included a reorientation of army studies and training, instruction in international humanitarian law has been expanded to ensure that the law is properly applied. At the same time, courses have been given in international human rights standards, an important aspect of which is a knowledge of the international covenants and conventions and their application. 
Guatemala, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/1, submitted 17 May 2006, §§ 160–161.
Honduras
In 1977, during a debate in the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, Honduras stated: “Equally important [was Resolution] 21 … of the [CDDH], relating to the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law.” 
Honduras, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.6/32/SR.16, 13 October 1977, § 60.
India
The Report on the Practice of India notes that a Military Law Institute was established in 1996 and states:
The members of the armed forces are adequately trained in humanitarian law and human rights law at the time of recruitment as well as while in service. The Geneva Conventions form part of training manuals. In addition, they are trained in human rights norms especially in view of the fact that they may be required to deal with civilians in times of internal conflicts … The police personnel are trained in human rights while undergoing training in police academies … The police personnel are not specifically trained in humanitarian law. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
India
In 2003, at the 5th Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the head of the Indian delegation stated:
India has taken several steps in order to sensitize the armed forces and to increase public awareness of issues related to anti-personnel landmines, including dissemination of a booklet on India’s position on landmines and her obligations under [the 1996] Amended Protocol II [to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons] to all armed forces headquarters, formations and units, organization on a frequent basis of presentations and seminars, inclusion of this subject in the syllabi of relevant army courses and regular interaction among agencies of the Government of India for exchange of views and information on the implementation of the provisions of Amended Protocol II. 
India, Statement by the head of the Indian delegation at the 5th Annual Conference of the States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 26 November 2003.
India
In 2008, in a statement during the 2008 parliamentary hearing at the United Nations, India’s representative stated:
Sexual violence against women and children is an unacceptable crime that unfortunately remains a serious modern-day challenge. India has taken note of [the UN] Security Council Resolution 1820 of June 2008, which called for immediate and complete cessation of all acts of sexual violence against civilians by all parties to an armed conflict. …
There are adequate international legal agreements as well as domestic statutory laws that condemn such violence. No society or country can ever justify this practice. The fact that such violence persists is not due to the deficiency of legal measures to punish perpetrators. In our view, the problem lies in the implementation of such measures. We agree that adequate training must be given to troops, including through the extension of training to inculcate sensitivity to such issues. 
India, Statement by the representative of India during the 2008 parliamentary hearing at the United Nations, “Session II: Sexual violence against women and children in armed conflict”, 20 November 2008.
Indonesia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Indonesia pledged to “intensify the dissemination and education in International Humanitarian Law and the works of humanitarian organizations to … military forces”. 
Indonesia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Indonesia
According to the Report on the Practice of Indonesia, teaching of IHL is offered at all levels of training and education of the Indonesian armed forces. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Iraq
According to the Report on the Practice of Iraq, IHL is taught in Iraqi military colleges. 
Report on the Practice of Iraq, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Iraq
In 2011, the Iraqi National Human Rights Plan, adopted by the Council of Ministers, stated:
Chapter Three: Civil and Political Rights
- The right to life
Procedures
- Develop knowledge-building curricula and training for Armed and Security forces on human right[s], International and Humanitarian law as well as their fields of application. 
Iraq, Iraqi National Human Rights Plan, adopted by the Council of Ministers, 27 September 2011, pp. 37–38.
Iraq
In 2012, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Iraq stated:
The Iraqi armed forces provide recent high school graduates with numerous educational opportunities for admission to a number of military colleges throughout Iraq which provide the Iraqi army with officers of all ranks. The Iraqi Ministry of Defence cooperates with the Ministry of Human Rights and other ministries and with specialized international organizations to develop curriculums and training in these educational institutions. Consequently, the principles of human rights and international humanitarian law, primarily the four [1949] Geneva Conventions, are taught in Iraqi military colleges. Moreover, the Iraqi Government provides continuing training for the graduates of military colleges in the form of specialized training courses on international humanitarian law and human rights organized by the Human Rights Department in the Iraqi Ministry of Defence. In addition, the Centre for Military Values and Principles organizes training courses and programmes on international humanitarian law and international human rights law in cooperation with human rights experts and training institutions. 
Iraq, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 18 October 2013, UN Doc. CAT/C/OPAC/IRQ/1, submitted 9 May 2012, § 26.
Ireland
In 2008, Ireland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, in a written response to a question on the existence of a positive human rights obligation for peacekeeping forces to protect civilian populations, stated: “I am advised by my colleague the Minister for Defence … that all members of the Defence Forces assigned to peacekeeping duties overseas are briefed on relevant international human rights law and the Law of Armed Conflict.” 
Ireland, Dáil Eireann (House of Deputies), Minister for Foreign Affairs, Written Answers – Human Rights Issues, Dáil Eireann debate Vol. 657 No. 1, 18 June 2008.
Ireland
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee against Torture, Ireland stated:
Generic Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) training is an integral part of all Defence Forces career courses and overseas training at both the individual and collective levels, with the necessary and appropriate allocations of personnel and time. LOAC training includes instruction on the Convention [against Torture]. 
Ireland, Initial report to the Committee against Torture, 26 January 2010, UN Doc CAT/C/IRL/1, submitted 31 July 2009, § 207.
Israel
In 1999, during a debate in the UN Security Council, Israel stated:
There are practical steps that every signatory to the Fourth Geneva Convention can adopt in order to ensure greater respect and adherence to its provisions. First, States have a responsibility to educate their peoples regarding the importance of international humanitarian law in general. This should not be confined to the small community of legal experts in foreign ministries and universities who write on this subject. States should disseminate information about the Fourth Geneva Convention even before they became involved in armed conflicts. For example, the Fourth Geneva Convention should be included in military training. In fact, the provisions of the Convention should be included in the staff orders of every soldier, which is the practice of the Israel Defense Forces. 
Israel, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3980 (Resumption 1) (Provisional), 22 February 1999, p. 11.
Israel
According to the Report on the Practice of Israel, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) carry out extensive training of military personnel in the field of the laws of war, with the aim of ensuring that “all IDF personnel have at least a basic understanding of the humanitarian principles and other principles governing armed conflict”. All such instruction is the responsibility of the IDF’s Military Advocate-General’s Corps and is carried out by the IDF’s International Law Department and the International Law Section of the IDF Military Law School. The report also notes: “The IDF has a policy of cooperating with the ICRC in the dissemination of the Laws of War. In this context, the IDF enables representatives of the ICRC to present lectures in various IDF schools and courses.” 
Report on the Practice of Israel, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Israel
In 2008, in a background paper on Israel’s operations in Gaza, Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: “Israel has adopted the principles of international humanitarian law outlined above [regarding the principles of ‘distinction’ and ‘proportionality’] and the Israel Defense Force (IDF) has enshrined them in its training, operational planning and orders.” 
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Background paper, Responding to Hamas Attacks from Gaza: Issues of Proportionality, December 2008, § 4.
Israel
In 2009, in a report on Israeli operations in Gaza between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009 (the “Gaza Operation”, also known as “Operation Cast Lead”), Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated:
212. The IDF [Israel Defense Forces] takes substantial measures to instil awareness of and respect for international law in commanders and soldiers. The IDF Military Advocate General’s Corps provides instruction in the Law of Armed Conflict to fighting forces predominantly through the IDF School of Military Law. The activities of the School in this regard are numerous and varied …
217. … Israel employs extensive training to try to ensure awareness and compliance by its commanders and soldiers with international law and domestic norms and laws. 
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Operation in Gaza 27 December 2008–18 January 2009: Factual and Legal Aspects, 29 July 2009, §§ 212 and 217; see also § 209.
Israel
In January 2010, in an update of its July 2009 report on Israeli operations in Gaza between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009, Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated:
Israel is committed to educating state agents – in this case, IDF commanders and soldiers – of their duties and restrictions. This includes the widespread dissemination of relevant Law of Armed Conflict principles across the ranks of the IDF. 
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Gaza Operation Investigations: An Update, 29 January 2010, § 10.
[footnote in original omitted]
Italy
In 1997, in its final report on the events in Somalia, the Italian Government Commission of Inquiry emphasized the need for special training in IHL and human rights law for the forces participating in peacekeeping operations. 
Italy, Government Commission of Inquiry, Final Report on the Events in Somalia, 8 August 1997, pp. 44–45.
Italy
In 2006, in a follow-up response to the Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Italy reported:
The Italian Red Cross is in charge, by law, with the dissemination of information on international humanitarian law and awareness campaigns addressing Armed Forces and relevant organizations. 
Italy, Comments by the Government of Italy on the Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, 31 October 2006, UN Doc. CCPR/C/ITA/CO/5/Add.1, 19 February 2007, p. 9.
Jordan
According to the Report on the Practice of Jordan, IHL is taught to the Jordanian armed forces and to the Jordanian contingents engaged in UN peacekeeping missions. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Kuwait
According to the Report on the Practice of Kuwait, the Kuwaiti armed forces have allowed the ICRC to organize several seminars and conferences on IHL. The report, which refers to a notice of the National Guard General Headquarters (Military Authority) and a note of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Defence, also states that brochures on IHL have been disseminated within the armed forces of Kuwait. 
Report on the Practice of Kuwait, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Kuwait
The Report on the Practice of Kuwait refers to a commentary on the draft Final Declaration of the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims made in 1993 by the Kuwaiti Ministry of Justice which states: “Instruction of IHL should be comprehensive, not restricted to the fundamental or essential rules only.” 
Report on the Practice of Kuwait, 1997, Chapter 6.6, referring to Remarks and proposals of the Ministry of Justice concerning the draft Declaration of the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the Government of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, jointly with the Lao Red Cross Society, pledged “to conduct National workshop/seminars in giving orientation/dissemination on International Humanitarian Law”. 
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Pledge made together with the Lao Red Cross at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) stated:
The Lao PDR is a signatory to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, as well as the [1977] Additional Protocols to the Conventions and has, in practice, always complied with the provisions of those instruments, particularly the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Protocol I relating to the Protection of Victims of International Conflicts and Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Conflicts. In past years, representatives of the Ministry of National Defence have, on several occasions, attended seminars on international humanitarian law organized by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in San Remo, Italy; ICRC representatives have also come and organized similar seminars at the Ministry of National Defence in Vientiane. 
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 10 August 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LAO/2, submitted 22 April 2009, § 121.
Lebanon
According to the Report on the Practice of Lebanon, which refers to a speech of the Director General of the Lebanese Ministry of Justice made at a regional meeting in 1997, IHL is taught in Lebanese military schools. 
Report on the Practice of Lebanon, 1998, Chapter 6.6, referring to a Speech of the Director General of the Ministry of Justice, Regional meeting on the implementation of IHL, Amman, 21–22 December 1997.
Madagascar
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Madagascar pledged “to use all means available to improve dissemination of international humanitarian law at the national level”. 
Madagascar, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Malawi
In 1999, Malawi’s Ministry of Defence, the Law Commissioner, the ICRC and the National Red Cross Society held a seminar on national implementation of IHL. Among other things, the seminar encouraged Malawi to intensify IHL instruction for members of the Malawi Defence Force and include the subject in training programmes for the police, prison and immigration services and in university curricula. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 44.
Malaysia
According to the Report on the Practice of Malaysia, no national legislation imposes a duty on the Malaysian authorities to teach IHL to every member of the security forces. However, the report, referring to an interview with the Ministry of Home Affairs, states that efforts have been made by the armed forces to disseminate knowledge of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, that the armed forces organize courses on the law of armed conflict to train “selected members of the Armed Forces to enable these members to brief or give lectures to other members of the Armed Forces” and that selected members of the armed forces are sent to attend courses in IHL in international institutions such as the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo. The report further states that some dissemination activities are also carried out by the Malaysian National Red Crescent Society and that Malaysian officers of the armed forces sent on peacekeeping operations are taught the principles of the 1949 Geneva Conventions at a Malaysian Armed Forces Peacekeeping Centre. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Mali
In 1999, IHL training was included in the programmes of Mali’s military academies, and a Military Code of Conduct adopted by the Ministry of Defence was distributed to members of the armed forces. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 45.
Mexico
In 2010, in its written replies to the list of issues to be taken up in consideration of the fifth periodic report of Mexico to the Human Rights Committee, Mexico stated:
Since 2000, SEDENA (the National Ministry of Defence) has regularly been carrying out a programme designed to promote and strengthen human rights and international humanitarian law. As part of this programme and as a matter of priority, courses, conferences and talks are provided to all military personnel with the objective of preventing and eradicating torture. 
Mexico, Written replies from the Government of Mexico to the list of issues to be taken up in consideration of the fifth periodic report of Mexico to the Human Rights Committee, 18 January 2010, UN Doc. CCPR/C/MEX/Q/5/Add.1, § 124.
Mexico
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Mexico stated:
Mexico’s armed forces have incorporated instruction and training in international humanitarian law into military doctrine and manuals, and have developed ongoing training activities, in order to sensitize military personnel to the need to ensure that all their activities are conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law.
The education and training measures taken include the use of educational and military training systems for the dissemination of international humanitarian law, as well as other measures to further this objective. Efforts regarding dissemination are listed below, and where training is concerned, they are conducted in coordination with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
1. Lecture series and courses in international humanitarian law are organized periodically for all military personnel, whether in the Ministry of Defence or in the Ministry of the Navy.
2. The armed forces of Mexico have staff specialized in international humanitarian law who are responsible for delivering lectures. They also participate in various forums to update the doctrine in this area. A training course for lecturers in international humanitarian law is offered at the Centre for Army and Air Force Studies.
3. International humanitarian law is included in the curricula of all institutions in the military training system of the Army and Air Force’s units, establishments and installations. Training schools, including the Centre for Advanced Naval Studies, also provide training in international humanitarian law and human rights.
5. Examinations in international humanitarian law are held as part of the special and general competitions for promotion to the next higher rank.
6. All military personnel are required to carry the international humanitarian law handbook at all times.
7. Military personnel carry out tactical exercises for the purpose of applying international humanitarian law.
8. National and international conferences and activities related to international humanitarian law are held with the support of ICRC, attended by members of the Mexican armed forces.
9. Published material includes the following:
(a) The four Geneva Conventions and Protocol I of 1977
(b) International humanitarian law handbook
(c) Booklet containing brief summary of battle conduct
(d) The Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War
(e) The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
10. Bibliographical material related to international humanitarian law, provided by ICRC, is distributed to naval and military educational institutions to be used as teaching and reference support. 
Mexico, Report on the Status of the 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, 29 September 2010, § 6.
Mexico
In 2010, in its written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning Mexico’s initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Mexico stated:
The Ministry of Defence has also organized various training and awareness-raising programmes for its personnel:
(b) The Programme to Promote and Strengthen Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, which is updated annually and aims to accommodate the requirements of the Armed Forces, the Mexican legal system and the international agreements that Mexico has signed and ratified. Its main objectives are to:
(ii) Carry out activities to promote and increase respect for human rights and international humanitarian law among military personnel, by inculcating strict adherence to the law through the military training and education systems. 
Mexico, Written replies of the Government of Mexico to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Mexico under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 December 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/MEX/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 23 August 2010, § 14(b)(ii).
Mexico also stated:
Staff at the Ministry of the Navy receive training courses on human rights and international humanitarian law that cover the rights of the child and the participation of children in armed conflicts. Given the importance of the Protocol, the Ministry is planning to hold specific talks or academic seminars on the subject. 
Mexico, Written replies of the Government of Mexico to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Mexico under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 December 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/MEX/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 23 August 2010, § 17.
Mozambique
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Mozambique pledged to “undertake efforts aimed at disseminating and promoting the International Humanitarian Law in the Army, Security Forces [and] Police”. 
Mozambique, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Nepal
In 2004, in a declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, the Prime Minister of Nepal stated: “Additional training to the security agencies on human rights and international humanitarian laws will be continued.” 
Nepal, Declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, 26 March 2004, § 19.
Nepal
In 2007, in its comments to the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture, Nepal stated:
Sustained efforts have been made to inculcate human rights values in the security personnel. They have been continuously sensitized to uphold the human rights and humanitarian law in the discharge of their duties. … Every military and security training course curriculum has a human rights package incorporated as an integral part of the syllabus. 
Nepal, Comments by the Government of Nepal to the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture, 29 January 2008, UN Doc. CAT/C/NPL/CO/2/Add.1, submitted 1 June 2007, § 22.
Netherlands
According to high-ranking officers of the army of the Netherlands, soldiers are required to study IHL in theory and in practice during their entire career. During operational training, attention is devoted to IHL and theory is repeated. Courses are given to senior personnel of all units of the armed forces (army, air force and navy) at brigade level. The courses consist of case studies. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of norms and ethics, as it is supposed that IHL should be instinctive. 
Report on the Practice of the Netherlands, 1997, Interview with two high-ranking officers of the Royal Netherlands Army staff, both legal advisors, Chapter 6.6.
Netherlands
In an explanatory memorandum submitted to the Dutch Parliament in the context of the ratification procedure of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, the Government of the Netherlands stated that every soldier in the Netherlands received training in IHL. 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Explanatory memorandum on the ratification of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, 1983–1984 Session, Doc. 18 278 (R 1248), Nos. 1–3, p. 9.
New Zealand
In 1999, during a debate in the UN Security Council, New Zealand noted that “the dissemination of international humanitarian law needs our fullest support, so that the knowledge of the basic rules governing armed conflict … spreads to all those who bear arms” and stressed that this was of “fundamental importance”. 
New Zealand, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3980 (Provisional), 22 February 1999, p. 15.
New Zealand
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, New Zealand stated: “Army recruits … receive information on the Law on Armed Conflict and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.” 
New Zealand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/NZL/3-4, submitted 11 November 2008, § 97.
Niger
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Niger pledged to “ensure that armed forces taking part in international missions receive instruction in international humanitarian law and the activities of humanitarian organizations”. 
Niger, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Niger
In 1999, the ICRC and the Ministry of Justice of Niger held a training seminar for government officials on IHL and its implementation. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 51.
Nigeria
According to an academic report on the level of implementation of IHL in Nigeria, the Directorate of Legal Services of the army is responsible for dissemination, education and advice on matters relating to IHL. This report also states that, in 1996, the Nigerian army was in the process of producing a series of instruction manuals on various aspects of IHL intended to be incorporated and used at the training courses of officers at various levels. It also notes that the Nigerian army sponsors officers to participate in courses in IHL abroad, such as at the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo. 
Itse E. Sagay, Evaluation/Assessment of the Level of Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Nigeria, Paper presented at the National Seminar on the implementation of humanitarian law in Nigeria, Lagos, 13 August 1996, pp. 20–21.
Nigeria
The Report on the Practice of Nigeria states that no normative practice relative to the duty to instruct members of the armed forces in IHL was found. However, it mentions brochures/manuals on IHL published by the Nigerian armed forces. 
Report on the Practice of Nigeria, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Norway
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Norway and the Norwegian Red Cross pledged
to co-operate on the development of new IHL training programmes for the Norwegian Armed Forces … with the aim to:
–Further motivate the integration of IHL as an obligatory component in military exercises, maneuvers, and training programs on all levels
–Ensure that the Norwegian armed forces hold the highest possible standards with regard to respect for and integration of IHL and
–Contribute to the development of model IHL training concepts with potential international applications. 
Norway, Pledge made together with the Norwegian Red Cross at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Norway
In 2008, in a statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the representative of Sweden stated: “The training of military and armed forces in international law remains a priority for many states and is paramount to ensuring respect [for IHL].” 
Norway, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly by the representative of Sweden made on behalf of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden on “Item 76: Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts”, 23 October 2008.
Norway
In 2009, in its sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Norway stated with regard to the participation of Norwegian Armed Forces in international operations:
15. … Norwegian Armed Forces go through an initial period with mandatory training in, inter alia, mandate for the operation, human rights and international humanitarian law …
16. … Norwegian authorities are still committed to further strengthening and enhancing the quality of training and education in human rights and international humanitarian law for soldiers and other relevant personnel.  
Norway, Sixth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 11 November 2010, UN Doc. CCPR/C/NOR/6, submitted 25 November 2009, §§ 15–16.
Pakistan
According to the Report on the Practice of Pakistan, IHL is taught in Pakistani military colleges. The report also states that cooperation has been established between the ICRC local mission and the Pakistani Army General Headquarters for the dissemination of IHL. 
Report on the Practice of Pakistan, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Peru
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Peru pledged to “strengthen and gradually expand the incorporation of international humanitarian law into the instruction provided to armed and police forces members”. 
Peru, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Peru
According to the Report on the Practice of Peru, which refers to Peru’s military manuals and other teaching materials for the armed forces produced by the Peruvian Ministry of Defence in the 1990s, principles of IHL applicable to international and non-international conflicts are taught to the Peruvian armed forces. 
Report on the Practice of Peru, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Peru
In 2004, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Peru stated:
281. According to the new legislation [Act No. 27741 promulgated on 28 May 2002, which amended article 1 of Act No. 25211], the Political Constitution of Peru, as well as human rights law and international humanitarian law, must be disseminated and systematically and uninterruptedly taught at all levels of the educational system, both civil and military, as well as in university and non-university higher education.
282. According to the general framework described above, the compulsory teaching of human rights law and international humanitarian law must include the full application and strict implementation of all international acts and agreements, as well as the protection of fundamental rights at national and international level. 
Peru, Fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 27 May 2005, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.697, submitted 15 November 2004, §§ 281–282.
Peru also stated under the heading “Actions sponsored by the Ministry of Defence through the International Humanitarian Law Centre (CDIH)” that the objectives are:
To create awareness among members of the armed forces through training, discussion, research and dissemination of international humanitarian law (IHL) in military institutions. International humanitarian law is currently being incorporated in the doctrine and instruction manuals of the Armed Forces in order to be an integral part of the decision-making and missions of army personnel in strategic, operational and tactical areas. To ensure that enough personnel receive instruction in the subject in order to guarantee full respect for international humanitarian law. 
Peru, Fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 27 May 2005, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.697, submitted 15 November 2004, § 317; see also §§ 321 and 323.
Peru
In 2006, during the consideration of the fourth periodic report of Peru before the Committee against Torture, a representative of Peru stated:
12. … Training … [is] being developed for members of the armed forces through the international humanitarian law centre set up under the current Government, and … [includes] modules on the prohibition of torture in the case of international conflict and non-international armed conflict, in accordance with article 3 of the [1949] Geneva Conventions, and with the [1977] Second Additional Protocol thereto. In the past two years, hundreds of officers … received that training.
13. For the training of officials, the Peruvian authorities … set up a national commission for the study and application of international humanitarian law, and the Ministry of Justice … [is] responsible for a training programme incorporating human rights aspects and the State’s obligations under the Convention against Torture. 
Peru, Statement before the Committee against Torture during the consideration of the fourth periodic report of Peru, 9 May 2006, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR. 697 §§ 12–13.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Human Rights and Improvement of Discipline in the AFP, issued in 1989 by the Office of the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), states:
The nature of human rights violations including its legal implications and consequences should be inculcated repeatedly to the troops. The rule of law and respect for the dignity of man which are the foundations of human rights should be emphasized in conferences, seminars, dialogues, troop information sessions, and regular training courses. 
Philippines, Ministry of National Defence, Office of the Chief of Staff, Guidelines on Human Rights and Improvement of Discipline in the AFP, 2 January 1989, § 2(3).
Philippines
An order issued in 1995 by the President of the Philippines provides:
The Department of Interior and Local Government, the Department of Justice and the Department of National Defence are hereby directed to include, as an integral part of the continuing education and training of their personnel, the study of human rights as conducted by the Commission on Human Rights. Said human rights education and training shall also include the various international treaties and conventions on human rights to which the Philippines is a party. 
Philippines, The President, Memorandum Order No. 259, Requiring Human Rights Education and Training of Law Enforcement, Police, Military and Prison Personnel, 7 February 1995.
Philippines
According to the Report on the Practice of the Philippines, which refers to a publication of 1996, subjects or courses dealing with international conventions, agreements, declarations or covenants on human rights and IHL ratified by the Philippines or of which the Philippines is a signatory are to be included in the curriculum of the armed forces of the Philippines and of the Philippine National Police. 
Report on the Practice of the Philippines, 1997, Chapter 6.6, referring to Human Rights Curriculum for AFP/PNP, Unit 2 Course No. 8: Your Rights and the Rights of Others in Times of Armed Conflict, cited in R. P. Claude, Educating for Human Rights: The Philippines and Beyond, 1996, p. 256.
Poland
In 1999, Poland held several seminars and courses for military officers. The Polish Ministry of Defence issued new material for teaching the international law of armed conflict to non-commissioned officers and private soldiers. In addition, an agreement on dissemination of IHL was signed between the Ministry of Defence of Poland and the ICRC. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 54.
Poland
In 2005, in a cooperation agreement concluded between the Polish Minister of National Defence and the Polish Red Cross, it was stated:
2. The Polish Red Cross shall:
2) publicize international humanitarian law of armed conflict and assist the national defence agency with educational activities conducted in the Polish Armed Forces;
3) support the process of implementing international law of armed conflict, with particular attention to regulations governing the protection of the Red Cross emblem. 
Poland, Cooperation Agreement Between the Minister of National Defence and the Polish Red Cross, Warsaw, 8 February 2005, published in MON Official Journal of 2005, No. 3, item 18, § 2(2)–(3).
Poland
In 2005, in his decision on compliance with principles for the protection of cultural property in the activities of the armed forces, Poland’s Minister of National Defence stated:
2. The following tasks and responsibilities shall be assigned to senior staff of the Ministry of National Defence [MOD], directors (heads) of organizational cells of the MOD and commanders of categories of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland in matters relating to the protection of cultural property:
2) The PA Chief of General Staff ensures:
a) compliance by all levels of command with the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict in the process of decision-making on combat operations, operations during peacekeeping missions and alliance operations, action to prevent or combat the effects of terrorism, catastrophes and natural disasters or their consequences, and during military training and exercises,
3) The Commanders of the categories of the Armed Forces:
b) include in training programs for troops under their command the problems of the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict, during peacekeeping missions and alliance operations, action to prevent or combat terrorism, catastrophes and natural disasters or their consequences, and during military training and exercises;
4) Commander Chancellors of Military Academies and officer training institutes, and commanders of training centres ensure the inclusion in training programs of the problems of the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict, during peacekeeping missions and alliance operations, action to prevent or combat terrorism, catastrophes and natural disasters and their consequences, and during military training and exercises, in accordance with the range of training topics specified in the attached instruction (Annex No. 1 to the instruction);
5) The Director of the Department of Defence Education and Promotion:
a) organizes and supervises the overall operations relating to the dissemination of information on and building awareness of protection of cultural property issues in the military environment,
b) compiles catalogues of historical monuments for use in operational decisions in the course of combat operations for national and alliance (Polish territory) troops and also during peace-keeping missions and alliance operations, action to prevent or combat terrorism, catastrophes and natural disasters, and also during military training and exercises,
e) organizes training relating to the protection of cultural property for professional military service troops, staff of the national defence agency and reserve troops, and maintains a register of the persons trained,
f) develops training materials and organizes training for troops participating in operations organized under the auspices of the United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), the European Union (EU), or other multinational operations,
6) The Director of the Infrastructure Department:
b) organizes within the agency specialized training in matters relating to the protection of immovable cultural property and its protection during exceptional threats war- and peace-time,
3. The provisions of paragraph … 2.4 of the decision shall be implemented in official activities by 31 December 2007. 
Poland, Decision No. 250/MON by the Minister of National Defence on compliance with the principles for the protection of cultural property in the activities of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland, 4 August 2005, published in MON Official Journal of 2005, No. 15, item 135, §§ 2–3.
Republic of Korea
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the Republic of Korea pledged to “continue and enhance our International Humanitarian Law education of military forces, especially those being sent on missions abroad”. 
Republic of Korea, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Russian Federation
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, the Russian Federation pledged to “broaden the campaign of dissemination of the International Humanitarian Law and, in particular, among the military who participate in the international peace-keeping operations”. 
Russian Federation, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Russian Federation
In an order issued in 2001 on measures to ensure respect for international humanitarian law by the armed forces of the Russian Federation, the Russian Federation’s Minister of Defence stated:
With a view of implementing the international treaties relative to the international humanitarian law, I Hereby Order:
1.That the deputy defence ministers of the Russian Federation, commanders-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces services, military districts (fleets) commanders, arms commanders, chiefs of the main and central directorates of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, armies, divisions and military units commanders, chiefs of the organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation ensure:
- training in international humanitarian law for the personnel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the Constitution, the legislation of the Russian Federation, requirements of the military regulations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and the legal acts of the Defence Minister of the Russian Federation relating to international humanitarian law respect;
- strict observance by the personnel of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of the combat regulations and combat support regulations requirements, while strictly respecting international humanitarian law;
- issuing orders, directives and other service documents needed for the conduct of classes, exercises and events envisaged by the combat training plans, while taking into consideration international humanitarian law rules.
2.That Chief of the Defence Ministry Chancellery ensures that IHL training materials developed in accordance with the established procedure be duly distributed to the servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. 
Russian Federation, Order by the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation No. 360, On Measures to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Prikaz Ministra Oboroni Rossiiskoi Federacii o merah po sobludeniu norm vezhdunarodnogo prava v vooruzhennikh silakh Rossiiskoi Federacii), 8 August 2001, § 2.
Russian Federation
In 2010, in a report to the UN Secretary-General on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, the Russian Federation stated:
3. Study of the provisions of Additional Protocols I and II to the Geneva Conventions (1949) in military education and training
3.1 Education
The theory of international humanitarian law is part of the study programme at military higher education establishments. International humanitarian law issues are included in general and specialized military courses at the higher education establishments of the Ministry of Defence.
Since 2000, courses for officers to improve their knowledge of the law of armed conflict have been held at the base housing the Russian Federation Joint Armed Forces Academy (the Army’s military training and education centre). In 2009, about 150 instructors were trained in international humanitarian law in accordance with the qualifying requirements. In the first half of 2010, there were two groups of trainees and 57 instructors were trained in international humanitarian law.
3.2 Troop training
Members of the Armed Forces study practical issues during regular combat training.
Members of all categories of the military study international humanitarian law as part of their social and constitutional studies (from 2 to 6 hours, depending on the category of trainees).
Practical issues are studied in the context of professional training for officers of military administrative bodies, and in leadership training for commissioned and non-commissioned officers. 
Russian Federation, Background information for the inclusion in the report of the Secretary–General to the UN General Assembly at its 65th session on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflict (2008–2010), 25 October 2010, § 3.
Russian Federation
In 2010, in its fifth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, the Russian Federation stated: “Military personnel study international legal norms in the sphere of human rights and international humanitarian law, notably the prohibition on the use of torture, as part of their theoretical training, including for command positions.” 
Russian Federation, Fifth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 28 February 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/RUS/5, submitted 28 December 2010, § 194.
Rwanda
On the basis of replies by army officers to a questionnaire, the Report on the Practice of Rwanda states that, during the period 1990–1994, soldiers of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) received basic instruction in IHL, and a military manual was issued. The report also notes that, with the agreement of the Rwandan authorities, training of officers of the armed forces in IHL is carried out by the ICRC. 
Report on the Practice of Rwanda, 1997, Replies by army officers to a questionnaire, Chapter 6.6.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Rwanda stated:
Measures taken to ensure training of the personnel in charge of the maintenance of peace on the rights of the child, and in particular on the provisions of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict]
… In collaboration with [the] National Human Rights Commission, MINADEF [Ministry of Defence] organized training programmes [for] soldiers on the rights of the child. All divisions (5) have already received this training. This training is also given to soldiers who are sent on peace keeping missions in Darfur. The training of soldiers and the Police Force on the rights of the child is also carried out in collaboration between MINADEF, [the] National Police Force, [the] National Human Rights Commission, UNHCR and [the] ICRC. 
Rwanda, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 December 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/RWA/1, submitted 20 January 2010, § 121.
My country’s core message today is that enhancing the protection of civilians in armed conflict requires action before the conflict starts. The proliferation of non-State armed groups makes civilian protection both more urgent and harder to achieve. In particular, I wish to emphasize the importance of increasing investments in the professionalization of military and police forces, especially adequate training in the protection of civilians. Only when the leadership of armed forces shares the international community’s preoccupation with civilian protection will we see decisive progress made. 
Rwanda, Statement by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Rwanda before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, UN Doc. S/PV.6917, 12 February 2013, p. 9.
Senegal
In 2011, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Senegal stated:
Article 10 of the [1984] Convention [against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment]
134. Education and information concerning the prohibition of torture features prominently in the curricula of training academies for police, the gendarmerie, customs officials, health officials, and members of the Armed Forces and the judiciary as well as in human rights institutions.
136. Each year the Peace and Human Rights Institute of the Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar offers a master’s degree programme on citizenship, human rights and humanitarian action. Students in this programme receive training in human rights, international humanitarian law and, particularly, specific methods for protecting the physical integrity of persons. A number of members of the country’s security forces have received this training.  
Senegal, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 5 October 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/SEN/3, submitted 9 February 2011, §§ 134 and 136.
Slovenia
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Slovenia pledged “support to the dissemination of the Geneva Conventions with Additional Protocols and other instruments of International Humanitarian Law within armed and security forces”. 
Slovenia, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Slovenia
In 1999, a course on IHL was organized in Slovenia, in cooperation with the ICRC’s regional delegation, for officers and instructors of the Centre for Military Academies and the Staff College of the Republic of Slovenia. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 57.
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated: “The Government has an obligation to ‘respect and ensure respect’ for IHL. It is therefore proposing IHL training to be integrated into the training scheme of its armed and security forces at all levels.” 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 79.
Somalia
In 2011, in its comments on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning Somalia’s report, Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government stated:
98.73. … The Somali national forces are instructed to adhere to IHL. …
98.114. … Integration of IHL and human rights into the training programmes of the armed and security forces, at all levels are fully under way. A comprehensive IHL and human rights training policy will soon be adopted by the Ministry of Defence. 
Somalia, Comments by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning the report of Somalia, submitted 21 September 2011, §§ 98.73 and 98.114.
South Africa
South Africa’s White Paper on National Defence of 1996, which presents the defence policy of the Government of National Unity, provides:
31. Education and training programmes within the SANDF [South African National Defence Force] are a cardinal means of building and maintaining a high level of professionalism. In this regard, the [interim] Constitution [of 1994] provides that all members of the SANDF “shall be properly trained in order to comply with international standards of competency”.
35. Education and training will also play an essential role in developing the political and ethical dimensions of military professionalism. To this end, the Minister will oversee the design and implementation of a civic education programme on “defence in a democracy” …
36. The mission of the civic education programme is to instil respect amongst military personnel and other members of the [Department of Defence] for the core values of a democratic South Africa through appropriate education and training. These values derive principally from the Constitution. They include respect for human rights, the rights and duties of soldiers, the rule of law, international law, non-partisanship, non-discrimination, and civil supremacy over the armed forces.
37. The programme will cover the following subjects: … international law on armed conflicts …
38. This programme will extend to all members of the [Department of Defence] but will necessarily be tailored according to function and rank …
41. The SANDF, together with the International Committee of the Red Cross, is currently developing a comprehensive curriculum on international humanitarian law and international law on armed conflict. 
South Africa, Minister of Defence, Defence in a Democracy, White Paper on National Defence for the Republic of South Africa, 8 May 1996, Chapter 3, §§ 31, 35–38 and 41.
South Africa
In a paper entitled “Presentation of the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law” produced in the late 1990s, the South African Government stated:
It is acknowledged today that the armed formations which now comprise the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) were all guilty, to a greater or lesser extent, of human rights abuses during the apartheid era. None of these forces were trained and orientated to serve a democracy, nor to apply International Humanitarian Law in their operations …
One of the major initiatives was a clear commitment by the Government in its White Paper on Defence … [One of the statements therein] was the Government’s undertaking … that it was prepared to institutionalise International Humanitarian Law in the military’s training.
The other initiative was the process to ensure that the SANDF incorporated International Humanitarian Law into its training. This initiative was in fact launched during the transitional period just prior to the April 1994 elections …
The SA Army has … held a successful instructor’s course during August 1997 where 55 instructors were qualified, using material supplied originally by the ICRC. This was followed by an instruction for all Commanders and formations to start training in IHL. Furthermore, the SA Army has drawn up curricula for all the personnel development courses, starting from the basic military course up to the senior staff course. Training has already commenced on most of these courses. 
South Africa, SANDF, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, CPERS/DPD/103/1/B (undated), Report on the Practice of South Africa, 1997, Chapter 6.6, Annex.
South Africa
In a training order issued in 1997, the South African Department of Defence stated:
In September 1997, the Minister of Defence authorised the Civic Education Guidelines and programme, after the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence had reviewed the contents and provided their approval … All members of the Department of Defence are to receive training in civic education as contained in the Guidelines, as approved by Parliament … The introduction of [the LOAC Manual (1996)] has already been commenced with under separate instruction and with the assistance of the representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The training in International Humanitarian Law/Law of Armed Conflict which has already been introduced is to be harmonized with the complete civic education programme … Arms of the Service are also to introduce International Humanitarian Law/Law of Armed Conflict on those courses, other than formative courses, where it is appropriate, such as operational courses. 
South Africa, Department of Defence, Training Order 1/1/97: Introduction of Civic Education in the Department of Defence, C PERS/DPD/R/103/1/B, C PERS/DPD/R/103/2, September 1997, §§ 2–3 and 7–8.
South Africa
In a speech in 1998, the South African Minister of Defence stated: “[1998] sees the implementation of our Civic Education Programme. The programme will assist our members in becoming familiar with: … International Humanitarian Law”. 
South Africa, Minister of Defence, Speech delivered during the Parliamentary Media Briefing Week, 12 February 1998, Part III.
South Africa
In 1999, during a debate in the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the UN Decade of International Law, South Africa stated: “States should work to instil a culture of compliance [with rules of IHL], in particular by training soldiers in humanitarian law.” 
South Africa, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.6/54/SR.10, 19 October 1999, § 76.
South Africa
The Report on the Practice of South Africa refers to an opening address at a UN human rights seminar by the South African Deputy Minister of Defence in which he emphasized that training for the armed forces should cover both international human rights standards as well as IHL, since the armed forces were likely to intervene in situations not covered by the 1949 Geneva Conventions or the 1977 Additional Protocols. He referred to the 1990 Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials. 
Report on the Practice of South Africa, 1997, Chapter 6.6, referring to Deputy Minister of Defence, Presentation at the opening of a UN Human Rights Seminar, p. 3.
Spain
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Spain pledged to “continue organizing training courses in international humanitarian law, in cooperation with the Committee of the Spanish Red Cross, for the leaders and officers of the armed forces of Iberoamerican, African and eastern European countries”. 
Spain, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Spain
The Report on the Practice of Spain notes that IHL disseminated and taught in the Spanish armed forces includes the rules applicable in both international and internal armed conflicts. 
Report on the Practice of Spain, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Spain
In 2008, in its fifth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Spain stated: “For the Guardia Civil … [r]egular specialized courses on international humanitarian law and the law of war are … organized in cooperation with the Red Cross and the State Secretariat for Security.” 
Spain, Fifth Periodic Report to the Committee against Torture, 18 February 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/ESP/5, submitted 12 March 2008, § 118.
Spain
In 2009, in its written replies to the Committee against Torture concerning its fifth periodic report, Spain stated with regard to the training given to security forces and bodies of the State: “[N]umerous courses are offered at the levels of lifelong learning, refresher training, further training and continuous training, including … [a] [c]ourse on international humanitarian law.”  
Spain, Written replies by the Government of Spain to the Committee against Torture concerning the list of issues raised in connection with the fifth periodic report of Spain, 22 September 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/ESP/Q/5/Add.1, § 173.
The written replies further stated: “Members of the security forces and bodies of the State specialized in the struggle against terrorism receive the training mentioned … [above], including … [on] the norms pertaining to human rights and to refugee and humanitarian law.” 
Spain, Written replies by the Government of Spain to the Committee against Torture concerning the list of issues raised in connection with the fifth periodic report of Spain, 22 September 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/ESP/Q/5/Add.1, § 470.
Spain
In 2010, in its report to the UN General Assembly on the status of the 1977 Additional Protocols, Spain stated:
Article 83 of the first Protocol Additional to the [1949] Geneva Conventions, adopted on 8 June 1977, sets out the requirement to disseminate knowledge about the obligation to protect victims of armed conflicts. Consequently, our military training includes the dissemination of these provisions.
The Royal Ordinances for the Armed Forces, adopted by Royal Decree No. 96/2009 of 6 February 2009 … were a qualitative leap forward inasmuch as they introduced ethics, and, in particular, international humanitarian law, into military operations. An entire chapter of this code … sets out the obligation to … disseminate … the content of the international conventions ratified by Spain relative to the amelioration of the condition of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of the armed forces, to the treatment of prisoners of war and to the protection of civilian persons, as well as those relative to the protection of cultural property and to prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain weapons.
In addition, the Ministry of Defence has entered a framework cooperation agreement with the Spanish Red Cross, providing for the implementation of an annual action plan which includes, inter alia, cooperation in the teaching of international humanitarian law by Red Cross personnel in some of the courses mentioned below.
Furthermore, before joining a peacekeeping operation abroad, all members of the Spanish armed forces undergo preparation which emphasizes the precepts of international humanitarian law and includes an analysis of the customs and culture of the deployment area. These are elements of the field manuals distributed to all members of the mission, who also receive a pocket handbook outlining how they should conduct themselves in order to guarantee the protection of victims of armed conflicts.
Regarding military education, the frame of reference for the organization of military education is Act No. 39/2007, of 19 November 2007. Title IV describes education in the armed forces, which is organized as follows:
- Basic military training
- Advanced military training
- Higher studies in national defence
1.1 Basic training for all members of the armed forces
The purpose of basic training is to prepare career members of the armed forces to join the ranks and to train soldiers and sailors for entry into the auxiliary or professional forces.
… [A]ll curricula cover basic law, ethics, military law, international relations, maritime law (for navy units … ) and aeronautical law (for air force units … ), and they all make reference to the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols.
In addition to their regular courses, students can attend seminars, lectures, colloquiums and courses, on such subjects as international humanitarian law, conducted in cooperation with such organizations as the Red Cross, or courses on these subjects and others of interest in the field of national defence taught in conjunction with public universities.
1.2 Advanced military training and higher studies in national defence
The purpose of advanced military training is to prepare professional members of the armed forces for specialized functions and to equip them with the most up-to-date and broadest possible knowledge for the discharge of their duties, including general education and specialized military degrees.
The purpose of higher studies in national defence is to prepare career officers to perform general staff duties and to train them for the rank of brigadier. Higher studies in national defence cover such areas as peace, security, defence and military policy …
Every year the following courses are offered (as part of either advanced military training or higher studies in national defence) and incorporate aspects of the [1949] Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols:
- Operational military law
- Law of armed conflict for professors of military schools
- Law of armed conflict
- General staff
- Observers for peacekeeping operations
- Peacekeeping operations
- Civil and military cooperation
- Training for the ranks of major and senior non-commissioned officer in the three services
- Preparation for the unified officers’ ranking
- Civil and military cooperation for reservists. 
Spain, Report on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, 5 May 2010, Sections 1(1.1)–(1.2).
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
36. The former Special Representative of the [UN] Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict Mr. Olara Otunnu was invited by the Government to visit Sri Lanka in May 1998, to add strength to the advocacy campaign against child recruitment. During his meeting with the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] he raised several issues concerning the protection, rights and welfare of children affected by the ongoing conflict. The LTTE made the following commitments in relation to children in armed conflict to Mr. Otunnu during his meeting with the LTTE[:]
(d) During his visit Mr Otunnu stressed the importance of all parties including the non-State sector, observing the [1989] Convention [on] the Rights of the Child. He urged the LTTE to make public their respect of the principles and provisions of the Convention. However, the LTTE did indicate their willingness, to enable their cadres to receive information and instructions on the provisions of the Convention;
37. These commitments were not implemented by the LTTE. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 36(d) and 37.
[footnote in original omitted]
Sri Lanka
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, Sri Lanka stated:
54. Article 10 of the [1984] Convention [against Torture] requires education and information regarding the prohibition of torture to be disseminated amongst public officials.
55. The Police and the Army has Human Rights Directorates whose main function is to disseminate information to all its [personnel] with regard to carrying out their duties in accordance with human rights and humanitarian law. The Navy and the Air Force also has sub-directorates which [perform] … a similar task.
56. Training Programmes ha[ve] been conducted … [with] the Police as well as the Armed Forces with the assistance of the ICRC and the Institute of Human Rights on the duties and obligations of Armed Forces personnel in relation to their accountability and responsibility to maintain transparency in the performance of their duties involving the arrest and detention of suspects. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 23 September 2010, UN Doc. CAT/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 17 August 2009, Annex, §§ 54–56; see also § 31 of the report.
Sweden
In 1999, members of the Swedish Defence Force received thorough instruction in IHL. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 1999 Annual Report, Geneva, 2000, p. 61.
Switzerland
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Switzerland pledged to “produce learning materials (CD-ROMs) on the law of armed conflicts, with the aim of facilitating instruction carried out by armed-forces commanders, whether of army corps, battalions or brigades” and to “improve the defence ministry’s Website on the international law of armed conflict, in order to disseminate international humanitarian law more broadly”. 
Switzerland, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Switzerland
In 2009, the Swiss Federal Council created the Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law. Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs stated:
The Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law
Switzerland is obliged to implement and to further promote International Humanitarian Law at home as well. The Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law (ICIHL) fosters and coordinates activities in this area.
Activities
The Interdepartmental Committee participates in the training of the Swiss authorities personnel and persons outside the Federal administration in matters of International Humanitarian Law. 
Switzerland, Mandate of the Interdepartmental Committee for International Humanitarian Law, 2009.
Switzerland
In 2010, in its Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
The Swiss army carries out the following international courses on the subject of international humanitarian law:
- “Central Role of the Commanderˮ (CENTROC) course every two years since 2004: this seminar, which is addressed to commanders and legal advisors, aims to transmit knowledge on international humanitarian law, human rights law and other legal areas linked to the army. A focus is put on the decisive role of the commander in the application of the law;
- international humanitarian law competition, every two years, alternating with the CENTROC course: a test for commanders and general officers on their knowledge in the legal areas pertinent to military missions;
- international humanitarian law and ethics, every year, for the past 12 years, in collaboration with the International Committee of Military Medicine: this course is addressed to military medical personnel;
- “NATO/Partnership for Peace – Non Commissioned Officers Leadership Coursesˮ …
In addition, the Swiss army also supports international humanitarian law courses organized by other organizations with financial and/or human resource contributions:
- ICRC: Senior Workshop on International Rules Governing Military Operations;
- Geneva Centre for Security Policy: Annual Senior Officers Security and Law Conference;
- International Committee of Military Medicine: regional courses in South Africa and Saudi Arabia for military medical personnel;
- International Institute of International Humanitarian Law of San Remo: military courses on international humanitarian law. 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on IHL and Current Armed Conflicts, 17 September 2010, Section 5, p. 27.
Switzerland
In 2012, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on women, peace and security, Switzerland’s chargé d’affaires a.i. stated:
3. The Secretary-General calls in the report upon the parties to include training on conflict related sexual violence in the curricula of their peacekeeping troops. Switzerland in its National Action Plan to implement resolution 1325 committed to including conflict-related sexual violence as well as the issue of sexual exploitation and abuse in the trainings of all military persons deployed. 
Switzerland, Statement by the chargé d’affaires a.i. of Switzerland before the UN Security Council during a debate on women, peace and security, 23 February 2012.
Switzerland
In 2012, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Switzerland stated: “International humanitarian law and human rights are compulsory subjects for new recruits to the army. Interactive training modules on CD-ROM have been developed for military training in army camps.” 
Switzerland, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 30 October 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/CHE/2-4, submitted 19 July 2012, p. 120.
Switzerland
In 2013, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued the “Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts”, which states: “In order to ensure that the law protects victims of armed conflicts, it is important that action be taken before conflicts arise. Examples of measures include … adequate training of armed forces”. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, 2013, p. 11.
The Strategy also states:
One of the obstacles preventing compliance with the normative framework by parties to armed conflicts is the lack of knowledge (or lack of suitable familiarity) with this framework on the part of those called upon to comply with it.
Familiarity with the normative framework must not only be theoretical, but also practical. Each actor involved in an armed conflict must have sufficient awareness of its obligations in order to comply with them. … The normative framework must also be … transposed into doctrine, operational procedures, training and the internal system of sanctions, so that the parties to the conflict are better able to comply.
Lines of action
- Switzerland will share with foreign armed forces its experiences in the transposition of legal principles into military doctrine and the training given to officers and troops. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, 2013, p. 13.
Syrian Arab Republic
The Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic states that the Syrian Arab Republic has cooperated with the National Red Crescent Society on a programme of intensive IHL courses for the armed forces since 1994. 
Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Thailand
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Thailand pledged “to ensure that International Humanitarian Law and its Principles are integrated into the educational and training programme of armed forces”. 
Thailand, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Thailand
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Thailand stated:
4.1 Dissemination
13. (2) Appointment of the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula. The Ministry of Defense approved the Ministerial Regulations (Specific) No. 143/43 appointing the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula, responsible for the following:
(1) Dissemination and integration of international humanitarian laws (including laws concerning armed conflict or war) and human rights subjects into all levels of the military training curricula; and updating and standardizing the curricula;
(2) Reviewing the appropriateness of the law curricula on armed conflict and human rights currently used by educational institutes, in regards to their contents, facilitators, lecturers, complementary materials, teaching methods and resources;
(3) Evaluating teaching results;
(4) Making recommendations on necessary revision of teaching and learning methods for human rights and armed conflict laws, in keeping with the present reality;
(6) Coordinating and collaborating with relevant agencies, both at the national and international levels;
4.2 Training
14. (1) Training for observation missions. A 112-hour training course is provided to soldiers who are due to travel on observation missions abroad, focusing on improving knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles of international and human rights organizations and laws, including: the United Nations and its agencies, the United Nations Charter, principles of peacekeeping, negotiation and mediation techniques, law of armed conflict/human rights, humanitarian assistance, the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), etc.
15. (2) Peacekeeping training. A 40-hour training course is provided to soldiers prior to their departures on peacekeeping missions, covering general concepts and principles of peacekeeping, such as reinforcement strategy, the ICRC role, rules of engagement and conflict management.
16. (3) Sensitization and training on the Convention and the Optional Protocol. Training is organized by such agencies as the Ministries of Interior, Education, Justice, Labour, Public Health, Social Development and Human Security; the Office of the General-Attorney; the Royal Thai Police; and non-governmental organizations, such as Holt Sahathai, the Foundation for Child Development; the Centre for the Protection of Child Rights Foundation, and the Buddhist Youth for Development Foundation. The Convention and its Optional Protocol have been incorporated into both general training curricula on child rights and specialized training.
B.2. International instruments ratified by Thailand
48. International instruments relevant to the issue of the involvement of children in armed conflict to which Thailand is a State party include the following:
(1) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864;
(2) Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(3) Convention (III) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(4) Declaration (IV,1), to Prohibit, for the Term of Five Years, the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons, and Other Methods of Similar Nature. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(5) Declaration (IV,2) concerning Asphyxiating Gases. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(6) Declaration (IV,3) concerning Expanding Bullets. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(7) Convention for the Exemption of Hospital Ships, in Time of War, from the Payment of all Dues and Taxes Imposed for the Benefit of the State. The Hague, 21 December 1904;
(8) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 6 July 1906;
(9) Convention (III) relative to the Opening of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(10) Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(11) Convention (V) respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(12) Convention (VI) relating to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(13) Convention (VII) relating to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(14) Convention (VIII) relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(15) Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(16) Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(17) Convention (XI) relative to certain Restrictions with regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(18) Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(19) Declaration (XIV) Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(20) Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Geneva, 17 June 1925;
(21) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(22) Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(23) Procès-verbal relating to the Rules of Submarine Warfare set forth in Part IV of the Treaty of London of 22 April 1930. London, 6 November 1936;
(24) The four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, concerning the protection of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field; wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea; prisoners of war; and civilians who find themselves under the rule of a foreign power in the event of international conflict;
(25) Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(26) Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(27) Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction. Opened for Signature at London, Moscow and Washington. 10 April 1972;
(28) Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction, Paris 13 January 1993;
(29) Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, 18 September 1997.
50. Efforts have been made to raise awareness of Thailand’s personnel on the importance of these treaties and obligations, through the dissemination of video on laws concerning armed conflict and rules of engagement, and regular training. 
Thailand, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 19 July 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/1, submitted 30 October 2009, §§ 13(1)–(4) and (6), 14–16, 48 and 50.
Trinidad and Tobago
In 1993, during a debate in the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the UN programme of assistance in the teaching, study, dissemination and wider appreciation of international law, the representative of Trinidad and Tobago stated:
11. Her delegation noted the growing interest in the legal aspects of peacekeeping operations … International humanitarian law had not yet been fully developed and greater emphasis should be placed on that issue during training programmes. Other issues, such as procurement of goods and services, privileges and immunities of members of the peace-keeping operations, personal injury, deaths and damage to property, could also be considered.
12. … She agreed that instead of codifying [the rules on the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict], it would be more productive to ensure increased compliance with and wider dissemination of existing rules on the subject. Accordingly lectures and seminars had been organised in Trinidad and Tobago to familiarize members of the armed forces with the relevant provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. 
Trinidad and Tobago, Statement before the Sixth Committee of the UN General Assembly, UN Doc. A/C.6/48/SR.33, 19 November 1993, §§ 11–12.
Turkey
At the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1999, Turkey pledged to “provide training in International Humanitarian Law and the work of humanitarian organisations to the Turkish Military Forces and through the ‘Partnership for peace (PFP) Training Center’ in Ankara to the other countries’ armed forces participating in PFP”. 
Turkey, Pledge made at the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999.
Uganda
In 2008, in its written reply to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning Uganda’s initial report under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uganda stated: “The UPDF [Uganda People’s Defence Force] syllabi at all levels has a component of international humanitarian law and obligation … . Training on the Optional Protocol on children in Armed Conflict is part of the syllabi.’ 
Uganda, Written replies of the Government of Uganda to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Uganda under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 8 September 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UGA/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 5 September 2008, § 15.
Ukraine
In 2009, Ukraine’s president adopted the Strategy for the international peace-making activities of Ukraine, which states:
3. Priorities, tasks and mechanisms of attaining Ukraine’s national interests in international peace-making actions
… [I]t is necessary to:
improve the … [peace-makers’] knowledge of international humanitarian law … , in particular as regards the performance of their duties as a part of multinational command structures;
5. Organization of the implementation of the Strategy of the international peace-making activities of Ukraine
The goals defined by the Strategy of the international peace-making activities of Ukraine can be achieved by the exercise of their respective powers by the bodies responsible for ensuring the national security of Ukraine, viz. the President of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Council for National Security and Defence of Ukraine, ministries and other central governmental agencies, in accordance with the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. 
Ukraine, Strategy for the international peace-making activities of Ukraine, enacted by Decree of the President of the Ukraine, Decree No. 453/2009, 15 June 2009, §§ 3 and 5.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Ministry of Defence has produced a training video for UK soldiers containing a summary of basic principles of IHL. 
United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence, Training Video: The Geneva Conventions, 1986, Report on UK Practice, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in reply to a question concerning the status of detainees in Iraq, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office stated:
The British Armed Forces are fully aware of their obligations under international law. They are given thorough mandatory training courses which include specific guidance on handling prisoners of war. All personnel must attend refresher training every year.
Before going to Iraq all personnel are briefed on the Rules of Engagement and procedures for dealing with prisoners of war or other detainees. Each combat unit is required to have senior non-commissioned officers trained in handling prisoners of war. And units which are responsible for the routine handling of detainees conduct further specialist training. 
United Kingdom, Letter to the Clerk from the Parliamentary Relations and Devolution Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 24 June 2004, published in House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism: Seventh Report of the Session 2003–04, Vol. II: Oral and Written Evidence, HC 441-II.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, instructions on the treatment of prisoners and detainees in accordance with the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, stated:
All British forces personnel in Iraq have the authority to detain persons who pose a threat to their safety or security and are, therefore, briefed in prisoner handling. This includes guidance that prisoners should be treated, at all times, fully in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, Hansard, 29 June 2004, Vol. 663, Written Answers, col. WA15.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, the occupation of Iraq and compliance with international humanitarian law, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, stated:
Members of the United Kingdom Armed Forces and contractors are liable under both UK and international law for their conduct while on operations in Iraq. As such, military personnel are fully informed of their responsibilities and obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law, not only through training received prior to deployment, but also through specific standard operating procedures. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 30 June 2004, Vol. 663, Written Answers, col. WA35.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, measures to ensure respect for the prohibition on torture and other forms of ill-treatment in Iraq, the UK Minister of State for Defence stated:
Members of the United Kingdom armed forces are liable under both UK and international law for their conduct while on operations in Iraq. As such, military personnel are fully informed of their responsibilities and obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law, not only through training received prior to deployment, but also through specific Standard Operating Procedures. All UK military personnel deploying to Iraq receive an Aide Memoire card on the Law of Armed Conflict, which clearly states that prisoners, detainees and civilians must be treated with dignity and respect, and must not in any way be subject to abuse, torture or inhuman or degrading treatment. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Minister of State for Defence, Hansard, 15 July 2004, Vol. 423, Written Answers, col. 1236W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, instructions to members of the armed forces and other United Kingdom personnel in Iraq, the UK Foreign Secretary stated:
The UK armed forces are fully aware of their obligations under international law. They are given thorough mandatory training, which includes specific guidance on handling prisoners of war. All personnel must attend refresher training every year. Other UK personnel going to Iraq who are likely to be involved in activities that require an understanding of these international obligations are also given appropriate guidance. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Foreign Secretary, Hansard, 22 July 2004, Vol. 424, Written Answers, col. 541W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2005, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, the government’s assessment of its “responsibility towards Iraqi civilians under the Geneva Conventions”, the UK Minister of State for Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, stated:
We take great care to ensure that civilians are protected and that our obligations under the Geneva Conventions are met. All personnel serving in Iraq are fully briefed on the Law of Armed Conflict and appropriate measures are taken to avoid loss of civilian life or property. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Minister of State for Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, Hansard, 27 January 2005, Vol. 430, Written Answers, col. 541W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2005, in a reply to a question concerning, inter alia, instruction in international humanitarian law and international human rights law for members of the UK armed services, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, stated:
Obligations imposed upon the United Kingdom by international humanitarian law are covered within Her Majesty’s Armed Forces through instruction and training in the Law of Armed Conflict (LoAC). All new entrants to the Armed Forces, of all ranks, receive training on LoAC during initial training and specialist training courses. Such training has been delivered throughout the past four years. On entry into productive service Army and Royal Marines personnel renew this training annually as part of their individual training directives.
Prior to deployment to an operational theatre, all personnel receive pre-deployment training (PDT), either collectively or as individuals. Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel receive specific training on LoAC during PDT as, unlike their Army and Royal Marine counterparts, they do not receive such training on an annual basis. All personnel receive an additional theatre-specific operational law brief and cultural awareness training as part of PDT.
In addition, officers receive enhanced packages during their career development and through attendance at the Joint Services Command and Staff College, where they receive education on the analysis of international law, the role of ethics and their impact on military operations.
International human rights law is not taught as a subject in its own right to service personnel. However, all service personnel are subject to their respective service disciplinary codes and will be dealt with by their commanding officers or (depending on the gravity of the offences) by courts martial for breaches overseas of service discipline or the commission of criminal law offences contrary to the law of England and Wales. The object of service disciplinary law has always been to maintain discipline within the Armed Forces and thereby both to guarantee respect from the local population overseas for the behaviour of service personnel and to help maintain operational effectiveness.
Service personnel receive annual common core skills training, part of which relates to live armed guarding duties in peacetime within the United Kingdom. The law of self-defence is an essential part of that training and seeks to impart the basic principle that only reasonable and proportionate force may be used where a necessity of defence arises. The teaching, which is given partly by video and partly by instructors, is in line with Section 3 of the Criminal Law Act 1967 and supporting case law. Section 3 comprises the basis for the use of force in most peace-keeping operations conducted by HM forces overseas. 
United Kingdom, House of Lords, Statement by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, Hansard, 22 March 2005, Vol. 671, Debates, col. WA23.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2006, in a written answer to a question concerning “what training is being given to British troops to ensure that they respect the rights of civilians in Iraq”, the UK Minister of State for Armed Forces stated:
All service personnel receive training on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) during their initial training. It ranges from up to two hours of training for soldiers, through to eight hours of training for junior officers, including a practical exercise on search, arrest and detention. While LOAC and its implications are first introduced during initial training, it is recognised that this is a very complex topic for the inexperienced and requires continual reinforcement during productive service. Therefore, the content and frequency of the training in productive service is appropriate to rank, responsibility and force readiness. Specifically, all army and RM [Royal Marines] personnel are required to undertake annual refresher training in LOAC each year as part of their Mandatory Annual Training Tests programme. LOAC training includes instruction on the treatment of combatants, POWs and civilians, as well as rules of engagement, the Law of Self Defence and emphasises that only reasonable and proportionate force may be used where a necessity of defence arises. Additional and enhanced LOAC training is also provided, again related to rank and role of the individual, in command and staff courses for selected SNCOs and officers.
Prior to deployment on operations all personnel undertake pre-deployment training, which includes LOAC and theatre-specific operational law and cultural awareness briefings. These lessons are also reinforced during in-theatre arrival briefings. Units and personnel specifically detailed to undertake prisoner handling/detainee duties undertake 10 days of specialist training, both theoretical and practical, under the control of the Provost Marshal (Army).This training has been subject to International Committee of the Red Cross and British Red Cross observations, and we have engaged both organisations to ensure UK planning for treatment of detainees is appropriate.
In addition to LOAC training, Service personnel are aware that under the Service Discipline Acts, they are subject to English criminal law wherever they are serving. This provides that any conduct on operations which would constitute a criminal offence if committed in England, can be prosecuted by courts-martial. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Minister of State for Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, Hansard, 24 October 2006, Vol. 450, Written Answers, cols. 1737W–1738W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2006, in response to a question concerning, inter alia, “documents relating to the training and guidance provided to the armed forces on the treatment of detainees and civilians”, the UK Government stated:
Joint Service Publication 383 The Joint Service Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (2004), from which the training provided to the Armed Forces on the Law of Armed Conflict derives, is published by Oxford University Press in both hardback and softback copy. The doctrine on Prisoner of War, Internees and Detainees (JDP 1-10) and the Aide Memoire on the Law of Armed Conflict (JSP 381) are also both unclassified and are in the public domain. Together these documents provide the framework for related training provided to the armed forces. The fact that they are in the public domain provides transparency in terms of the common standards and the legal framework within which UK armed forces operate. Other documents that remain classified do so for reasons of operational security. 
United Kingdom, Letter and memorandum from the Rt Hon. Lord Falconer of Thoroton, Secretary of State and Lord Chancellor, 29 October 2006, printed in House of Lords House of Commons Joint Committee on Human Rights, Government Response to the Committee's Nineteenth Report of this Session: The UN Convention Against Torture (UNCAT), Thirtieth Report of Session 2005–06, HL Paper 276/HC 1714, 14 November 2006, pp. 12–13.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the United Kingdom stated:
55. We seek to provide all new entrants to the armed forces, both officers and other ranks, with training on the law of armed conflict (LOAC) during initial training and specialist training courses. Such training, given in part to discharge the duties of the United Kingdom as a State party to the Geneva Conventions and to the Additional Protocols thereto, has been delivered across the Services throughout the past four years. On entry into productive service, Army and Royal Marines personnel renew this training at least annually, at a level and frequency that is appropriate to rank, role and force readiness. In addition, officers receive enhanced packages during their career development and through attendance at the Joint Services Command and Staff College, where they receive education on the analysis of international law, the role of ethics and their impact on military operations.
56. Prior to an operational deployment to an operational theatre, all personnel are expected to receive pre-deployment training (PDT), either collectively or as individuals, to allow them to apply the principles of LOAC to the specific operational theatre. In addition, all personnel receive an additional theatre-specific operational law brief and cultural awareness training as part of PDT.
57. Joint Doctrine Publication (JDP) 110:
“Prisoners of War, Internees and Detainees” was published in May 2006. This provides high level joint doctrinal guidance on how to deal with persons who fall into the hands of the British Armed Forces during military operations. 
United Kingdom, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OPAC/GBR/1, 3 September 2007, submitted 16 July 2007, §§ 55–57.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2008, the UK Army published the Aitken Report, which investigated cases where members of the British Army were alleged or proven to have mistreated or killed Iraqi civilians outside the context of immediate combat operations in 2003 or early 2004. The Aitken Report stated:
Context in Iraq
The business of equipping soldiers with the skills they require to meet the demands which the Nation demands of them is expensive in time, effort and money. To make best use of those limited resources, the Army provides generic training for all its people to prepare them for war (which it calls adaptive foundation training); and it supplements that training with theatre-specific, pre-deployment training to those units and individuals destined for particular operations, delivered by the Operational Training and Advisory Group (OPTAG). In the case of Iraq in 2003, the bulk of the training provided for the first three waves of troops deployed into theatre (that is, those who fought the war and began the process of nation rebuilding, and those who replaced them throughout 2003) was targeted at war-fighting skills. In the particular areas of arrest and detention, extant Army policy was not used to provide sufficient guidance to prepare our people for all the challenges they actually faced. The training packages, plus the doctrine that underpinned them, were (correctly) founded on the Law of Armed Conflict, but based largely on a conventional war scenario. They described in detail the manner in which prisoners of war were to be treated, but made scant mention of the treatment of civilian detainees – the group which, as it happened, our people were much more concerned after the formal cessation of hostilities in April 2003. Regimental Police (usually charged with running unit detention centres in Iraq) were only specifically trained in the running of unit guard rooms in barracks, and had little preparation for handling civilian prisoners. This omission in training was despite the recent experiences in Kosovo in June/July 1999 when civilians were initially detained in unit-run detention facilities, before expert help from the Military Provost Staff was later introduced. Furthermore, it was not until 2004, after we became aware of the allegations of abuse, that all soldiers deploying to Iraq were given specific instruction on the correct handling of detainees (as part of their pre-deployment training), and that formal direction was given to troops in Iraq that hooding should cease. Notwithstanding that formal proscription, specific direction had also been given in theatre that hoods were not to be used in detention centres as early as March 2003.  
United Kingdom, Army, The Aitken Report: An Investigation into Cases of Deliberate Abuse and Unlawful Killing in Iraq in 2003 and 2004, 25 January 2008, § 20.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2008, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to the UK initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the UK stated:
The UK Armed Forces do not routinely train all people on the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] specifically, but some personnel will receive training on areas addressed by it, for example those involved in handling prisoners of war, internees and detainees. Guidance to Service personnel on the involvement of children in armed conflict exists in the form of appropriate doctrine, policy and training. Reference to the Optional Protocol is made in the Joint Service Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (JSP 383) and Joint Doctrine on Prisoners of War, Internees and Detainees (JDP1-10) addresses the handling of juveniles and children. The UK is required by international law to ensure that the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) is included in training programmes for the Armed Forces. The impact of Human Rights law and the UK’s corresponding treaty obligations, are treated generically in the Armed Forces LOAC Training Policy (2007DIN06-07). Members of the Armed Forces receive training on LOAC shortly after joining and regularly throughout their careers. While military codes of conduct and rules of engagement make no specific reference to the Optional Protocol, prior to deployment on operations all Service personnel receive training in the application of LOAC appropriate to the theatre and nature of the operation on which they are to deploy. 
United Kingdom, Written replies from the Government of the United Kingdom to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of the United Kingdom under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 4 September 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GBR/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 1 September 2008, § 23.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2009, in response to a question by a Member of the House of Commons, the UK Secretary of State for Defence wrote:
All members of the armed forces receive training on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) shortly after joining and regularly throughout their careers. The UK armed forces do not routinely train all personnel on the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] specifically, but personnel involved in handling prisoners of war, internees and detainees receive training which addresses the handling of juveniles and children. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written Statement by the Secretary of State for Defence, Hansard, 13 October 2009, Vol. 497, Written Statements, col. 795W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2009, in response to a question in the House of Commons, the UK Secretary of State for Defence wrote:
Aspects of the [1949] Geneva Convention are applied throughout military training and will be bolstered before deployment to an operational theatre by further mandatory training, common across all the Services. Irrespective of the theatre to which a person is deploying, specific training based on the Geneva Convention as applied to UK law must be fulfilled. This training includes: compliance with operational law, such as the legal basis for operations, the law of armed conflict, the application of the rules of engagement, the use of force, prisoner handling, understanding the powers of stop and search and the powers of arrest; culture and language training, including cultural awareness; firepower training, including identifying and engaging targets and reacting to fire control orders; and protection training, including procedures for challenging and reaction to direct and indirect attack.
All deployed personnel are issued a rules of engagement card, which specifies exactly the aspects of the law that allows them to conduct operations and react to hostile action.
Role specific training that covers the pertinent application of the Geneva Convention is also undertaken. For example, dedicated prisoner handling teams and medics are briefed in depth of their responsibilities that may be in addition to those usually held. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written Statement by the Secretary of State for Defence, Hansard, 2 December 2009, Vol. 501, Written Statements, col. 727W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2010, in its closing submissions to the public inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the death of Baha Mousa and the treatment of those detained with him by UK armed forces in Iraq in 2003, the UK Ministry of Defence stated:
12. The treaties setting out rules of IHL are supplemented by rules of customary international law (CIL), i.e. rules which are recognized as binding by States, even though they do not appear in treaty texts. … [I]n relation to the rules described below the Government accepts that they reflect CIL. It is suggested that the rules which are of most relevance to this inquiry are:
12.22. … States and parties to the conflict must provide instruction in international humanitarian law to their armed forces. 
United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence, Closing Submissions to the Baha Mousa Public Inquiry on Modules 1–3, 25 June 2010, §§ 12 and 12.22, pp. 28 and 32.
[emphasis in original]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2010, in a written answer to a question in the House of Commons about the IHL training of armed forces personnel deployed to areas of conflict, the UK Secretary of State for Defence stated:
In addition to annual Law of Armed Conflict training, all Service personnel are required to complete mandatory pre-deployment training. An element of these training activities is specific to the rules of engagement for a given location and the requirements and responsibilities for compliance with the [1949] Geneva Conventions and their additional protocols. Service personnel will not be deployed to an area of conflict without knowing how they may engage an enemy and what international laws their actions are subject to. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written Answer by the Secretary of State for Defence, Hansard, 8 September 2010, Vol. 515, Written Answers, cols. 538W–539W.
United States of America
The 1979 version of the US Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program stated: “The Armed Forces of the U.S. shall institute and implement programs to prevent violations of the law of war to include training and dissemination, as required, by the Geneva Conventions.” 
United States, Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program No. 5100.77, 10 July 1979, p. 2, Section E(1)(b).
United States of America
In 1987, a Deputy Legal Adviser of the US Department of State, referring to Articles 80–85 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, affirmed: “We support the principle that their study be included in programs of military instruction.” 
United States, Remarks of Michael J. Matheson, Deputy Legal Adviser, US Department of State, The Sixth Annual American Red Cross-Washington College of Law Conference on International Humanitarian Law: A Workshop on Customary International Law and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, American Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 2, 1987, p. 428.
United States of America
In 1991, in response to an ICRC memorandum on the applicability of IHL in the Gulf region, the US Department of the Army stated: “The U.S. strongly supports [dissemination of IHL]. DoD Directive 5100.77, in implementation of U.S. law of war obligations, requires that all military personnel receive law of war training commensurate with their duties and responsibilities.” 
United States, Letter from the Department of the Army to the legal adviser of the US Army forces deployed in the Gulf region, 11 January 1991, § 8(S), Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
United States of America
The 1998 version of the US Department of Defense (DoD) Directive on the Law of War Program, reissuing the one of 1979 and aiming “to ensure DoD compliance with the law of war obligations of the United States”, provided:
The Heads of the DoD Components shall: … institute and implement effective programs to prevent violations of the law of war, including law of war training and dissemination, as required by [the 1907 Hague Convention (IV) and the 1949 Geneva Conventions]. 
United States, Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program No. 5100.77, 9 December 1998, Section 5(3)(2).
United States of America
In May 2004, Major General Antonio M. Taguba completed his report of an investigation, ordered by the Commander Coalition Forces Land Component Command, into allegations of detainee abuse and maltreatment by members of the 800th Military Police Brigade at Abu Ghraib Prison (Baghdad Central Confinement Facility (BCCF)). In part, the report recommended:
That all military police and military intelligence personnel involved in any aspect of detainee operations or interrogation operations in CJTF-7 [Commander, Combined Joint Task Force Seven], and subordinate units, be immediately provided with training by an international/operational law attorney on the specific provisions of The Law of Land Warfare FM 27-10, specifically the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Enemy Prisoners of War, Retained Personnel, Civilian Internees, and Other Detainees, and AR 190-8 [Enemy Prisoners of War, Retained Personnel, Civilian Internees, and Other Detainees].
That detention facility commanders and interrogation facility commanders ensure that appropriate copies of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War and notice of protections be made available in both English and the detainees’ language and be prominently displayed in all detention facilities. Detainees with questions regarding their treatment should be given the full opportunity to read the Convention.
Detention Rules of Engagement (DROE), Interrogation Rules of Engagement (IROE), and the principles of the Geneva Conventions need to be briefed at every shift change and guard mount.
The Geneva Conventions and the facility rules must be prominently displayed in English and the language of the detainees at each compound and encampment at every detention facility IAW [in accordance with] AR 190-8. 
United States, Department of Defense, Commander Coalition Forces Land Component Command, Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade (Taguba Report), May 2004.
United States of America
On 25 August 2004, the report of an investigation into allegations that members of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade had been involved in detainee abuse at the Abu Ghraib Detention Facility (an investigation ordered by the Commander, Combined Joint Task Force Seven (CJTF-7), and later supplemented with the appointment of an additional and more senior investigating officer by the Commander, US Army Materiel Command), was completed and forwarded to the ordering authorities. The report, authored by Lieutenant General Anthony R. Jones and Major General George R. Fay, found:
(12) Finding: Interrogator training in the Laws of Land Warfare and the Geneva Conventions is ineffective.
Explanation: The US Army Intelligence Center and follow on unit training provided interrogators with what appears to be adequate curriculum, practical exercises and man-hours in Law of Land Warfare and Geneva Conventions training. Soldiers at Abu Ghraib, however, remained uncertain about what interrogation procedures were authorized and what proper reporting procedures were required. This indicates that Initial Entry Training for interrogators was not sufficient or was not reinforced properly by additional unit training or leadership.
Recommendation: More training emphasis needs to be placed on Soldier and leader responsibilities concerning the identification and reporting of detainee abuse incidents or concerns up through the chain of command, or to other offices such as CID [Criminal Investigation Command], IG [Inspector General] or SJA [Staff Judge Advocate]. This training should not just address the rules, but address case studies from recent and past detainee and interrogation operations to address likely issues interrogators and their supervisors will encounter. Soldiers and leaders need to be taught to integrate Army values and ethical decision-making to deal with interrogation issues that are not clearly prohibited or allowed. Furthermore, it should be stressed that methods employed by US Army interrogators will represent US values.
(13) Finding: MI [Military Intelligence], MP [Military Police], and Medical Corps personnel observed and failed to report instances of Abuse at Abu Ghraib. Likewise, several reports indicated that capturing units did not always treat detainees IAW [in accordance with]the Geneva Convention.
Recommendation: DoD [Department of Defense] should improve training provided to all personnel in Geneva Conventions, detainee operations, and the responsibilities of reporting detainee abuse. 
United States, Department of Defense, AR 15-6 Investigation of the Abu Ghraib Prison and 205th Military Intelligence Brigade (The Fay Report), 25 August 2004.
United States of America
In December 2004, in a response to a communication from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights regarding the detention and treatment of detainees held at the US naval base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the United States stated:
[P]ersonnel assigned to Guantanamo go through an extensive professional and sensitivity training process to ensure they understand the procedures for protecting the rights and dignity of detainees at Guantanamo:
Personnel mobilizing for duty at Guantanamo receive training prior to deployment on detention facility operations, self-defense, safety, and rules on the use of force. Before beginning work at the facility, personnel again receive training on the Law of Armed Conflict, the rules of engagement, the standard operating procedures, and military justice.
During their tour they continue to receive briefings, and before every detainee movement they are briefed again on the rules of engagement and rules on the use of force. 
United States, Department of State, Submission to Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Regarding Detention and Treatment of Detainees, 16 December 2004.
United States of America
In 2005, in its second periodic report to the Committee Against Torture, the United States stated:
90. Personnel assigned to detention operations go through an extensive professional and sensitivity training process to ensure they understand the procedures for protecting the rights and dignity of detainees.
- Personnel mobilizing to detention operations receive training prior to deployment on detention facility operations, self-defense, safety, and rules on the use of force. Before beginning work, personnel again receive training on the law of armed conflict, the rules of engagement, the Standard Operating Procedures, military justice, and specific policies applying to detention operations in their area of responsibility. This is true of all service members deploying to serve in detention operations. All U.S. service members receive general training on the law of armed conflict, including the [1949] Geneva Conventions, as well as further law of armed conflict training commensurate with their duties.
122. U.S. Armed Forces receive significant training before being deployed and during their deployment. The United States incorporates by reference that section and reiterates that all employees and Armed Forces deployed in detention missions receive extensive training and education on the laws and customs of armed conflict, including humane treatment procedures and the obligations of the United States in conducting detention operations. With respect to Iraq, U.S. Armed Forces serving as interrogators and detention personnel are also trained to conduct themselves in accordance with the principles (including the prohibition on torture) set forth in the Geneva Conventions and to treat detainees humanely regardless of status. 
United States, Second periodic report to the Committee Against Torture, 13 January 2006, UN Doc. CAT/C/48/Add.3/Rev.1, submitted 6 May 2005, Annex 1, pp.70 and 81, §§ 90 and 122.
United States of America
In 2007, in its comments on the Human Rights Committee’s concluding observations on its second and third periodic reports, the United States stated in response to a recommendation concerning the provision of adequate training and guidance to personnel following allegations of suspicious deaths, torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment inflicted by US personnel on detainees:
[T]he United States takes proactive measures not only to punish perpetrators of abuse but to train its personnel to prevent such acts, in particular by providing adequate training and clear guidance to its personnel (including commanders) and contract employees, about their respective obligations and responsibilities. Education programs and information for military personnel (including contractors) that are involved in the custody, interrogation or treatment of individuals in detention include extensive training on the law of war. This training is provided on an annual basis (or more frequently, as appropriate) for the members of every military service and every person, including contractors, who works with detainees. This training on the law of war includes instruction on the prohibition against torture and the requirement of humane treatment. 
United States, Comments by the government on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee, 12 February 2008, UN Doc. CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1/Add.1, submitted 1 November 2007, p. 7.
Uruguay
In a decree issued in 1992, the Government of Uruguay entrusted the administration of IHL courses, in coordination with the National Committee on Humanitarian Law of the Ministry of National Defence, to the country’s main military academy, Instituto Militar de Estudios Superiores, and in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to the Instituto Artigas de Relaciones Exteriores – Escuela Diplomática. 
Uruguay, Executive Decree No. 678 del PEN, Cométesa la instrumentación de Cursos en coordinación con la Comisión Nacional de Derecho Humanitario, 24 November 1992, Diario Oficial, 1 March 1993, pp. 498-A and 499-A.
Courses on the law of war and public international law (including the law of armed conflict) are taught at the Instituto Militar de Estudios Superiores (courses for first-year students in the programme that trains officers), at the Escuela de Armas y Servicios (training and finishing programme for officers) and at the Escuela Militar (courses for future officers). 
Uruguay, Instituto Militar de Estudios Superiores, Law of War Syllabus; Escuela de Armas y Servicios del Ejército, Public International Law Syllabus; Escuela Militar, Public International Law Syllabus, Report on the Practice of Uruguay, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
IHL instruction is also included in the law programme of the Escuela de Policía. 
Uruguay, Escuela de Policía Juan Carlos Gómez Folle, Human Rights Syllabus, Report on the Practice of Uruguay, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
Uzbekistan
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uzbekistan stated:
Uzbekistan will continue to work together with the ICRC and other international organizations with a view to keeping … State employees, including servicemen, informed about issues relating to international humanitarian law and the study of the [1989] Convention of the Rights of the Child and its [2000] Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 238.
Venezuela
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Venezuela stated:
F. Article 6
1. Application and enforcement of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict]
105. As for the duty of the State to apply and ensure the effective implementation of the Optional Protocol, article 4 of the Organic Act on Child Protection establishes a binding obligation for the State to take all necessary administrative, legislative, judicial or other measures to that end. The National System for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents was created for that purpose.
106. To fulfil its obligation to disseminate the Optional Protocol, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela created the Autonomous Institute and National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents as part of the National System for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents. The Institute is responsible for advocating and raising awareness about the rights, guarantees and duties of children and adolescents, as well as representing their interests and concerns before the other agencies and stakeholders in the system.
107. The Optional Protocol is in full effect in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and is applied by all State institutions, especially the Ministry of Defence, the staff of which has been briefed on the Optional Protocol under review and has participated in its dissemination, through activities carried out across the country by every branch of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. Full compliance with every article has thus been ensured.
108. The Venezuelan State, acting through the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its Office of the State Representative for Human Rights and the Ministry of Communes and Social Protection and its subsidiary agency, the Autonomous Institute and National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents, reiterates its commitment to disseminating the Optional Protocol among the general public and the country’s military and police forces. 
Venezuela, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 12 September 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/VEN/1, submitted 5 July 2011, §§ 105–108.
Venezuela
In 2012, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, Venezuela stated:
With regard to the military, article 134 of the Decree with the scope, effect and force of the Bolivarian Armed Forces Organization Act states that the Ministry of People’s Power for Defence is the body responsible for the human rights and international humanitarian law aspects of defence and sets out the necessary organizational and regulatory structure for the promotion, supervision and protection of such rights by means of the adoption of the appropriate policies and doctrines. Thus the National Guard Officers’ Training School has a mandatory department of human rights and international humanitarian law, thus ensuring that members of the national armed forces comply with human rights in all their official actions. A total of 185 officials, including senior and junior officers, non-commissioned officers, professional soldiers and civilian staff have undergone training within the department. 
Venezuela, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 12 February 2013, UN Doc. CAT/C/VEN/3-4, submitted 11 September 2012, § 131.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Venezuela
In 2012, in its fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Venezuela stated:
Article 134 of the Decree having the Status, Value and Force of an Organic Act on the Bolivarian Armed Forces states that the Ministry of Defence will lead the defence sector in matters of human rights and international humanitarian law and establishes the organizational and regulatory structure required for the promotion, monitoring and defence of those rights through the adoption of policies and rules. The National Guard Training Institute thus runs a compulsory course on human rights and international humanitarian law, thereby ensuring that members of the National Armed Forces comply with human rights standards in the performance of all their professional duties. In 2011, 185 members of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces attended this course, including senior officers, junior officers, non-commissioned officers, professional soldiers and non-military personnel. 
Venezuela, Fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 29 April 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/VEN/4, submitted 18 December 2012, § 96.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of
In an Order of 1988, on the basis of which the Military Manual was issued, the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia stated:
Regular training of all personnel of the armed forces should be organized with the aim of learning the rules of international humanitarian law.
Plans for exercises, manoeuvres and other activities of the armed forces, the objective of which is to prepare them for combat action, should include activities and behaviour related to the implementation of rules of international humanitarian law. 
Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of, Presidency, Order on the implementation of the rules of international humanitarian law in the armed forces of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 13 April 1988, § 4.
Zaire
According to an academic report on the implementation of IHL in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1996, officers of the armed forces of Zaire were trained in IHL within the framework of the training programme established in military training centres and schools or in seminars. Security seminars had also been provided by the Forces Armées Zaïroises (FAZ) for officers who operated in refugee camps. 
Mavungu Mvumbi-di-Ngoma, Report on the Promotion and Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in the Republic of Zaire, September 1996, p. 20.
Zimbabwe
A ministerial directive of Zimbabwe requires the inclusion of IHL in all the Zimbabwean armed forces’ training courses. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 2001 Annual Report, Geneva, 2002, p. 137.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on refugee camps in Africa, the UN Security Council:
8. Requests the UN Secretary-General to respond, as appropriate, to requests from African States, the OAU and subregional organizations for advice and technical assistance in the implementation of international refugee, human rights and humanitarian law relevant to the present resolution, including through appropriate training programmes and seminars.
10. Encourages the Secretary-General and Member States involved in efforts to enhance Africa’s peacekeeping capacity to continue to ensure that training gives due emphasis to international refugee, human rights and humanitarian law and in particular to the security of refugees and the maintenance of the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1208, 19 November 1998, §§ 8 and 10, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Underlining the importance of the widest possible dissemination of international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law and of relevant training for, inter alia, civilian police, armed forces, members of the judicial and legal professions, civil society and personnel of international and regional organizations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1265, 17 September 1999, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council:
Reiterates the importance … of providing appropriate training in [IHL], including child and gender-related provisions, … to personnel involved in peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace-building activities, requests the Secretary-General to disseminate appropriate guidance and to ensure that such United Nations personnel have the appropriate training, and urges relevant Member States, as necessary and feasible, to disseminate appropriate instructions and to ensure that appropriate training is included in their programmes for personnel involved in similar activities. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1296, 19 April 2000, § 19, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Decides that MONUC will have the mandate, within the limits of its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, to assist the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in establishing a stable security environment in the country, and, to that end, to:
(o) Provide in the short term basic training, including in the area of human rights, international humanitarian law, child protection and the prevention of gender-based violence, to various members and units of the FARDC integrated brigades deployed in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1756, 15 May 2007, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1971 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
6. Further calls upon all States to disseminate widely information and to provide instruction concerning human rights in armed conflicts …
7. Requests the Secretary-General to encourage the study and teaching of principles of respect for human rights applicable in armed conflicts by the means at his disposal. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 2852 (XXVI), 20 December 1971, §§ 6–7, voting record: 110-1-5-16.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1972 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
2. Calls upon all parties to armed conflicts to observe the international humanitarian rules which are applicable, in particular the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the Geneva [Gas] Protocol of 1925 and the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and, to this end, to provide instruction concerning these rules to their armed forces …
3. Requests the UN Secretary-General to encourage the study and teaching of principles of respect for international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 3032 (XXVII), 18 December 1972, §§ 2–3, voting record: 103-0-25-4.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1973 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
5. Urges that instruction concerning [international humanitarian] rules be provided to armed forces … with a view to securing their strict observance;
6. Requests again the UN Secretary-General to encourage the study and teaching of principles of international humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 3102 (XXVIII), 12 December 1973, §§ 5–6, voting record: 107-0-6-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1975 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
Calls the attention of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts, and of the Governments and organizations participating in it, to the need for measures to promote on a universal basis the dissemination of and instruction in the rules of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 3500 (XXX), 15 December 1975, § 2, adopted without a vote; see also Res. 31/19, 24 November 1976, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1977 on respect for human rights in armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly called upon all States “to take effective steps for the dissemination of humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 32/44, 8 December 1977, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, the UN General Assembly urged States “to take steps to incorporate the provisions of international law applicable to the protection of the environment into their military manuals and to ensure that they are effectively disseminated”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 47/37, 25 November 1992, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the United Nations Decade of International Law, the UN General Assembly, referring to the 1994 Guidelines on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict:
Invites all States to disseminate widely the revised guidelines for military manuals and instructions on the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict received from the International Committee of the Red Cross and to give due consideration to the possibility of incorporating them into their military manuals and other instructions addressed to their military personnel. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/50, 9 December 1994, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
Stressing further the need to consolidate the existing body of international humanitarian law through its universal acceptance and the need for wide dissemination and full implementation of such law at the national level, and expressing concern about all violations of the Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols,
Noting with satisfaction the increasing number of national commissions and other bodies involved in advising authorities at the national level on the implementation, dissemination and development of international humanitarian law,
Noting with appreciation the meetings of representatives of those bodies organized by the International Committee of the Red Cross to facilitate the sharing of concrete experience and the exchange of views on their roles and on the challenges they face,
5. Calls upon all States parties to the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions to ensure their wide dissemination and full implementation;
6. Notes with appreciation the Declaration and Agenda for Humanitarian Action adopted by the Twenty-eighth International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which noted that all States must take national measures to implement international humanitarian law, including training of the armed forces and making this law known among the general public, as well as the adoption of legislation to punish war crimes in accordance with their international obligations;
9. Also welcomes the increasing number of national commissions or committees for the implementation of international humanitarian law and for promoting the incorporation of treaties on international humanitarian law into national law and disseminating the rules of international humanitarian law;
11. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-first session a report on the status of the Additional Protocols relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, as well as on measures taken to strengthen the existing body of international humanitarian law, inter alia, with respect to its dissemination and full implementation at the national level, based on information received from Member States and the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/36, 2 December 2004, preamble, §§ 5–6, 9 and 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN General Assembly:
Encourages Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to organize training programmes and to support projects with a view to training or educating military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials in human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work and to include a gender perspective in such training, and appeals to the international community and requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to support endeavours to that end. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/197, 20 December 2004, § 9, voting record: 142-0-43-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, the UN General Assembly:
Stressing further the need to consolidate the existing body of international humanitarian law through its universal acceptance and the need for wide dissemination and full implementation of such law at the national level, and expressing concern about all violations of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols,
Noting with satisfaction the increasing number of national commissions and other bodies involved in advising authorities at the national level on the implementation, dissemination and development of international humanitarian law,
Noting with appreciation the continuing efforts of the International Committee of the Red Cross to promote and disseminate knowledge of international humanitarian law, in particular the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols,
Calling upon Member States to disseminate knowledge of international humanitarian law as widely as possible, and calling upon all parties to armed conflict to apply international humanitarian law,
5. Calls upon all States parties to the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions to ensure their wide dissemination and full implementation;
6. Notes with appreciation the Declaration and Agenda for Humanitarian Action adopted by the Twenty-eighth International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, which noted that all States must take national measures to implement international humanitarian law, including training of the armed forces and making this law known among the general public, as well as the adoption of legislation to punish war crimes in accordance with their international obligations;
9. Also welcomes the increasing number of national commissions or committees for the implementation of international humanitarian law and for promoting the incorporation of treaties on international humanitarian law into national law and disseminating the rules of international humanitarian law;
11. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-third session a report on the status of the Additional Protocols relating to the protection of victims of armed conflicts, as well as on measures taken to strengthen the existing body of international humanitarian law, inter alia, with respect to its dissemination and full implementation at the national level, based on information received from Member States and the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/30, 4 December 2006, preamble and §§ 5–6, 9 and 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN General Assembly:
Encourages Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to organize training programmes and to support projects with a view to training or educating military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials in human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work and to include a gender and child rights perspective in such training, and appeals to the international community and requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to support endeavours to that end. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/173, 19 December 2006, § 8, voting record: 137-0-43-12.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1987, the UN Commission on Human Rights invited the Government of Sri Lanka to “intensify its co-operation with the International Committee of the Red Cross in the fields of dissemination and promotion of international humanitarian law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1987/61, 12 March 1987, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN Commission on Human Rights encouraged the Government of Guatemala to include in the curricula and training programmes for personnel of the armed forces and security forces the international commitments of Guatemala in the field of human rights. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/58, 4 March 1994, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Welcomes the first measures taken by the Government of Myanmar to provide for the training of military personnel in international humanitarian law and requests it to intensify its efforts in that regard and to extend them to police and prison personnel. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/85, 9 March 1994, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Welcomes the first measures taken by the Government of Myanmar to provide for the training of military personnel in international humanitarian law, and requests it to intensify its efforts in that regard and to extend them to police and prison personnel.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/72, 8 March 1995, § 22, adopted without a vote
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Welcomes the first measures taken by the Government of Myanmar to provide for the training of military personnel in international humanitarian law, and requests it to intensify its efforts in that regard and to extend them to police and prison personnel. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/80, 23 April 1996, § 20, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages Governments, United Nations bodies and organs, the specialized agencies and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, to initiate, coordinate or support programmes designed to train and educate military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials, as well as members of the United Nations peace-keeping or observer missions, on human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work, and appeals to the international community to support endeavours to that end. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/73, 8 March 1995, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the situation in Chechnya, the UN Commission on Human Rights requested that the Russian Government “disseminate, and ensure that the military at all levels has a knowledge of basic principles of human rights and international humanitarian law”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2000/58, 25 April 2000, § 5, voting record: 25-7-19.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission Human Rights:
Encourages States, United Nations organs and bodies, the specialized agencies and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, to initiate, coordinate or support programmes designed to train and educate military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials, as well as members of United Nations peacekeeping or observer missions, on human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work, and appeals to the international community to support endeavours to that end. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/53, 24 April 2003, § 9, voting record: 37-0-16.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages States, United Nations organs and bodies, specialized agencies, funds and programmes and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, as appropriate within their respective mandates, to initiate, coordinate or support programmes designed to train and educate military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials, as well as members of United Nations peacekeeping or observer missions, on human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work, and appeals to the international community to support endeavours to that end. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/37, 19 April 2004, § 10, voting record: 39-0-12.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all States … to ensure, through education, training and other measures, that police, law enforcement officials, armed forces and other government officials act with restraint and in conformity with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and to include a gender perspective in such measures. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/34, 19 April 2005, § 7, voting record: 36-0-17.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
14. Emphasizes that States must ensure education and training for personnel who may be involved in the custody, interrogation or treatment of any individual subjected to any form of arrest, detention or imprisonment, and calls upon the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in conformity with the mandate established in General Assembly resolution 48/141 of 20 December 1993, to provide, at the request of Governments, advisory services in this regard, as well as technical assistance in the development, production and distribution of appropriate teaching material for this purpose;
15. Invites donor countries, recipient countries and relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes, in particular the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, to consider, where appropriate, including in their respective bilateral programmes and technical cooperation projects relating to the training of relevant personnel, inter alia armed forces, security forces, border guards, prison and police personnel and health-care personnel, matters relating to the protection of human rights, including the prevention of torture, while bearing in mind a gender perspective. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/39, 19 April 2005, §§ 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1989 on human rights in times of armed conflict, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights recommended that the UN Commission on Human Rights adopt a resolution calling upon all governments “to give particular attention to the education of all members of security and other armed forces, and all law enforcement agencies, in the international law of human rights and of humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1989/24, 31 August 1989, § 1.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on respect for humanitarian and human rights law provisions in United Nations peacekeeping operations, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights requested “the Secretary-General to disseminate the Guidelines for United Nations Forces Regarding Respect for International Humanitarian Law of 1996 drafted by the United Nations in consultation with the International Committee of the Red Cross”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1997/34, 28 August 1997, § 3.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on systematic rape, sexual slavery and slavery-like practices, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights called upon States to make possible respect for their obligations in situations of conflict by, inter alia, “[a]dopting suitable instructions for and training of their armed forces so that they know that all forms of sexual violence and sexual slavery are criminal and will be prosecuted”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1999/16, 26 August 1999, § 11(a).
UN Secretary-General
In 1999, in a report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Secretary-General, referring, inter alia, to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols, stated:
In order to promote a “climate of compliance”, Member States should take advantage of the technical services of United Nations bodies and other appropriate organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, … to develop strong national institutions charged with the dissemination, monitoring and enforcement of these instruments and to establish systematic training programmes for armed forces and police in international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, including child rights and gender related provisions. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, UN Doc. S/1999/957, 8 September 1999, § 36.
The Secretary-General recommended that the UN Security Council:
underscore the importance of compliance with international humanitarian and human rights law in the conduct of all peacekeeping operations by urging that Member States disseminate instructions among their personnel serving in United Nations peacekeeping operations and among those participating in authorized operations conducted under national or regional command and control. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, UN Doc. S/1999/957, 8 September 1999, § 61, Recommendation 30.
UN Secretary-General
In 1999, in a report on the United Nations Decade of International Law, the UN Secretary-General stated:
The guidelines for United Nations forces regarding respect for international humanitarian law proposed by ICRC contain fundamental principles of humanitarian law and, as such, constitute a very good training tool for forces engaged in peacekeeping and enforcement missions. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the United Nations Decade of International Law, UN Doc. A/54/362, 21 September 1999, § 48.
UN Secretary-General
In 2001, in a report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Secretary-General urged Member States and donors “to support efforts to disseminate information on international humanitarian and human rights law to armed groups and initiatives to enhance their practical understanding of the implications of those rules”. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, UN Doc. S/2001/331, 30 March 2001, Recommendation 10.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1997, in a report on the question of human rights in Myanmar, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights recommended that in Myanmar:
military and law enforcement personnel, including prison guards, should be thoroughly informed and trained as to their responsibilities towards all persons in full accord with international human rights norms and humanitarian law. Such standards should be incorporated into Myanmar law, including the new constitution to be drafted.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/64, 6 February 1997, § 108, Recommendation 17.
A similar recommendation had already been made in 1996. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/65, 5 February 1996, § 180, Recommendation (o).
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Representative)
In 2000, in a report on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the Special Representative of the UN Commission on Human Rights stated:
The Prosecutor [of Rwanda] has held seminars for officers on the promotion of humanitarian law and human rights with the help of the ICRC. He would like to hold more, but is constrained by a lack of funds. His office also publishes a monthly bulletin, Military Justice Gazette, six issues of which had appeared by June 2000 with all Articles in three languages … These important initiatives help to ensure the accountability of the armed forces. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Representative on the Situation of Human Rights in Rwanda, Report, UN Doc. A/55/269, 4 August 2000, Annex, § 155.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
In 1996, in a report entitled “Making human rights a reality”, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights reported that in 1995 the UN Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda (HRFOR) set up several programmes of dissemination, such as a consulting service for the administration of justice, human rights seminars and training in human rights and IHL for military and police forces. 
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report entitled “Making human rights a reality”, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/103, 18 March 1996, §§ 125–137.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1982, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly stressed: “Past experience in armed conflict has established the need for the Geneva Conventions and the two protocols to be disseminated as widely as possible in the armed forces.” It recommended that the Committee of Ministers invite the governments of member States “to ensure that international humanitarian law becomes known by disseminating and teaching the Geneva Conventions … and their protocols among the armed forces”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 945, 2 July 1982, §§ 10 and 11(b).
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1989, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly stressed “the importance, as laid down in the Geneva Conventions, of making known as widely as possible, within states involved in conflict and most notably in their armed forces, the basic provisions and fundamental principles of international humanitarian law”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 921, 6 July 1989, § 18.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1996, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly invited governments to “promote the dissemination of international humanitarian law in their own countries, particularly among the armed forces and police”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 1085, 24 April 1996, § 8(h).
Council of Europe Summit of Heads of State and Government
The Final Declaration of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe in 1997 recalled “the protection due to victims of conflicts, as well as the importance of the respect for humanitarian international law and the knowledge of its rules at national level, in particular among the armed forces and the police”. 
Council of Europe, Second Summit of Heads of State and Government, Strasbourg, 10–11 October 1997, Final Declaration.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1999 on respect for IHL in Europe, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly affirmed that States were responsible for disseminating the principles of IHL. It further pointed out: “Those which have not yet done so should establish national interministerial commissions responsible for monitoring and implementing international humanitarian law, a task in which they are ably assisted by the ICRC.” The Assembly recommended that the Committee of Ministers “invite the governments of the member states … to increase resources devoted to the dissemination of the principles of international humanitarian law, particularly among the armed forces, police and prison staff”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1427, 23 September 1999, §§ 4 and 8.
First OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
The First OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1994, concluded:
1. It is necessary to make an important effort in order to provide NGO’s and soldiers in the armed forces of OAU Member States with appropriate teaching, many countries having already integrated the teaching of IHL in their programmes at officers level. This effort should not await the outbreak of hostilities.
2. There is need to ensure that the teaching of IHL is extended to all combatants, including the guerilla movements. 
OAU/ICRC, First Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, Addis Ababa, 7 April 1994, Conclusions and Recommendations, §§ 1 and 2.
The OAU Council of Ministers took note of the recommendations of the seminar. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1526 (LX), 11 June 1994, § 1.
OAU Conference of African Ministers of Health
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the OAU Conference of African Ministers of Health called upon member States “to implement the educational and information programmes intended to popularize the International Humanitarian Law and the specific problems of armed conflicts”. 
OAU, Conference of African Ministers of Health, 26–28 April 1995, Res. 14 (V), § 5.
OAU Council of Ministers
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on refugees, returnees and displaced persons, the OAU Council of Ministers urged member States “to uphold principles of good governance and promote the teaching and dissemination of International Humanitarian Law”. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, 21–23 June 1995, Res. 1588 (LXII), § 9.
Third OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
The Third OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1996, recommended “compilations, study and application of African traditional humanitarian norms especially through education and the adoption of legislations at national level” and “translation and popularization of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols into local languages”. 
OAU/ICRC, Third Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, Addis Ababa, 2–3 May 1996, Recommendations, § 1(e) and (f).
The OAU Council of Ministers took note of the recommendations of the seminar. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, 1–5 July 1996, Res. 1662 (LXIV), § 1.
Fourth OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
In the recommendations of the Fourth OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1997, the participants reiterated
the need for the teaching of International Humanitarian Law and its wide dissemination more especially as the principles which subtended that IHL were the same as those which constitute the basis of the values of the African societies. In this connection, the need for a sustained action for the youths and culture of peace was unanimously stressed. The “culture of peace” and the dissemination of the IHL should be carried out. 
OAU/ICRC, Fourth Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, Addis Ababa, 29–30 April 1997, Recommendations, § 1.
Fifth OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU
In the recommendations of the Fifth OAU/ICRC Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, held in 1998, the participants
stressed the need for the teaching of International Humanitarian Law, for its widespread dissemination and implementation, notably since this could facilitate conflict prevention. Special emphasis was placed on the need to promote education at all levels taking due account of traditional African humanitarian norms and values. 
OAU/ICRC, Fifth Seminar on IHL for Diplomats Accredited to the OAU, 30–31 March 1998, Recommendations, § 2.
Organization of African Unity
In 1999, speaking on behalf of the OAU during a UN Security Council debate on the distinction between combatants and non-combatants, Burkina Faso emphasized that the OAU, as a possible solution “to avoid the growing recurrence of violations of international humanitarian law”, had formulated, inter alia, “the need to teach, publicize and implement international humanitarian law”. 
OAU, Statement by Burkina Faso on behalf of the OAU before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3980 (Provisional), 22 February 1999, p. 6.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In 2001, the OSCE Supplementary Human Dimension Meeting recommended to the OSCE institutions and field operations: “training on humanitarian law and human rights should be organised”. 
OSCE, Supplementary Human Dimension Meeting, Human Rights: Advocacy and Defenders, Vienna, 22–23 October 2001, Final report, p. 8.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1887)
The 4th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1887 adopted a resolution on measures which have been or should be taken by the Societies in order to spread knowledge of the 1864 Geneva Convention in the army, in circles especially interested in its implementation and among the general public. The resolution stated:
It falls within the competence of Governments to spread knowledge of the [1864] Geneva Convention within the army. The Government must ensure that the Convention is taught to all military personnel, like all other military laws and rules … One of the best means of bringing the Convention to the knowledge of the army seems to be its reproduction in the service booklet of each soldier. 
4th International Conference of the Red Cross, Karlsruhe, 22–27 September 1887, Res. VIII.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1965)
The 20th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1965 adopted a resolution on the implementation and dissemination of the 1949 Geneva Conventions stating that it considered that the application of Article 47 of the Geneva Convention I, Article 48 of the Geneva Convention II, Article 127 of the Geneva Convention III and Article 144 of the Geneva Convention IV was “of the greatest importance in ensuring the observance of these Conventions” and that “it is essential that all members of the armed forces have adequate knowledge of the Geneva Conventions”. The Conference appealed “to all States parties to the Geneva Conventions to make increased efforts to disseminate and apply these Conventions, in particular by including the essential principles of the Conventions in the instruction given to officers and troops”. 
20th International Conference of the Red Cross, Vienna, 2–9 October 1965, Res. XXI.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1965)
The 20th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1965 adopted a resolution on application of the 1949 Geneva Conventions by the United Nations Emergency Forces in which it recommended that “the Governments of countries making contingents available to the United Nations give their troops – in view of the paramount importance of the question – adequate instruction in the Geneva Conventions before they leave the country of origin”. 
20th International Conference of the Red Cross, Vienna, 2–9 October 1965, Res. XXV, § 2.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1969)
The 21st International Conference of the Red Cross in 1969 adopted a resolution on dissemination of the 1949 Geneva Conventions in which it made reference to Resolution 2412 (XXIII) of 17 December 1968 by which the UN General Assembly had declared that 1970 would be “International Education Year”. The Conference expressed its hope that “the United Nations and in particular [UNESCO] will provide for events devoted to education and the dissemination of the Geneva Conventions during 1970” and requested “for that purpose, that a World Day be devoted to such events, with the use of the audio-visual aids made available by the most modern techniques”. 
21st International Conference of the Red Cross, Istanbul, 6–13 September 1969, Res. IX.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1973)
The 22nd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1973 adopted a resolution on the implementation and dissemination of the 1949 Geneva Conventions in which it called “upon governments and National Societies to intensify their efforts with a view … to imparting clear concepts regarding the Geneva Conventions to specialized spheres such as the armed forces”. It requested that the ICRC “support the efforts of governments and National Societies in their dissemination of and instruction in the Geneva Conventions”. 
22nd International Conference of the Red Cross, Tehran, 8–15 November 1973, Res. XII.
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
In a resolution adopted in 1977 on dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, the CDDH invited
the signatory States to take all appropriate measures to ensure that knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, and of the fundamental principles on which that law is based, is effectively disseminated, particularly by:
… encouraging the authorities concerned to plan and give effect, if necessary with the assistance and advice of the International Committee of the Red Cross, to arrangements to teach international humanitarian law, particularly to the armed forces and to appropriate administrative authorities, in a manner suited to national circumstances. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. I, CDDH/446, 7 June 1977, Res. 21, Dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts, Article 2(a).
The resolution was adopted by 63 votes in favour, 2 against and 21 abstentions. 
CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.55, 7 June 1977, § 48.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1977)
The 23rd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1977 adopted a resolution in which it noted with interest “the Red Cross Teaching Guide prepared jointly by the [ICRC] and the League of Red Cross Societies in consultation with National Societies, mainly for the use of school teachers” and urged “the appropriate authorities to support their respective National Society’s efforts to disseminate the Teaching Guide”. The Conference further called upon:
the League and the ICRC to help National Societies to make the Teaching Guide a success in particular by:
a. assisting with the training of persons responsible for disseminating the Teaching Guide in their respective countries,
b. co-operating with National Societies and with the competent authorities in adapting the Teaching Guide to the sections of the population to be reached. 
23rd International Conference of the Red Cross, Bucharest, 15–21 October 1977, Res. XVIII.
CSCE Helsinki Summit (1992)
In 1992, at the Helsinki Summit of the CSCE, the participating States committed themselves “to fulfilling their obligation to teach and disseminate information about their obligations under international humanitarian law”. 
CSCE, Helsinki Summit of Heads of State or Government, 9–10 July 1992, Helsinki Document 1992: The Challenges of Change, Decisions, Chapter VI: The Human Dimension, § 52.
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims
The Final Declaration adopted by the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in 1993 urged all States to make every effort to:
Organise the teaching of international humanitarian law in the public administrations responsible for its application and incorporate the fundamental rules in military training programmes, as well as military code books, handbooks and regulations, so that each combatant is aware of his or her obligation to observe and help enforce these rules. 
International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Geneva, 30 August–1 September 1993, Final Declaration, § II(2), ILM, Vol. 33, 1994, pp. 299–300.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In 1993, the 90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference adopted a resolution in which it called on governments “to promote awareness of international humanitarian law among the armed forces”. 
90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Canberra, 13–18 September 1993, Resolution on Respect for International Humanitarian Law and Support for Humanitarian Action in Armed Conflicts, § 2(d).
CSCE Budapest Summit (1994)
In 1994, at the Budapest Summit of Heads of State or Government, CSCE participating States committed themselves “to ensure adequate information and training within their military services with regard to the provisions of international humanitarian law” and considered, in this context, “that relevant information should be made available”. 
CSCE, Budapest Summit of Heads of State or Government, 5–6 December 1994, Budapest Document 1994: Towards a Genuine Partnership in a New Area, Decisions, Chapter VIII: The Human Dimension, § 34.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995)
The 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995 adopted a resolution on international humanitarian law in which it endorsed
the Final Declaration of the [1993] International Conference for the Protection of War Victims … [and] the recommendations drawn up by the Intergovernmental Group of Experts … which aim at translating the Final Declaration of the Conference into concrete and effective measures.
It also encouraged States and National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “to organize meetings, workshops and other activities on a regional basis to enhance the understanding and implementation of international humanitarian law”. 
26th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, Res. I, preamble and §§ 3, 4 and 6.
Celebrations of the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference
In 1999, the Report on the Outcome of the Celebrations of the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference, drafted on the basis of an expert meeting and the international conference entitled “Centennial of the Russian Initiative: from the First Peace Conference, 1899 – to the Third, 1999”, was presented to the UN General Assembly by the governments of the Netherlands and the Russian Federation. The report concluded:
Important practical steps which would contribute to enhancing compliance with international humanitarian law and which all states and other relevant entities should be encouraged to take included the following [in discussions during the meetings]:
1. Measures of education and training designed to ensure that the principles of international humanitarian law are widely understood and to create a “culture of compliance” with international law. 
Outcome of the Celebrations of the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference: Report on the Conclusions of the expert discussions on the three “Centennial themes”, The Hague, 18–19 May 1999 and St. Petersburg, 22–25 June 1999, annexed to Letter dated 10 September 1999 from the Netherlands and the Russian Federation to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/54/381, 21 September 1999.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent proposed that: “States examine their educational and training curricula to ensure that international humanitarian law is integrated in an appropriate manner in their programmes for armed and security forces.” 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.4, § 16.
Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention
The Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention in 2001 adopted a declaration calling upon “all parties, directly involved in the conflict [between Israel and Palestinians] or not, to … disseminate and take measures necessary for the prevention and suppression of breaches of the [1949 Geneva] Conventions”. 
Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention, Geneva, 5 December 2001, Declaration, § 4.
Second Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
In the Final Declaration of the Second Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 2001, the participants underlined “the importance of the High Contracting Parties’ obligation to disseminate this Convention and its annexed Protocols, and, in particular to include the content in their programmes of military instruction at all levels”. 
Second Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Geneva, 11–21 December 2001, Final Declaration, UN Doc. CCW/CONF.II/2, 25 January 2002, p. 15.
African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights stressed “the need for specific instruction of military personnel and the training of the forces of law and order in international humanitarian law and human and peoples’ rights respectively”. 
African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights, Addis Ababa, 1–10 December 1993, Res. 2 (XIV), § 2.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that:
274. The overall aim of law of war training is to ensure full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces, irrespective of their function, time, location and situation …
275. The law of war has to be included in the programmes for military instruction …
276. It is not possible to teach everything to everybody. The trainer must only teach what the trainees need to know for their function. Need to know comes before nice to know
277. Law of war problems shall be integrated into the normal exercise of military activities. Integrated training requires no time and no special material, but it does require the active participation of the trainees …
278. Combat reality requires automatic responses resulting in instinctively correct behaviour. Thus law of war training is part of the basic training …
279. Lectures, which leave the audience passive, should be delivered only as an introduction and given at times when trainees are receptive (e.g. not after training in the field or after lunch). 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, §§ 274–279.
[emphasis in original]
Delegates also teach that:
As commanders hold full responsibility for the respect of the law of war in their sphere of authority, they shall be trained so that they, in turn, can train their subordinates. Emphasis shall be put on conduct of combat and, as far as necessary, also on logistics and rear-area problems related to the law of war. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 288.
ICRC
In an appeal issued in 1979 with respect to the conflict in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, the ICRC appealed “to all the parties that they: … disseminate, or allow the ICRC to disseminate, to their armed forces the basic humanitarian rules for conduct of warfare”. 
ICRC, Conflict in Southern Africa: ICRC appeal, 19 March 1979, § 5, IRRC, No. 209, 1979, p. 88.
Council of Delegates (1987)
At its Rio de Janeiro Session in 1987, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on information and dissemination of IHL in which it encouraged National Societies
which have not already done so to appoint officers to disseminate international humanitarian law and the Fundamental Principles and to make approaches to the authorities with a view to setting up joint committees composed of representatives of the relevant ministries and National Societies.
The Council of Delegates also invited the entire Movement “to continue and expand its activities for the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law and the Fundamental Principles in various circles, … nationally, regionally and internationally”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Rio de Janeiro Session, 27 November 1987, Res. 4, §§ 1 and 2.
ICRC
In a Memorandum on the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law sent in 1990 to all States party to the Geneva Conventions in the context of the Gulf War, the ICRC stated:
It is extremely important for the members of the armed forces stationed in the Gulf to be aware of their obligations under international humanitarian law … The teaching of the law to the armed forces is, moreover, an obligation expressly stipulated by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols. 
ICRC, Memorandum on the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 14 December 1990, § IV, IRRC, No. 280, 1991, p. 25
ICRC
In an appeal issued in 1991 in the context of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the ICRC appealed to the parties in the former Yugoslavia “to ensure that combat units are aware of the humanitarian rules governing the conduct of hostilities and to facilitate ICRC efforts in that respect”. 
ICRC, Appeal in behalf of civilians in Yugoslavia, Geneva, 4 October 1991.
ICRC
In a press release issued in 1992 with respect to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the ICRC enjoined the parties involved in the conflict “to ensure that combat units are aware of the humanitarian rules governing the conduct of hostilities”. 
ICRC, Press Release No. 1705, Bosnia-Herzegovina: ICRC calls for protection of civilians, 10 April 1992.
ICRC
In 1993, in a report to the UN General Assembly on the protection of the environment in time of armed conflict, the ICRC stated:
45. The treaties of international humanitarian law provide various mechanisms … for implementing their substantive provisions. Among these mechanisms it is worth mentioning the following: … (c) the obligation of States to ensure that the provisions of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols are known as widely as possible.
51. Each State Party to the Geneva Conventions or to their Additional Protocols must ensure that the text of these treaties is disseminated as widely as possible throughout its territory in both peacetime and wartime. The States must, inter alia, incorporate study of the subject into their programmes of military … instruction. 
ICRC, Report on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict submitted to the 48th Session of the UN General Assembly, reprinted in Report of the UN Secretary-General on the protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, UN Doc. A/48/269, 29 July 1993, §§ 45 and 51.
Council of Delegates (1991)
At its Budapest Session in 1991, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on dissemination of international humanitarian law and of the principles and ideals of the Movement in which it stressed that “responsibility for the dissemination and teaching of international humanitarian law lies mainly with the States, by virtue of the obligations set out in the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their two Additional Protocols”. It also urged States “fully to discharge their treaty obligations so that international humanitarian law may be known, understood and respected at all times”. The Council of Delegates further reiterated its earlier recommendation that “National Societies appoint and train dissemination experts, and cooperate with their countries’ authorities, particularly within the framework of joint dissemination committees”.  
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Budapest Session, 28–30 November 1991, Res. 8, preamble and §§ 2 and 3.
Council of Delegates (1993)
At its Birmingham Session in 1993, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims in which it underlined “in particular the States’ determination: to disseminate systematically international humanitarian law, especially among the armed forces”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Birmingham Session, 29–30 October 1993, Res. 2, preamble.
Council of Delegates (1993)
At its Birmingham Session in 1993, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on armed protection of humanitarian assistance in which it appealed to “the United Nations and governments when employing military forces in order to ensure the implementation of United Nations Resolutions to employ military personnel which have as part of their training been properly educated in international humanitarian law”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Birmingham Session, 29–30 October 1993, Res. 5, § 1.
Council of Delegates (1993)
At its Birmingham Session in 1993, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on respect for and dissemination of the Fundamental Principles in which it requested “the National Societies, in cooperation with the ICRC and the Federation, to intensify and develop their activities to spread knowledge of the Fundamental Principles at the national, regional and international levels”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Birmingham Session, 29–30 October 1993, Res. 9, § 3.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, the ICRC stated:
The parties to the conflict must ensure that the members of their armed forces as well as all military and paramilitary forces acting under their responsibility are aware of their obligations under international humanitarian law. 
ICRC, Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, 8 June 1994, § V, IRRC, No. 320, 1997, p. 505.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise in the Great Lakes region, the ICRC stated: “The parties concerned must ensure that all the military and paramilitary forces and other militias for whose actions they are responsible are aware of their obligations under international humanitarian law.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Compliance with International Humanitarian Law by the Forces Participating in Opération Turquoise, Geneva, 23 June 1994, § V, reprinted in Marco Sassòli and Antoine A. Bouvier, How Does Law Protect in War?, ICRC, Geneva, 1999, p. 1309.
ICRC
In 2001, in Zimbabwe, the ICRC continued to contribute to the UN Military Observer Course at the Regional Peacekeeping Training Centre in Harare. 
ICRC, Advisory Service, 2001 Annual Report, Geneva, 2002, p. 137.
Institute of International Law
In a resolution adopted at its Zagreb Session in 1971, the Institute of International Law stated:
In order to secure effective compliance with the humanitarian rules of armed conflict by United Nations Forces, it is necessary that the individuals who may be called upon to participate in such Forces receive adequate and previous instruction on the law of armed conflict in its entirety, and especially on the meaning and the scope of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.
It is desirable that the United Nations, as well as those of its specialized agencies which are concerned with furthering education and health, take all steps within their power in order to co-ordinate the measures which the states parties to the Geneva Conventions have been invited to take in this field by the International Committee of the Red Cross. 
Institute of International Law, Zagreb Session, Resolution on Conditions of Application of Humanitarian Rules of Armed Conflict to Hostilities in Which United Nations Forces May Be Engaged, 3 September 1971, Article 4.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
According to the Report on SPLM/A Practice, following a national convention of the SPLM/A in 1994, at which resolutions calling for a human rights awareness campaign were adopted, a campaign led by local NGOs to disseminate principles of IHL was launched. 
Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 6.6.
Institute of International Law
In a resolution adopted at its Berlin Session in 1999, the Institute of International Law stated: “All States and non-State entities must disseminate the principles and rules of humanitarian law and fundamental human rights which are applicable in internal armed conflicts.” 
Institute of International Law, Berlin Session, Resolution on the Application of International Humanitarian Law and Fundamental Human Rights in Armed Conflicts in which Non-State Entities are Parties, 25 August 1999, § XII.
International Institute of Humanitarian Law
In 1995, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, commenting on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, stated:
The importance of making known, disseminating and teaching these minimum humanitarian standards should be underlined. A clause on that subject could form a special article at the end of the declaration, which could read:
“The minimum humanitarian standards, defined in this Declaration, should be made known and disseminated to all the authorities concerned, and to individuals who may be potential victims”. 
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Comments on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards submitted to the UN Secretary-General, § 23, reprinted in Report of the UN Secretary-General prepared pursuant to Commission resolution 1995/29, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/80, 28 November 1995, p. 11.
Additional Protocol I
Article 87(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
In order to prevent and suppress breaches, High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall require that, commensurate with their level of responsibility, commanders ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the Conventions and this Protocol. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 87(2). Article 87 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR. 45, 30 May 1977, p. 307.
No data.
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) provides: “Military commanders of all Services and at all levels bear responsibility for ensuring that forces under their control comply with LOAC.” 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, § 1204.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “Military commanders of all Services and at all levels bear responsibility for ensuring that forces under their control comply with LOAC.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1304.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Training Manual (1994) states that one of the tasks of the legal adviser of the armed forces is to “supervise the organisation of instruction in subordinate units, and to ensure that the levels of understanding are obtained”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict Training, DI(G) OPS 33-1, 24 January 1994, § 17.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Military commanders of all Services and at all levels bear responsibility for ensuring that forces under their control comply with LOAC.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 13.6.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Belgium
Belgium’s LOAC Teaching Directive (1996) states:
Each commander is responsible for ensuring that the personnel placed under his authority have sufficient knowledge of their obligations [under the law of armed conflict] and that they have … received appropriate instruction and training. 
Belgium, Directive sur l’enseignement du droit des conflits armés et des règles d’engagement au sein des Forces Armées belges, Ordre Général J/185, Forces Armées, Etat-Major Général, Division Opérations, 8 February 1996, Section 1.
Belgium
Belgium’s Teaching Manual for Soldiers states: “Every soldier must know the essential rules of the law of war … and their meaning in order to be able to apply them. The command must ensure this knowledge by means of an appropriate instruction.” 
Belgium, Droit de la Guerre, Dossier d’Instruction pour Soldat, à l’attention des officiers instructeurs, JS3, Etat-Major Général, Forces Armées belges, undated, p. 1.
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) states:
Each military commander is responsible for respect for the law of war within his sphere of command. Within his unit, he is in particular responsible for the instruction of the law of war in order to induce his troops to adopt a behaviour in conformity with the law and above all vis-à-vis specifically protected persons and objects.
The manual adds: “The military commander must take all measures so that: the subordinates know their obligations arising from the law of war and respect them.” 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule II, pp. 14 and 15.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states: “The commander must … ensure that … his subordinates know their obligations under the law of war.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 43; see also Part I bis, pp. 66 and 97.
The Regulations further states: “It is the responsibility of the commander to incorporate the law of war into the various military training programmes.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 97; see also Part I bis, pp. 42, 66, 29, 49, 72 and 98, and Part I, p. vi.
The Regulations also states: “Since respect for the law of war is linked to discipline, the instruction of the law of war must be an integral part of military training.” 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 66.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (1975) states:
The military commander must incorporate in his programmes the legal problems that shall permit all members of the Armed Forces not only to realistically complete their knowledge of the international law of war, but also to solve, in time of peace, problems he will face in case of armed conflict. This instruction, in addition to military training, must be the object of instruction sessions in all military units and schools. 
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline dans les Forces Armées, Décret No. 75/700, 6 November 1975, Article 35.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) states: “In the Armed Forces, every Commander is responsible for the instruction of his soldiers and their behaviour in action.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 15, § 14.
The manual further states: “Instruction in the Law of War constitutes an essential part of the activity of commanding.” 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 133; see also p. 86, § 13.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that “instruction in the law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law … constitutes an essential part of the activity of the command”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 219, § 531; see also p. 285.
The manual also states:
In the Armed Forces, every commander is responsible for the instruction of his men …
For this reason, the laws of armed conflict and international humanitarian law provide a code of conduct for the Defence Forces; a guide on how to behave in combat. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 90, § 351.4; see also p. 175.
The manual adds:
It is important that future officers of the staff of military headquarters are trained in [ensuring that] … the formulation of orders and the conduct of armed operations are in accordance with the law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 255.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Disciplinary Regulations (2007) states:
Article 35. Responsibility and instruction
Within the framework of the rules of this chapter, the soldiers of the Cameroonian Defence Forces must make themselves thoroughly familiar with their responsibility as regards respect for international humanitarian law and the law of armed conflicts …
Thus, respect for the rules of international law must be a natural duty for the Cameroonian soldier. If, in a particular situation, he is in doubt as regards the rules of international law, he must ask his superior for a decision; if that is impossible to him, he acts in accordance with his conscience.
Consequently, the military command must incorporate in its programmes the legal problems that will permit all members of the Defence Forces not only to complete in a realistic way their knowledge in the area of the Law of Armed Conflicts and International Humanitarian Law, but also to solve, already in time of peace, problems of international law such as they will arise in the case of armed conflict. This instruction, complementary to military training, must be the object of instruction sessions in all units, instruction centres and military schools.  
Cameroon, Règlement de discipline générale dans les forces de défense, Décret N° 2007/199, Président de la République, 7 July 2007, Article 35.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides: “Commanders have a responsibility to ensure that forces under their command are aware of their responsibilities related to the LOAC and that they behave in a manner consistent with the LOAC.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 15-1, § 7.
The manual further notes: “In order to prevent and suppress breaches, commanders are responsible for ensuring that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the LOAC.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 16-7, § 50.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2001) states: “A military unit that obeys the Law of Armed Conflict is one that demonstrates discipline and leadership. This requires training. The responsibility for this training rests with leaders at all levels.” 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 4 June 2001, Introduction, § 15.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter entitled “Preventative and enforcement measures and the role of protecting powers”:
Commanders have a responsibility to ensure that forces under their command are aware of their responsibilities related to the LOAC and that they behave in a manner consistent with the LOAC. Commanders may be held personally and criminally liable in respect of illegal acts committed by those under their command, especially if they knew or should have known that such acts were being committed or were likely to be committed. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1504.
In its chapter on “War crimes, individual criminal liability and command responsibility”, the manual states: “In order to prevent and suppress breaches, commanders are responsible for ensuring that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the LOAC.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1621.2.
Canada
Canada’s Code of Conduct (2005) states:
15. A military unit that obeys the Law of Armed Conflict is one that demonstrates discipline and leadership. This requires training. The responsibility for this training rests with leaders at all levels.
The responsibility for training all members of the CF [Canadian Forces] on the Code of Conduct rests with leaders at all levels. Although the office of the Judge Advocate General is the office of primary interest (OPI) as the subject matter expert for the development of the Code of Conduct, the actual training of members of the CF must be organized and conducted through the chain of command. 
Canada, Code of Conduct for CF Personnel, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 2005, Introduction, § 15 and Lesson Plan, Introduction.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 2 (Instruction for group and patrol leaders):
INTRODUCTION
Each military commander is responsible for respect for the law of war within his sphere of command. Within his unit, he is in particular responsible for the instruction of the law of war in order to induce his troops to adopt a behaviour in conformity with the law and above all vis-à-vis specifically protected persons and objects.
II. RESPONSIBILITY OF INDIVIDUAL SOLDIERS
The law of war is about order and discipline. It must therefore be respected and applied under all circumstances.
Every military commander must therefore take all measures necessary to ensure that:
- his subordinates are familiar with their obligations under the law of war and respect them;
- measures to prevent violations of the law of war are disseminated.
III. INSTRUCTION IN THE LAW OF WAR
Every military commander is fully responsible for ensuring that the law of war is appropriately taught within his sphere of authority. This is an essential part of a military commander’s activity. 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 2: Formation pour l’obtention du certificat technique No. 2 (Chef de Groupe), du certificat Inter-Armé (CIA), du certificat d’aptitude de Chef de Patrouille (CACP), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter IV, Introduction–Section III.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
The troop commander … must ensure that … [h]is subordinates know their obligations under the law of war.
The main aim in teaching the law of war is to ensure full respect for the law of war by all members of the armed forces regardless of their rank, time, location or social status.
- This teaching must be incorporated into the military training programmes.
Each commander is fully responsible for ensuring that the law of war is appropriately taught in his unit. 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 76; see also p. 80.
Colombia
Colombia’s Directive on IHL (1993) states:
The Ministry of National Defence gives instructions aimed at intensifying the development of capacity-building programmes of the members of the public force, on themes referring to respect for Human Rights and the application of the rules of International Humanitarian Law, with the view to prevent and correct conduct which violates those rules …
The General Command of the Military Forces and the Directorate of the National Police [g]ive the commanders of the public force the necessary instructions for each force to intensify, develop and complete, in the corresponding courses of training and capacity-building of their personnel, the relevant studies on respect for Human Rights and ensure the obligatory application of International Humanitarian Law. 
Colombia, Normas de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Directiva Permanente No. 017, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 17 August 1993, Sections IV.(A) and IV.(B)(1).
Colombia
Colombia’s Soldiers’ Manual (1999) states that it is useful for commanders, especially officers in charge of the instruction of troops, to be able to “count on an efficient instrument of practical and daily use to educate and train Colombian soldiers”. 
Colombia, Derechos Humanos & Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Guía de Conducta para el Soldado e Infante de Marina, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, Oficina de Derechos Humanos, Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1999, p. i.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
I.3.2. Obligation to control knowledge
“In order to prevent and suppress breaches, High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall require that, commensurate with their level of responsibility, commanders ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the [1949 Geneva] Conventions and [the 1977 Additional] Protocol [I].”
III.3. Responsibility of the commander
Commanders have the duty to:
- ensure that the personnel under their command are instructed on the rules of the law of armed conflicts;
- ensure that their orders are executed by their subordinates with respect for the law;
Members of the armed forces holding command functions have the duty:
- to show, by the interest they manifest and by the importance they give to training in times of peace and, of course, by their behaviour in combat, that they respect the law …
- to integrate legal problems in practical exercises. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 36 and 39–40.
Croatia
Croatia’s Commanders’ Manual (1992) states: “The commander himself ensures that his subordinates are aware of their obligations under the law of war and respect them.” It adds that “the commander is responsible for proper law of war training” and that “the superior is the normal instructor of his subordinates also for law of war training”. 
Croatia, Basic Rules of the Law of Armed Conflicts – Commanders’ Manual, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1992, §§ 19, 21 and 23.
France
France’s LOAC Summary Note (1992) provides: “The commander must ensure that subordinates know their obligations [under IHL] and respect them. He is … responsible for their instruction.” 
France, Fiche de Synthèse sur les Règles Applicables dans les Conflits Armés, Note No. 432/DEF/EMA/OL.2/NP, Général de Corps d’Armée Voinot (pour l’Amiral Lanxade, Chef d’Etat-major des Armées), 1992, § 5.1.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) states: “The commander … must ensure that members of the armed forces know their rights, but also their obligations under the law of armed conflicts. As such, he is responsible for their instruction.” 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 7.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001), referring to respect for IHL, provides: “The commander … must ensure that the members of the armed forces know their rights and discharge the corresponding obligations. As such, he is responsible for their instruction.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 14.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “The superior has to ensure that his subordinates are aware of their duties and rights under international law.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten KonfliktenHandbuch, August 1992, § 138.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) provides that it is the “responsibility of every commander … [to] ensure knowledge of [the law of war]”. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 40.
The manual further provides that, in order to ensure respect for the law of war, every commander shall organize training on the law of war for all members of the armed forces. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 41.
Italy
Italy’s LOAC Elementary Rules Manual (1991) states: “The commander himself ensures that his subordinates are aware of their obligations under the law of war and respect them.” It further states that “the commander is responsible for proper training” and that “the superior is the normal instructor of his subordinates also for law of war training”. 
Italy, Regole elementari di diritto di guerra, SMD-G-012, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, §§ 19, 21 and 23.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) states: “The commander himself shall ensure that his subordinates know their obligations arising from the law of war and respect them.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 4-O, § 19; see also Presentation, pp. 9 and 69, § 1.
The manual further provides that “the commander is responsible for proper law of war training” and that “the superior is the normal instructor of his subordinates also for law of war training”. 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 4-O, §§ 21 and 23.
In addition, the manual states: “The aim of instruction is: … to ensure true respect for this law of war by all combatants.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 4-O, § I.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states: “Military commanders must ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are fully aware of their obligations under the [1949] Geneva Conventions and the [1977] Additional Protocol [I].” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 173.
Nepal
Nepal’s IHL and IHRL Integration Order (2008) states:
Since Nepal has ratified the Geneva Convention of 1949, it is our obligation that during peace or armed conflict, the provisions of the convention be disseminated in military education and training, [that] awareness of military personnel [be] raised, and [for] commanders to ensure that their subordinates are made knowledgeable in this field. 
Nepal, IHL and IHRL Integration Order for the Nepalese Army, Chief of the Army Staff, Army Headquarters Kathmandu, File Ref. 14644/9/A/064/65/22/874, 22 February 2008, § 4.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands, referring to Article 87 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, states: “Commanders must first of all ensure that their people know the rules of the law of war.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IX-7.
Netherlands
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “Commanders must ensure that their people know the rules of the law of war.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-44.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands provides:
Commanding officers are responsible for ensuring that their subordinates know the humanitarian law of war and act in accordance with that law. Personnel training should include lessons on the humanitarian law of war. In view of the subject’s importance, lessons should be given by officers, who should themselves have been trained in the subject. The provision of adequate (instruction) material forms part of the commanding officers’ responsibility. The commanding officer should, finally, integrate the humanitarian law of war with military courses and exercises, to achieve action which consolidates the standard. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1106.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1995) states:
It is incumbent upon a commanding officer to ensure that the forces under his command behave in a manner consistent with the laws and customs of war … and it is part of his responsibility to ensure that the troops under his command are aware of their obligations. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1603.2; see also § 1710.1, footnote 68.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Military Manual (1994) recalls: “Commanders are … enjoined to ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the [1949 Geneva] conventions and the [1977 Additional Protocols I and II]”. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 30, § 3.
In addition, the manual states:
Every commander … holds full responsibility for proper law of war training within his sphere of authority and it is his duty to determine the needs of his subordinate which shall be integrated into the normal exercise of military activities. 
Nigeria, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Directorate of Legal Services, Nigerian Army, 1994, p. 41, § 8.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “The commander is responsible for the appropriate instruction of international humanitarian law.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 20, p. 419; see also § 25(b)(1)(a), p. 227.
The manual also states: “The commander must personally make sure that his subordinates know the obligations stemming from international humanitarian law”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 19, p. 419; see also § 25(b)(1)(a), p. 227.
Philippines
The Joint Circular on Adherence to IHL and Human Rights (1991) of the Philippines provides:
Commanders shall ensure that all participants in security/police operations shall be briefed and de-briefed before and after every operation to insure proper behavior of personnel and understanding of their mission.
The Circular adds:
Commanders shall ensure that … pertinent provisions of … the Geneva Conventions and United Nations declarations on Humanitarian Law and Human Rights … are understood by every member of the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] and PNP [Philippine National Police] personnel. 
Philippines, Implementation Guidelines for Presidential Memorandum Order No. 393, dated 9 September 1991, Directing the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippines National Police to Reaffirm their Adherence to the Principles of Humanitarian Law and Human Rights in the Conduct of Security/Police Operations, Joint Circular Number 2-91, Department of National Defense, Department of Interior and Local Government, 1991, § 3(b) and (d).
Philippines
The Philippines’ AFP Standing Rules of Engagement (2005) states:
2. Purpose:
a. This document promulgates the Standing Rules of Engagement for the Armed Forces of the Philippines [AFP].
c. … it will provide a common basis for training and planning capabilities. Thus, this document is also authorized for distribution to commanders at all levels and is to be used as fundamental guidance for training and directing their forces.
6. Policy:
d. AFP units will comply with the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) during military operations, no matter how the conflict may be characterized under international law, and will comply with its principles and spirit during all other operations. 
Philippines, AFP Standing Rules of Engagement, Armed Forces of the Philippines, General Headquarters, Office of the Chief of Staff, 1 December 2005, §§ 2(a) and (c) and 6(d).
Philippines
The Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (2006) provides:
While not in combat:
1. Have a strong and effective military values’ education among your troops. The guide on how to prevent HR/IHL [Human Rights/International Humanitarian Law] violations is only the immediate and temporary solution to the problem. The best solution is the character-building among soldiers.
2. Include IHL/HR education in your TI&Es [Troop Information and Education]. Spend time for HR/IHL issues/questions and discussions in your TI&Es. Most HR violations are results of ignorance of the law.
8. Inform the troops that a child taken in custody by government forces in an area of armed conflict should be informed of his/her constitutional rights and shall be treated humanely. Some of [these] basic rights are “the right to remain silent”, “the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty”, “the right to be notified of the charge,” “right to counsel”, “right to presence of parents or guardian”, and the “right to confront and cross examine witnesses.”
During combat operation:
2. Always remind your men to respect human rights. Before you start the combat operations, always remind your men to respect HR of the civilian populace and the enemy. Respecting HR does not make you less a fighter and a soldier. 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, pp. 54–55, §§ 1–2 and 8, and p. 56, § 2.
Commanders shall ensure that all participants in security operations shall be briefed and debriefed before and after every operation to insure proper behavior of personnel and understanding of their mission as well as to assess the overall impact of the operation to [the] AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] goals and objectives. 
Philippines, Human Rights-Based Intelligence Operations, Rules of Behavior for Military Intelligence personnel, HR-BIO (2011), Armed Forces of the Philippines, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 2011, p. 17.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
In their service activities commanding officers shall be guided by generally accepted principles and rules of international humanitarian law that oblige them:
a) in peace time:
- to organize and be personally involved in the dissemination of international humanitarian law amongst the subordinated personnel; to ensure that it is studied within the process of training and education of servicemen drawing their attention to the fact that the legislation of the Russian Federation provides for criminal responsibility for some breaches of international humanitarian law;
- to constantly maintain law and order and stern military discipline thus ensuring that the subordinates strictly observe the rules of international humanitarian law in the event of armed conflict;
- to invite the commander’s assistant on legal matters acting as the legal adviser in the event of armed conflict to take part in organizing combat training;
- to supervise the training of medical personnel and legal service officers related to studying and carrying out the rules of international humanitarian law;
b) in the event of armed conflict:
- to set an example in the respect of international humanitarian law rules;
- to ensure knowledge and strict respect of international humanitarian law by the subordinated personnel;
- to repress violations of international humanitarian law by the subordinated personnel, if any, call to account the offenders and report to the superior commander. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 10.
Russian Federation
The Internal Service Regulations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (2007) provides:
General Obligations of Commanders (Superiors)
77. … A commander (superior) must organize legal instruction of the subordinate members of the Armed Forces in the course of combat training with a view to their assimilating the established legal minimum and IHL rules. In the course of carrying out combat missions by a military unit, the commander (superior) guided by requirements of field manuals, must take measures aimed at respecting IHL rules and bring to disciplinary responsibility those guilty of breaching them. In the event of discovering constituent elements of criminal offence in the actions (omissions) of his subordinates, the commander of the unit shall institute criminal proceedings, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
A commander (superior), when considering issues pertaining to IHL rules, shall rely on the assistance of a legal adviser when necessary.
83. A commander (superior) must improve his personal professional level of training and methods of management of a unit:
- know the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation within the limits of the legal minimum and IHL rules and act in strict compliance therewith, and to demand that his subordinates respect them. 
Russian Federation, Internal Service Regulations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Ustav vnutrennei sluzhbi vooruzhennikh sil Rossiskoi Federacii), approved by Decree No. 1495 of the President of the Russian Federation, 10 November 2007, §§ 77 and 83.
Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea’s Military Regulation 187 (1991) provides that it is a duty of the commander to teach the principles and rules of the laws of war. 
Republic of Korea, Military Regulation 187, 1 January 1991, Article 6.6.1.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) states:
IHL principles are the best mankind can get in armed conflict situations …
Irrespective of rank, all members of the [Republic of Sierra Leone armed forces] must adhere to these rules religiously to avert prosecution for war crimes at the newly instituted Court Martial. The production of this manual is in part fulfilment of Government’s obligation to instruct its armed forces and civilian population alike in the provisions of international humanitarian law.
As this is the focal point of this training manual, all commanders are enjoined to integrate IHL training in their training curriculum on a regular basis so that it becomes second nature to their officers and men. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, “Introduction” (unnumbered page).
South Africa
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
93. Articles 86 and 87 of Additional Protocol 1 (1977) to the Geneva Conventions (1949) clearly stipulate the responsibilities of military commanders in relation to the LOAC. In essence it stipulates that the inclusion of LOAC during training as well as its application during armed conflict (operations) is and remains a command responsibility. These responsibilities include:
a. Overall Responsibility in Military Operations (General Command Responsibility)
i. The commander of all forces engaged in military operations has the general responsibility for ensuring respect for the LOAC.
ii. General command responsibility extends to all land, sea, air areas of military operations and movement and location.
iii. General command responsibility covers the whole command chain as well as the various evacuation channels.
iv. General command responsibility extends to the civilian field in so far LOAC requires this, particularly with regard to co-operation with civilian authorities.
v. Appropriate guidance (e.g. rules of engagement) shall be given to subordinates with regard to specific circumstances:
(1) to assure uniform action and behaviour; and
(2) to prepare subordinate commanders (particularly those with independent missions) to take themselves the measures required by the situation.
b. Responsibility of Every Commander
i. Respect for the LOAC is a matter of order and discipline. As with order and discipline, LOAC must be respected and enforced in all circumstances.
ii. The commander him/herself must ensure that:
(1) his subordinates are aware of their obligations under LOAC …
Law of Armed Conflict Training. As a command activity every commander holds full responsibility for proper training in LOAC within his/her sphere of authority. The overall aim of LAOC training is to ensure respect for LOAC by all members of the armed forces, irrespective of their function, time, location and situation. It remains incumbent on commanders to ensure that LOAC is included in the programmes for military instruction. This will ensure that the required competences, mindset and responsibilities for LOAC are established with their subordinates. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 93.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) states: “The commander himself ensures that his subordinates are aware of their obligations under the law of war and respect them.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.8.c.(1); see also § 2.2.b.
The manual also states that “the commander is responsible for proper law of war training” and that “the superior is the normal instructor of his subordinates also for law of war training”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 10.8.c.(2); see also § 11.4.b.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states:
[T]he armed forces … are responsible, through their commanders-in-chief, for the detailed implementation of [instruction in] the law of armed conflict and for incorporating the study of this body of law into its military training programmes to ensure that combatants in particular and also medical and religious personnel are familiar with the principles and rules it contains. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.2.b.(2).
The manual also states:
Commanders must ensure that their subordinates are aware of their obligations under the law of armed conflict, by means of an effective training programme that takes into account the level of knowledge required of each subordinate commensurate with their level of responsibility. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 2.2.b.
The manual further states:
- The law of armed conflict should be included in programmes of military instruction and training.
- Each commander is fully responsible for providing appropriate instruction in the law of armed conflict in his respective area of authority.
- Instruction in the law of armed conflict is therefore an essential part of command activities. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 10.3.c; see also § 11.4.b.
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) provides: “There is … a clear responsibility for a senior commander to check his subordinates’ knowledge of the Conventions.” 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 4.2, p. 94.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) states: “Commanders must inform the troops of their obligations under the Conventions.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 196.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states:
4 Respect for and implementation of the legal rules in all types of operation are a command task and an integral part of individual discipline.
7 Responsible and lawful behaviour requires knowledge of the rules in force. Ignorance of the law does not protect against punishment. Superiors are therefore responsible for providing sufficient and realistic training to their subordinates.
248 Superiors are also responsible for training their subordinates and periodically testing their knowledge, especially prior to operations to which the law of armed conflict could apply. 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, §§ 4, 7 and 248. The German language version of § 248 notes: “Superiors are especially also insbesondere auch responsible …”.
[emphasis in original]
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces (2001) states:
91. … The commander of the regiment (separate battalion) is obliged to:
– … take control over the compliance with and respect for the norms of the Law of Armed Conflict by his subordinate military personnel.
96. The commander of the regiment (separate battalion) is obliged to:
– conduct training for the officers of staff of the regiment (separate battalion) on compliance with the norms of the Law of Armed Conflict and to include the mastering of those norms in the programmes of the combat training of the regiment (separate battalion). …
98. The second-in-command of the regiment (separate battalion) responsible for educational work is obliged to … organize and conduct training for … the military personnel about the norms of the Law of Armed Conflict and to control compliance with them during … combat training exercises. 
Tajikistan, Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan, endorsed by the Decree of the Madjilsi Namoyandagon of Madjlisi Oli [Parliament] of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 273 of 4 April 2001 and promulgated by the Order of the Minister of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 3 of 2 May 2001, §§ 91, 96 and 98.
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) provides:
Each military commander is responsible for respect for the law of war within his sphere of command. Within his unit, he is in particular responsible for the instruction of the law of war in order to induce his troops to adopt a behaviour in conformity with the law and above all vis-à-vis specifically protected persons and objects.
The manual adds: “The military commander must take all measures so that: the subordinates know their obligations arising from the law of war and respect them.” 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule II, pp. 14 and 15.
Uganda
Uganda’s LOAC Dissemination Directive (2006) provides:
[The Chief of Defence Forces] directs as follows:
That all commanding officers (COs) of the Uganda People’s Defence Forces take all necessary and reasonable steps to ensure that the law of armed conflict as defined in the Geneva Conventions Act (Chapter 363) is disseminated to all members of the Uganda People’s [Defence] Forces (UPDF) at all levels in units under their command, and, in particular, that the study thereof is included in all programmes of military instruction. 
Uganda, Chief of Defence Forces Directive: Dissemination of the Law of Armed Conflict, Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF), Chief of Defence Forces, 5 May 2006.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
1.5.1. In the performance of their duties, commanders and commanding officers shall be guided by the rules of international humanitarian law that oblige them:
In peacetime:
- to organize and participate in the dissemination of knowledge of international humanitarian law amongst their subordinates;
- to ensure the learning of the law of armed conflict within the process of training and education of servicemen;
- to bring to the attention of subordinates that grave breaches of international humanitarian law shall be criminally punished according to Ukrainian legislation;
- to uphold legal order and high military discipline that should guarantee strict adherence to the rules of international humanitarian law in case of an armed conflict by all servicemen;
- to ensure that all servicemen possess identity cards (military IDs), identification discs (distinctive medallions), medical or religious personnel identity cards … ;
- to supervise training of medical personnel and military (civilian) members of legal service as to studying international humanitarian law.
1.6.2. The assistant unit commander responsible for legal work (legal counsellor of the military unit) shall, in times of peace:
- coordinate the work aimed at studying the rules and demands of international humanitarian law within the structures of military administration, large commands, units, military bases, institutions of military education, other agencies and institutions of the Armed Forces of Ukraine;
- to provide necessary methodological assistance to officers who teach laws of war;
- to hold classes on international humanitarian law with various categories of servicemen;
- to organize case studies and tests to evaluate the level of knowledge of laws of war by various categories of servicemen;
- to report to the command cases of unsatisfactory knowledge of the laws of armed conflict by the personnel and reasons for that;
- to inform and consult servicemen concerning the performance of their duties related to the application of the rules and requirements of the laws of war.
1.6.3. During command and staff exercises, the assistant unit commander responsible for legal work (legal counsellor of the military unit) – deputy commander of the exercise for legal issues (legal advisor) shall:
- take part in the preparation of the command and staff exercises documentation regarding rules of engagement;
- monitor compliance with the rules of international humanitarian law by the trainees and make proposals regarding further complication of the situation as to the application of the laws of war;
- report to the commander his/her conclusions as to the level of compliance with the rules and principles of international humanitarian law during the exercise. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, §§ 1.5.1 and 1.6.2–1.6.3.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Whilst ignorance of the law is not generally accepted as a defence, the first step to enforcement of the law of armed conflict must be to ensure as wide a knowledge of its terms as possible both within the armed forces and outside. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 16.2.1.
The manual further states:
Parties to a conflict are obliged to instruct military commanders to prevent breaches of the law of armed conflict and ensure that their subordinates know of their obligations under that law. This provision is based on the principle that an effective disciplinary system to prevent breaches is the best way of ensuring compliance with the law of armed conflict. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 16.38.
United States of America
The US Instructor’s Guide (1985) states that, as a commander, “you must ensure your troops receive instruction in the law of war. You should ensure that they know and follow the applicable rules of engagement.” 
United States, Instructor’s Guide – The Law of War, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, April 1985, p. 19.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) provides: “Officers in command of operational units are encouraged to utilize this publication as a training aid for assigned personnel.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), Preface, p. 21
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states: “Officers in command of operational units are encouraged to utilize this publication as a training aid for assigned personnel.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, p. 19.
United States of America
The US Manual on Detainee Operations (2008) states:
When U.S. forces conduct detainee operations governed by the [1949] Geneva Conventions, they must possess the text of the applicable conventions and be specially instructed as to their provisions … Pursuant to this obligation, JFCs [joint force commanders] are responsible to ensure … related training to enhance compliance with applicable law and policy. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, p. x.
The manual also states:
The DFC [Detention Facility Commander] is the commander responsible for the execution of all detention facility operations … A DFC’s responsibilities normally include the following:
f. Ensuring that all personnel are properly trained on the rules for use of force (RUF), the law of land warfare, including the [1949] Geneva Conventions and all other applicable laws and policies, and that all personnel have an effective knowledge of the detention facility standard operating procedure (SOP). 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. II-4–II-5.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Order No. 637 on the Application of IHL Norms within the Armed Forces(2005), issued by the Minister of Defence, states:
With the aim to implement provisions of the international treaties related to IHL within the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan, I [order that] Deputies of the Minister of Defence, commanders of the Armed Forces and different troops, chiefs of departments, independent sectors and services, commanders of divisions, formations and military units of the Ministry of Defence, chiefs of directions, institutions, organizations and military educational institutions shall ensure the following:
- learning by military servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan provisions related to IHL norms, contained in the Constitution and laws of Azerbaijan, military regulations of the Armed Forces, orders and directives of the Minister of Defence;
- respect for IHL norms by the military servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan during implementation of the demands of the management directives related to provision of combat regulations and combat actions;
- requirements of IHL norms are taken into consideration while elaboration of orders, directives and other service documents related to holding of exercises, trainings and other events. 
Azerbaijan, Order No. 637 on the Application of IHL Norms within the Armed Forces, 2005, § 1.
Belarus
Belarus’s Order on Study and Dissemination of IHL (1997) provides that the Vice-Ministers of Defence as well as commanders must, within the framework of the training of commanders, guarantee the study of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocols and Belarusian regulations on the application of IHL and that they must take into account these instruments and documents during military training. 
Belarus, Order on Study and Dissemination of IHL, 1997, Article 5.
Spain
Spain’s Royal Ordinance for the Armed Forces (1978) provides that a soldier “shall know the rights and duties incumbent on him and the penal laws affecting him, which shall be read out and periodically explained at unit level with a view to guiding his conduct and preventing him from committing faults or offences”. 
Spain, Royal Ordinance for the Armed Forces, 1978, Article 57.
Spain
Spain’s Royal Decree Establishing the Spanish IHL Commission (2007) states that this Commission is to “[p]rovide advice on … training of the armed forces in international humanitarian law”. 
Spain, Royal Decree Establishing the Spanish IHL Commission, 2007, Article 2(1)(e).
South Africa
South Africa’s Defence Act (2002) provides:
[The Chief of Defence Force] is responsible for the training of members of the Defence Force to act in accordance with the Constitution and the law, including customary international law and international agreements binding on the Republic. 
South Africa, Defence Act, 2002 § 14(i).
Israel
In its judgment in Physicians for Human Rights v. Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank in 2002, Israel’s High Court of Justice stated:
The IDF [Israel Defense Forces] shall once again instruct the combat forces, down to the level of the lone soldier in the field, of this commitment by our forces based on law and morality – and, according to the state, even on utilitarian considerations – through concrete instructions which will prevent, to the extent possible, and even in severe situations, incidents which are inconsistent with the rules of humanitarian law. 
Israel, High Court of Justice, Physicians for Human Rights v. Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank, Judgment, 8 April 2002.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
According to the Report on the Practice of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is the opinio juris of Bosnia and Herzegovina that “commanders of units and each individual member of armed forces are responsible for the implementation of the international law of war”. 
Report on the Practice of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000, Chapter 1.6.
Burundi
In 2008, at the opening of the Seminar on Human Rights and IHL for the High Command of the National Defence Force, a spokesperson for the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants stated:
The commanders … must understand and master this law [IHL] so they can teach it to their subordinates.
[W]ithin a national political context directed at the reconciliation of the Burundian people, the contribution of any serviceman shall be to carry out the missions assigned to him in strict respect for the laws and regulations. He must constantly have in mind the respect for persons and their objects. It’s a matter of honour, dignity and discipline which all commanders shall understand and make their subordinates understand. 
Burundi, Statement by the Ministry of National Defence and Former Combatants at the opening of the Seminar on Human Rights and IHL for the High Command of the National Defence Force, Bujumbura, 2 April 2008, pp. 4–5.
Canada
The 1997 Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia stated:
Training is one of the fundamental elements of preparing troops for operations … It is therefore to be expected that commanders at all levels of the chain of command, even the highest, pay particular attention to the training of a contingent, both to supervise and assess the preparations and, through their presence, to demonstrate their personal interest in and commitment to the operation that their troops are about to undertake.
In its findings with respect to this statement, the Commission noted:
Leaders at all levels of the chain of command, with the notable exception of the Brigade Commander during the initial stages of training, failed to provide adequate supervision of the training preparations undertaken by the CAR for Operation Cordon. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 592–593; see also p. ES-28.
Regarding the Rules of Engagement (ROE) established with respect to the Somalia mission, the Commission further noted:
The … briefing provided by LCol Watkin on December 10th [1992] included information on the ROE … The officers were then supposed to pass the information on to their subordinates. However, there were no efforts made to ensure that this information was properly understood before being passed down the chain of command to the troops, nor even that it was in fact passed down … While the need to systematically reinforce the ROE training once in theatre was recognized by senior commanders who testified before us, this did not translate into effective ROE training throughout the deployment period. Maj Pommet showed great concern for the understanding of the ROE by his commando and took steps to train his soldiers, but he did so on his own initiative. On several occasions he verified his troops’ knowledge of the ROE by presenting them with scenarios and asking them to respond. Although there may have been some discussion and briefings on the ROE, there was no organized and structured scenario-based training done in theatre. In our view, and notwithstanding the obvious need for it, the leaders failed to ensure that all of the soldiers had a comprehensive understanding of the use of force in Somalia through accessible and systematic training. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, pp. 616–617.
Canada
The Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, in its recommendations with respect to training of the armed forces, stated:
We recommend that: … Canadian Forces doctrine recognize the personal supervision of training by commanders, including the most senior, as an irreducible responsibility and an essential expression of good leadership. Canadian Forces should also recognize that training provides the best opportunity, short of operations, for commanders to assess the attitude of troops and gauge the readiness of a unit and affords a unique occasion for commanders to impress upon their troops, through their presence, the standards expected of them, as well as their own commitment to the mission on which the troops are about to be sent. 
Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Dishonoured Legacy: The Lessons of the Somalia Affair. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia, Public Works and Government Services Canada – Publishing, Ottawa, 1997, p. 631, Recommendation No. 21(18).
Israel
An Order of the Israeli Chief of Staff requires that “all operational directive or order which precedes action by the soldiers has to include a directive requiring that the provisions of the Conventions be taught to the soldiers”. The Order refers to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property. 
Israel, IDF Order of the Chief of Staff No. 33.0133, Discipline – Conduct in accordance with the international conventions to which the State of Israel is a party, 20 July 1982, § 10.
Mexico
In 2004, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Mexico stated:
The Ministry of Defence runs the following training courses on combating torture for its staff:
(b) International humanitarian law: the course is held in the army and air-force study centre. Its main aim is to train commanders and officers so that they can give training and advice on the subject in the units, offices and facilities where they work. One course has been held, and 3 commanders and 15 officers from the Mexican army and air force have been trained. 
Mexico, Fourth periodic report of Mexico to the Committee against Torture, 28 February 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/55/Add.12, submitted 20 December 2004, § 197(b).
Netherlands
On the basis of an interview with high-ranking officers of the army of the Netherlands, the Report on the Practice of the Netherlands states that commanders are responsible for training in IHL. 
Report on the Practice of the Netherlands, 1997, Interview with two high-ranking officers of the Royal Netherlands Army staff, both legal advisors, Chapter 6.6.
United States of America
The 1979 version of the US Department of Defense (DoD) Directive on the Law of War Program provided:
The Secretaries of the Military Departments shall develop internal policies and procedures consistent with this Directive in support of the DoD law of war program in order to:
(1) Provide publications, instructions, and training so that the principles and rules of the law of war will be known to members of their respective Departments, the extent of such knowledge to be commensurate with each individual’s duties and responsibilities. 
United States, Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program No. 5100.77, 10 July 1979, Section E(2)(e)(1).
United States of America
In 1991, in response to an ICRC memorandum on the applicability of IHL in the Gulf region, the US Department of the Army stated: “[IHL] training is a command responsibility.” 
United States, Letter from the Department of the Army to the legal adviser of the US Army deployed in the Gulf region, 11 January 1991, § 8(S), Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 6.6.
United States of America
The 1998 version of the US Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program provided that the Secretaries of the Military Departments shall “provide directives, publications, instructions, and training so that the principles and rules of the law of war will be known to members of their respective Departments, the extent of such knowledge to be commensurate with each individual’s duties and responsibilities”. Furthermore, they shall “ensure that programs are implemented in their respective Military Departments to prevent violations of the law of war, emphasizing any types of violations that have been reported”. 
United States, Department of Defense Directive on the Law of War Program No. 5100.77, 9 December 1998, Sections 5(5)(1) and (2).
United States of America
In May 2004, Major General Antonio M. Taguba completed his report of an investigation, ordered by the Commander Coalition Forces Land Component Command, into allegations of detainee abuse and maltreatment by members of the 800th Military Police Brigade at Abu Ghraib Prison (Baghdad Central Confinement Facility (BCCF)).The report stated:
I find that there was no clear emphasis by BG Karpinski [Commander of the 800th MP Brigade] to ensure that the 800th MP Brigade Staff, Commanders, and Soldiers were trained to standard in detainee operations and proficiency or that serious accountability lapses that occurred over a significant period of time, particularly at Abu Ghraib (BCCF), were corrected … Following the abuse of several detainees at Camp Bucca in May 2003, I could find no evidence that BG Karpinski ever directed corrective training for her soldiers or ensured that MP Soldiers throughout Iraq clearly understood the requirements of the Geneva Conventions relating to the treatment of detainees.
General Taguba’s recommendations included:
That BG Janis L. Karpinski, Commander, 800th MP Brigade, be Relieved from Command and given a General Officer Memorandum of Reprimand for the following acts which have been previously referred to in the aforementioned findings [including]:
•Failing to ensure that MP Soldiers in the 800th MP Brigade knew, understood, and adhered to the protections afforded to detainees in the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.
That COL Thomas M. Pappas, Commander, 205th MI Brigade, be given a General Officer Memorandum of Reprimand and Investigated UP Procedure 15, AR 381-10, US Army Intelligence Activities for the following acts which have been previously referred to in the aforementioned findings [including]:
•Failing to ensure that Soldiers under his direct command knew, understood, and followed the protections afforded to detainees in the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.
That LTC (P) Jerry L. Phillabaum, Commander, 320th MP Battalion, be Relieved from Command, be given a General Officer Memorandum of Reprimand, and be removed from the Colonel/O-6 Promotion List for the following acts which have been previously referred to in the aforementioned findings [including]:
•Failing to ensure that Soldiers under his direct command knew and understood the protections afforded to detainees in the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.
That LTC Steven L. Jordan, Former Director, Joint Interrogation and Debriefing Center and Liaison Officer to 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, be relieved from duty and be given a General Officer Memorandum of Reprimand for the following acts which have been previously referred to in the aforementioned findings [including]:
•Failing to ensure that Soldiers under his direct control knew, understood, and followed the protections afforded to detainees in the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. 
United States, Department of Defense, Commander Coalition Forces Land Component Command, Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade (Taguba Report), May 2004.
Zimbabwe
According to the Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, an official of the armed forces of Zimbabwe stated that he was of the view that “Zimbabwe accepts the practice that commanders [should] ensure that their [subordinates] are aware of their obligations”. 
Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, 1998, Chapter 6.7.
No data.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly (Rapporteur)
In 1995, the Rapporteur of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly on the conflict in Chechnya noted that the Russian federal command, after having originally adopted a policy of trying to brand the Chechen as the cruel enemy, was apparently trying to make amends by strengthening discipline. It was to be achieved “by directives and recommendations to officers to explain the rules of international law to their soldiers”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Opinion on procedure on Russia’s request for membership of the Council of Europe, Doc. 7384, 15 September 1995, § 67.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the 90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference called on “all States to remind military commanders that they are required to make their subordinates aware of obligations under international humanitarian law [and] to make every effort to ensure that no violations are committed”. 
90th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Canberra, 13–18 September 1993, Resolution on Respect for International Humanitarian Law and Support for Humanitarian Action in Armed Conflicts, § 2(e).
No data.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “The commander himself must ensure that: a) his subordinates are aware of their obligations under the law of war”. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 270.
Delegates also teach that:
275. … Every commander holds full responsibility for proper law of war training within his sphere of authority. Thus, law of war training is an essential part of command activity …
282. The superior is the normal instructor of his subordinates, also for law of war training. Thus, every commander must be acquainted with those parts of the law of war that are relevant for him and to those under his command …
292. Commanders shall issue instructions and organize appropriate training for specific circumstances, such as:
a) commando and other small units with independent missions;
b) combat in unusual environment;
c) warfare between dissimilar forces (e.g. a modern high technology force opposing a more or less organized group fighting with primitive weapons). 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, §§ 275, 282 and 292.
ICRC
In a communication to the press in 2002, the ICRC called upon the parties to the conflict in Colombia to respect IHL and stated: “Commanders must supervise their men so as to ensure that their conduct towards civilians complies at all times with the … rules and principles [of IHL].” 
ICRC, Communication to the Press No. 02/16, Colombia: ICRC calls on all parties to conflict to respect international humanitarian law, 21 February 2002.
No data.