Practice Relating to Rule 135. Children

Note: For practice concerning rape and other forms of sexual violence, see primarily Rule 93. For practice concerning accommodation of children deprived of their liberty, see Rule 120. For practice concerning the specific needs of displaced children, see Rule 131, Section D.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 23, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “Each High Contracting Party shall … permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, …”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 23, first para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 24, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “The Parties to the conflict shall take all necessary measures to ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their own resources”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 24, first para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 38, fifth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides that children under 15 years, aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict, “shall benefit by any preferential treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 38, fifth para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 50, fifth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any preferential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war, which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen years, … 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 50, fifth para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 76, fifth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides that, in the treatment of detainees in occupied territory, “[p]roper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 89, fifth para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 89, fifth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “[C]hildren under fifteen years of age [who are interned] shall be given additional food, in proportion with their physiological needs.”
Additional Protocol I
According to Article 8(a) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, the terms “wounded” and “sick” also cover new-born babies. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 8(a). Article 8 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.37, 24 May 1977, p. 68.
Additional Protocol I
Article 70(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: “In the distribution of relief consignments, priority shall be given to … children …”. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 70(1). Article 70 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 245.
Additional Protocol I
Article 77(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: “Children shall be the object of special respect”. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 77(1). Article 77 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 251.
Additional Protocol II
Article 4(3) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “Children shall be provided with the care and aid they require”. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 4(3). Article 4 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.50, 3 June 1977, p. 90.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 38 of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child provides:
1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.
4. In accordance with their obligation under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict. 
Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 44/25, 20 November 1989, Article 38(1) and (4).
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
Article 22 of the 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child provides:
1. States Parties to this Charter shall undertake to respect and ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflicts which affect the child.
3. States Parties to the present Charter shall, in accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law, protect the civilian population in armed conflicts and shall take all feasible measures to ensure the protection and care of children who are affected by armed conflicts. Such rules shall also apply to children in situations of internal armed conflicts, tension and strife. 
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, adopted by the Sixteenth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Res. 197 (XVI), Monrovia, 17–20 July 1990, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990), Article 22(1) and (3).
UN Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
Paragraphs 4 and 5 of the 1974 UN Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict state:
4. All the necessary steps shall be taken to ensure the prohibition of measures such as persecution, torture, punitive measures, degrading treatment and violence, particularly against that part of the civilian population that consists of … children.
5. All forms of repression and cruel and inhuman treatment of … children, including imprisonment, torture, shooting, mass arrests, collective punishment, destruction of dwellings and forcible eviction, committed by belligerents in the course of military operations or in occupied territories shall be considered criminal. 
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 3318 (XXIX), 14 December 1974, §§ 4 and 5.
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
Rule 13.5 of the 1985 Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice provides: “While in custody, juveniles shall receive care, protection and all necessary individual assistance … that they may require in view of their age, sex and personality.” 
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 40/33, 29 November 1985, also known as the Beijing Rules, Rule 13.5.
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
Rule 24.1 of the 1985 Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice provides: “Efforts shall be made to provide juveniles, at all stages of the proceedings, with necessary assistance … in order to facilitate the rehabilitative process.” 
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 40/33, 29 November 1985, also known as the Beijing Rules, Rule 24.1.
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
Article 3 of the 1990 Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam provides: “In the event of the use of force and in case of armed conflict, it is not permissible to kill non-belligerents such as … children”. 
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, adopted at the 19th Session of the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers, Res. 49/19-P, Cairo, 5 August 1990, annexed to Letter dated 19 September 1990 from the permanent representative of Egypt to the UN addressed to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/45/421-S/21797, 20 September 1990, Article 3.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 4 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 77(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 4.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.3 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 77(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.3.
Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and IHL in the Philippines
Article 2(24) of Part III of the 1998 Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and IHL in the Philippines states that the Agreement seeks to protect and promote “the right of children … to protection, care, and a home, especially against physical and mental abuse, prostitution, drugs, forced labour, homelessness, and other similar forms of oppression and exploitation”. 
Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the National Democratic Front of the Philippines, The Hague, 16 March 1998, Part III, Article 2(24).
UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin
Section 7.4 of the 1999 UN Secretary-General’s Bulletin provides: “Children shall be the object of special respect.” 
Observance by United Nations Forces of International Humanitarian Law, Secretary-General’s Bulletin, UN Secretariat, UN Doc. ST/SGB/1999/13, 6 August 1999, Section 7.4.
United Nations Millennium Declaration
In paragraph 26 of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, the heads of State and Government declared:
We will spare no effort to ensure that children and all civilian populations that suffer disproportionately the consequences of natural disasters, genocide, armed conflicts and other humanitarian emergencies are given every assistance and protection so that they can resume normal life as soon as possible. 
United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted by the UN Millennium Summit, New York, 6–8 December 2000, endorsed by the UN General Assembly, Res. 55/2, 8 September 2000, § 26.
EU Charter of Fundamental Rights
Article 24 of the 2000 EU Charter of Fundamental Rights provides: “Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being.” 
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, signed and proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission of the European Union, Nice, 7 December 2000, Article 24.
N’Djamena Declaration on Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups
In June 2010, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Sudan adopted the N’Djamena Declaration. In its preamble, the participating States, “reiterating [their] concern regarding the precarious situation of children affected by conflict and the consistent presence of children within armed forces and groups in [their] region”, recognized that
States have the primary responsibility of ensuring, without discrimination, the security and protection of all children living on their national territory, and that no territory should be used in any form for recruitment of children by armed forces or groups. 
N’Djamena Declaration adopted at the Regional Conference on Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups: Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development, signed by Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Sudan, N’Djamena, 7–9 June 2010, Preamble.
The participating States pledged
8. To integrate and provide response to all fundamental and specific needs of children within national poverty reduction strategies, social protection and Security Sector Reform (SSR);
11. To protect children from all forms of exploitation and violence, by criminalizing all acts of sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and ensuring the rights of child victims and witnesses. 
N’Djamena Declaration adopted at the Regional Conference on Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups: Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development, signed by Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Sudan, N’Djamena, 7–9 June 2010, §§ 8 and 11.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “The belligerent parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure that children under the age of 7 who have been orphaned or separated from their families are not left to their own resources.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 4.007; see also Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.12.
The manual further states:
The occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any preferential measures in regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war, which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under 15 years. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.009.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides that new-born babies are considered as included in the concept of wounded and sick. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 2.02.
The manual further states that “children shall be the object of a special respect and shall be protected against any form of indecent assault” and that “they are to receive care and aid as they require on account of their age or any other reasons”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.12.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual provides: “Children shall receive the assistance and care they require.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.04.
Australia
Australia’s Commanders’ Guide (1994) states that the terms “wounded” and “sick” “also cover … new born babies”. 
Australia, Law of Armed Conflict, Commanders’ Guide, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 Supplement 1 – Interim Edition, 7 March 1994, glossary, p. xxiv.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “Children are granted special protection under LOAC. Important rules are shown below: a. because of their age children should receive all the aid and care they require.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
The manual further states: “The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1215.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.38 … [In the context of siege warfare] The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for … the passage of consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects … and of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under 15 …
9.50 Children are to be respected and protected, especially against indecent assault. The care and aid needed by children must be provided. As is the case with women, children are granted special protection under the LOAC … because of their age children should receive all the aid and care they require …
12.29 The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.38, 9.50 and 12.29.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Benin
Benin’s Military Manual (1995) provides: “Children shall be treated with respect due to their … age.” 
Benin, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Forces Armées du Bénin, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1995, Fascicule III, p. 4.
Burundi
Burundi’s Regulations on International Humanitarian Law (2007) states concerning prisoners of war that “children must be treated with due regard to … their age”. 
Burundi, Règlement n° 98 sur le droit international humanitaire, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants, Projet “Moralisation” (BDI/B-05), August 2007, Part I bis, p. 105.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states:
Children also deserve special respect. They must not be subjected to any form of indecent assault. They are entitled to receive from the parties to the conflict the care and assistance that befits them because of their age or for any other reason. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 29, § 131; see also p. 49, § 213 and p. 75, § 321.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides: “Belligerents must make provision for the care of children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the conflict. They must ensure the maintenance of such children.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 11-3, § 25.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states: “Children are to receive such aid and protection as required.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-3, § 22.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on the treatment of civilians in the hands of a party to the conflict or an occupying power:
Belligerents must make provision for the care of children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the conflict. They must ensure the maintenance of such children … Belligerents must also facilitate the reception of these children by neutral countries for the duration of hostilities, with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1114.
In its chapter on rights and duties of occupying powers, the manual states:
1218. Welfare measures
2. The occupying power must take the necessary steps to ensure that children under fifteen separated from their families are not left to their own resources, and that proper steps are taken to maintain their education and religious welfare …
1219. Relief measures
1. The occupying power is under an obligation to allow free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended for civilians in occupied territory, as well as of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases. However, it may, require that distribution of such supplies be under the supervision of the Protecting Power. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, §§ 1218.2 and 1219.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflicts, the manual states:
1714. Treatment of children
1. [The 1977 Additional Protocol II] provides that children are to receive such aid and protection as required …
2. Children under fifteen who do take part in hostilities remain protected. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1714.
Canada
Canada’s Prisoner of War Handling and Detainees Manual (2004) states the following with regard to the capture and treatment of juveniles:
a. Determination of Age. There may be instances where PW do not know or are unwilling to reveal their date of birth. In such circumstances, the decision whether or not an individual is to be classified as a juvenile is to be made by an officer. In such a situation, it will be better to assume that the PW is a juvenile until more detailed checks can be made.
b. Treatment. Apart from the general guidance contained in [the 1977 Additional Protocol I], Art. 77, the [1949 Geneva Conventions] and [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] make no specific provision for the capture and treatment of juveniles. It will therefore be for Canada, as the Detaining Power, to establish a policy for the initial handling of juveniles, which will conform to the humanitarian principles of the [1949 Geneva Conventions]. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 302.9.
With regard to the searching of juveniles, the manual states that “[an] officer is to be present at all times when juveniles … are searched”.  
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, p. 3B-1, § B001.2.
With regard to the special dietary requirements of juveniles, the manual states: “Juveniles… are … to be provided with appropriate dietary supplements as directed by the Canadian or coalition Medical officer”. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 3F11.2.
With regard to liability for work duties, the manual states that juveniles “may be employed in light work only”. 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 3G01.1.e.
With regard to the interrogation and tactical questioning of prisoners of war (PW), the manual states: “PW are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their persons and their honour. … Children who have not attained the age of 18 years shall be the object of special respect.” 
Canada, Prisoner of War Handling, Detainees, Interrogation and Tactical Questioning in International Operations, B-GJ-005-110/FP-020, National Defence Headquarters, 1 August 2004, § 404.1.d.
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic’s Instructor’s Manual (1999) states in Volume 3 (Instruction for non-commissioned officers studying for the level 1 and 2 certificates and for future officers of the criminal police) that “children must be treated with the respect owed to them on account of their … age.” 
Central African Republic, Le Droit de la Guerre, Fascicule No. 3: Formation pour l’obtention du Brevet d’Armes No. 1, du Brevet d’Armes No. 2 et le stage d’Officier de Police Judiciaire (OPJ), Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Centrafricaines, 1999, Chapter I, Section I.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “Children … deserve special respect. … They are entitled to receive from the parties to the conflict the care and aid they need because of their age and for any other reason.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 53; see also pp. 34, 36 and 92.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides:
IHL rules favour especially the civilian population so that assistance and protection, which the parties to the conflict shall bring, are given in priority to the most vulnerable persons or groups of persons, who are: children, … 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 25.
The manual further states, with respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular: “Care and aid shall be provided to children.” 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 74.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007), in Book I (Basic instruction), lists children among “[p]ersons and objects under special protection”. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 19.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states:
Children are extremely vulnerable in situations of armed conflict. State parties to an armed conflict must guarantee the protection and care of children affected by such conflict. Therefore, … captured child combatants below the age of fifteen years must be protected. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 25; see also pp. 46 and 47.
The manual also states that “children below the age of fifteen who have become orphans or have been separated from their families for reasons related to the war may not be left to themselves.” 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 26.
Ecuador
Ecuador’s Naval Manual (1989) provides: “Children are entitled to special respect and protection.” 
Ecuador, Aspectos Importantes del Derecho Internacional Marítimo que Deben Tener Presente los Comandantes de los Buques, Academia de Guerra Naval, 1989, § 11.3.
El Salvador
El Salvador’s Soldiers’ Manual provides that it is prohibited to “attack and maltreat … children”. The manual further states: “Any act of violence against … children … is a criminal, cowardly and dishonourable act, punishable by serious disciplinary sanctions.” 
El Salvador, Manual del Combatiente, undated, pp. 3 and 5.
El Salvador
El Salvador’s Human Rights Charter of the Armed Forces provides that children must be respected and protected. 
El Salvador, Derechos Humanos. Decálogo de la Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, Ministerio de la Defensa Nacional, Departamento de Derecho Humanitario, undated, pp. 7 and 13.
France
France’s LOAC Teaching Note (2000) provides: “Particular attention shall be paid to the protection of … children”. 
France, Fiche didactique relative au droit des conflits armés, Directive of the Ministry of Defence, 4 January 2000, annexed to the Directive No. 147 of the Ministry of Defence of 4 January 2000, p. 4; see also Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, pp. 62 and 96.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) provides: “With concern about protection, … new-born babies … are assimilate to wounded and sick under humanitarian law.” 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 32.
It further states: “The law of armed conflicts provides for special protection of the following persons: … children”. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 96.
Germany
Germany’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “Children shall be the object of special respect and protection. They shall be provided with the care and aid they require, whether because of their youth or for any other reasons.” It adds: “If they fall into the power of an adverse party, they shall be granted special protection.” 
Germany, Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts – Manual, DSK VV207320067, edited by The Federal Ministry of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, VR II 3, August 1992, English translation of ZDv 15/2, Humanitäres Völkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten – Handbuch, August 1992, § 505.
India
India’s Manual of Military Law (1983) provides that special care must be taken in respect of children. 
India, Manual of Military Law, Three Volumes, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1983, p. 5/3–5/6.
India
India’s Army Training Note (1995) orders troops not to “ill treat any one, and in particular, … children”. 
India, Army Training Note, Chief of Staff, Army Training Command, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, 1995, p. 4/24, § 10.
Indonesia
The Report on the Practice of Indonesia, with reference to the Military Manual (1982), states that children under 15 years of age, orphaned or separated from their families as a result of conflict, shall be protected and given access to health care and food. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 5.3, referring to The Basics of International Humanitarian Law, Legal Division of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1982.
Italy
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) provides that the occupying power “shall take all necessary measures to ensure the care … of minors”. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 48(9).
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) provides: “Parties to the conflict are to care for children under 15 years of age who are orphaned and who are separated from their families. They are not to be subjected to political propaganda.” 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 4, p. 5.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) provides: “Children shall be the object of a particular respect and be protected against indecent assault.” It adds: “The occupant must … ensure the welfare of children.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 2-T, § 27.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009), in a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention III, states that “children under the age of fifteen who become prisoners of war must be treated with special respect and protected against any form of indecent assault.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 163.
In a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, the manual states:
Children must receive the care and aid they require by reason of their age or for any other reason. All practicable measures must be taken … to ensure that those who have become orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the war are not left to their own resources and that their maintenance, the exercise of their religion … are facilitated in all circumstances. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 215.
In the same section, the manual also states:
As far as children are concerned, it is provided that the occupying power, with the cooperation of national and local authorities, must facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children. It must take all necessary steps to facilitate the identification of children and the registration of their parentage. It may not, under any circumstances, change their personal status. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 234(B).
In a section on the 1977 Additional Protocol I, the manual further states that this Protocol “establishes special measures for the protection … children”. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 261; see also § 255.
Morocco
Morocco’s Disciplinary Regulations (1974) provides that soldiers in combat are required to spare children. 
Morocco, Règlement de Discipline Général dans les Forces Armées Royales, Dahir No. 1-74-383 du 15 rejeb 1394, 5 August 1974, Article 25(4).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “Children shall be protected against any form of indecent assault. Children shall be provided with the care and aid they require, because of their age.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-3.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states that “children are entitled to special protection. The parties to a conflict should give them the care and help they need.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 16.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states: “Children should be the object of special respect and protected against any form of indecent assault. Children should be given the care and help they need because of their age.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0811.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
1060. Children must receive the care and help that they need.
1061. This involves: receiving an upbringing, including religious and moral, in accordance with the wishes of the parents or carers; facilitating the reuniting of families whose members have been temporarily separated; not being called up for service in the armed forces or armed groups, if they are under the age of fifteen; not allowing them to participate in the hostilities; special protection for such children if, despite the foregoing, they have taken part in hostilities and have been taken prisoner; and adopting measures (including temporary escorting, by adults responsible for their safety and wellbeing, as far as possible with the consent of their parents or carers) whenever children have to be transferred outside the area of hostilities to a safer part of the country. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 1060–1061.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “The Occupying Power must take the necessary steps to ensure that children under fifteen separated from their families are not left to their own resources.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1317(2).
The manual further states: “Belligerents must make provision for the care of children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families as a result of war.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1112(1).
The manual then states that, as aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict, “children under 15 … must be given the benefit of any preferential treatment that is accorded to similar classes of nationals of the belligerent”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1118(1).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual provides that children under 15 “are to receive such aid and protection as they require”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1813(1).
Nicaragua
Nicaragua’s Military Manual (1996) provides that “special measures for children under 15 who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war” shall be taken. 
Nicaragua, Manual de Comportamiento y Proceder de las Unidades Militares y de los Miembros del Ejército de Nicaragua en Tiempo de Paz, Conflictos Armados, Situaciones Irregulares o Desastres Naturales, Ejército de Nicaragua, Estado Mayor General, Asesoría Jurídica del Nicaragua, 1996, Article 14(40).
Nigeria
Nigeria’s Operational Code of Conduct (1967) provides: “Children must not be molested or killed. They will be protected and cared for.” 
Nigeria, Operational Code of Conduct for Nigerian Armed Forces, Federal Military Government of Nigeria, July 1967, § 4(b).
The Code of Conduct adds: “Youths and school children must not be attacked unless they are engaged in open hostility against Federal Government Forces. They should be given all protection and care.” 
Nigeria, Operational Code of Conduct for Nigerian Armed Forces, Federal Military Government of Nigeria, July 1967, § 4(c).
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “Children … must be treated with all the regard due to their sex and age.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 32.f; see also § 84.c.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “Children … must be treated with all the regard due to their sex and age.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 33(f), p. 251; see also § 75(c), p. 274.
Philippines
The Rules for Combatants (1989) of the Philippines provides: “All civilians, particularly … children … must be respected.” 
Philippines, Rules for Combatants, in Handbook on Discipline, Annex C(II), General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 1989, Rule 1.
Philippines
The Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (2006) provides:
While not in combat:
4. Do not allow any person below 18 years old to take part in the armed conflict. Children shall be considered as zones of peace and shall enjoy the protection of the State against dangers arising from an armed conflict. Children shall not be recruited or employed by the government forces to perform or engage in activity necessary to and in direct connection with an armed conflict either as a soldier, guide, courier or in a similar capacity which would result in his being identified as an active member of an organized group that is hostile to the government forces.
8. Inform the troops that a child taken in custody by government forces in an area of armed conflict should be informed of his/her constitutional rights and shall be treated humanely. Some of [these] basic rights are “the right to remain silent”, “the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty”, “the right to be notified of the charge,” “right to counsel”, “right to presence of parents or guardian”, and the “right to confront and cross examine witnesses.”
After an engagement:
8. Immediately transfer child custody to the PNP [Philippine National Police]. In case a child is taken into custody by the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines], the military commander concerned shall immediately transfer custody over said child to the nearest stations of the Philippine National Police, preferably to the Child and the Youth Relations (CYRS/CYRO) unit thereof. However, never forget to demand receipt from the PNP. 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, p. 55, §§ 4 and 8, p. 61, § 8.
In its glossary, the Handbook further notes: “Children – refers to persons below 18 years of age or those over but unable to fully take care of themselves or protect themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition.” 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, p. 67, Glossary.
Russian Federation
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “[C]hildren shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected against rape, forced prostitution and any other form of indecent assault.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 56.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the Regulations states: “Children shall be provided with necessary care and assistance. Protection shall remain applicable to them even if they take a direct part in hostilities and are captured.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 81.
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone’s Instructor Manual (2007) lists children among “persons under special protection”. 
Sierra Leone, The Law of Armed Conflict. Instructor Manual for the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF), Armed Forces Education Centre, September 2007, p. 29; see also p. 36.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “Children are also the object of a special respect and they shall be protected against any form of indecent assault. If they are taken prisoner, they shall be protected under special provisions.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, División de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 1.3.c.(1); see also § 5.2.a.(2).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “Children … are also the object of special respect and must be protected against any form of indecent assault … If they are taken prisoner, they are protected by special provisions.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 1.3.c.(1); see also § 5.2.a.(2).(a).
The manual further states: “The parties to the conflict are encouraged to conclude agreements to establish safety zones to protect … children … from the effects of war.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 1.3.c.(1).
Sweden
According to Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991), the “general protection of … children” contained in the 1977 Additional Protocol I has the status of customary international law. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 2.2.3, p. 19.
The manual further provides: “The occupying power also has a particular responsibility in the area of child care.” 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 6.1.3, p. 123.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides: “Children shall be the object of a particular respect. Children shall be protected against any form of indecent assault.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 146(3).
The manual also states: “Children shall be the object of a particular protection and respect.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 36; see also Lois et coutumes de la guerre, Manuel 51.7/III dfi, Armée suisse, 1984, p. 39 and Droit des gens en temps de guerre, Programme d’instruction fondé sur le Manuel 51.7/III “Lois et coutumes de la guerre”, Cours de base pour recrues de toutes les armes 97.2f, Armée suisse, 1986, p. 107.
The manual further provides: “Necessary measures must be taken so that children under 15 years of age, who are separated from their families as a result of war, are not left to their own resources.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 157(1).
In addition, the manual states: “Transports of … children … effected by convoys of vehicles and hospital trains, shall be respected and protected in the same way as hospitals.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 37.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Regulation on Legal Bases for Conduct during an Engagement (2005) states: “[C]hildren … must be specially protected.” 
Switzerland, Bases légales du comportement à l’engagement (BCE), Règlement 51.007/IVf, Swiss Army, issued based on Article 10 of the Ordinance on the Organization of the Federal Department for Defence, Civil Protection and Sports of 7 March 2003, entry into force on 1 July 2005, § 199.
(emphasis in original)
Tajikistan
Tajikistan’s Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces (2001) states: “It is prohibited to use weapons against … minors.” 
Tajikistan, Manual of Internal Service of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan, endorsed by the Decree of the Madjilsi Namoyandagon of Madjlisi Oli [Parliament] of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 273 of 4 April 2001 and promulgated by the Order of the Minister of Defence of the Republic of Tajikistan No. 3 of 2 May 2001, § 12.
Togo
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) provides: “Children shall be treated with respect due to their … age.” 
Togo, Le Droit de la Guerre, III fascicules, Etat-major Général des Forces Armées Togolaises, Ministère de la Défense nationale, 1996, Fascicule III, p. 4.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
As concerns children, international humanitarian law envisages the following:
- the special protection to children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall remain applicable to them even if they took a direct part in hostilities and are captured. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.4.11.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) provides:
35. Belligerents must allow the free passage of … all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under 15 …
36. Belligerents must make provision for the care of children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the war. They must ensure the maintenance of such children … Belligerents must also facilitate the reception of these children by neutral countries for the duration of hostilities, with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards as above, and must endeavour to arrange for all children under 12 to be easily identifiable. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, §§ 35–36.
The manual further states that as aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict, “children under fifteen … must be given the benefit of any preferential treatment that is accorded to similar classes of nationals of the belligerents”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 46.
The manual also provides:
The Occupant must not prevent the application of any measures which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen … with regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 538.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) provides: “The free passage of medical and hospital stores and objects for religious worship is guaranteed as well as essential food and clothes for children.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 9, p. 34, § 5.
The Pamphlet adds: “Parties to the conflict are to care for children under 15, orphans and those separated from their families. They are not to be subject to political propaganda.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 9, p. 34, § 6.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states: “Children are to be respected and protected, especially against indecent assault. The care and aid needed by children must be provided.” 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.9.
In its discussion on the 1977 Additional Protocol II, the manual states:
15.39. In general, “children shall be provided with the care and aid they require” but the protocol also lays down particular requirements. These include an education which makes provision for their religious and moral care, steps to facilitate family reunions, and a ban on their recruitment or participation in the hostilities while under the age of fifteen. However, if children under that age do take part in hostilities, they continue to benefit from the general protections provided in the protocol, including the special protection of them as children. If necessary, measures should be taken, where possible with the consent of their parents or guardians, “to remove children temporarily from the area in which hostilities are taking place to a safer area within the country and ensure that they are accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being”.
15.39.1. Particular attention is given to the position of children because they are likely to be at special risk in internal conflicts. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, §§ 15.39.–15.39.1.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Articles 23, 24, 38, 50 and 89 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, §§ 44, 262, 263, 277, 296 and 389.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states: “Children under 15 … enjoy the same preferential treatment provided for the nationals of the state concerned.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 14-5; see also § 14-3.
United States of America
The US Naval Handbook (1995) provides: “Children are entitled to special respect and protection.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-2.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, October 1995 (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A)/FMFM 1-10, October 1989), § 11.3.
Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s Presidential Decree on Special Operations (2012) states:
Handing over the Special Operations from … NATO to [the] mixed – MoD [Ministry of Defence], MoI [Ministry of the Interior] and NDS [National Directorate of Security] – Afghan security forces was an essential [step] to ensure and guarantee the national sovereignty and rule of law in Afghanistan. Implementation of such operation[s] makes the responsibilities of the judicial and justice bodies harder, and requires them to have a[n] [in-]depth concentration on the fundamental rights and freedom[s] of the citizens, guaranteed in the Constitution and Criminal Procedure Code in [all] phases – inspection, detection, investigation, prosecution and trial.
Thus, I order observance of the following provisions … :
4. During the Special Operations … special measures [are to] be taken to protect juveniles … . 
Afghanistan, Presidential Decree on Special Operations, 2012, Article 4.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War (1995) provides that, in case of evacuation of civilian persons from a besieged zone, “special attention is given to children and they are taken great care of”. 
Azerbaijan, Law concerning the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Rights of Prisoners of War, 1995, Article 15.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law on the Rights of the Child (1998) states: “The government of Azerbaijan undertakes to ensure protection of children located in a conflict zone”. 
Azerbaijan, Law on the Rights of the Child, 1998, Article 37.
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Belarus
Belarus’s Law on the Rights of the Child (1993) states that children separated from their families as a result of armed conflict must be protected and provided with material and medical assistance by the public authorities. 
Belarus, Law on the Rights of the Child, 1993, Article 30.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Law on Child Protection (2009) states: “The State ensures the protection, education and necessary care for children affected by armed conflict … especially those who are found and not identified in relation to their family environment.” 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 72.
The Law also states: “For the purpose of the present law, it is understood as: 1. child: every person under the age of 18”. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 2(1).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
El Salvador
El Salvador’s Penal Code (1997), as amended to 2008, which contains a section on the violations of the laws or customs of war, states in the general section: “Criminal law will be equally applicable to all persons who at the moment of the act were over the age of eighteen. Persons under this age will be subjected to a special regime.” 
El Salvador, Penal Code, 1997, as amended to 2008, Article 17.
Guinea
Guinea’s Children’s Code (2008) states:
Article 265: Every Child … affected by an armed conflict … is considered an “Orphan and Vulnerable Child”.
Article 266: [Orphans and Vulnerable Children] shall benefit from all necessary support from the State and its components.
Such support may include:
- Direct actions in favour of [Orphans and Vulnerable Children] carried out in order to improve their living conditions without the intervention of intermediaries;
- Empowering communities: giving communities the opportunity of endogenous action promoting care for [Orphans and Vulnerable Children];
- Reinforcement of institutional capacities by improving the intervention skills of NGOs [non-governmental organizations], institutions and communities through training courses and equipment;
- Activities and awareness-raising [campaigns] in order to encourage communities to bring about positive change for [Orphans and Vulnerable Children].
Article 267: [Orphans and Vulnerable Children] shall benefit from legal and judicial assistance from the Center for Legal Assistance, [c]ounselling centers, the National Bar Association of Guinea, the National Chamber of Judicial Officers and other State institutions.
Article 287: The following situations are considered as particularly difficult and threatening to the health of a Child, his or her development or physical or moral integrity:
- The Child’s exposure to and his or her exploitation during armed conflicts;
Article 433: Children affected by an armed conflict benefit from all the protective measures laid down in International Humanitarian Law. They shall receive all the care and help they may need due to their age or due to any other reason.
Article 435: A Child shall benefit from material conditions of the detention or internment appropriate to his or her age.
Article 439: All necessary measures shall be taken to ensure that children under the age of 15, who are either orphans or separated from their family for reasons linked to an armed conflict, will not be left to their own devices. 
Guinea, Children’s Code, 2008, Articles 265–267, 287, 433, 435 and 439.
India
India’s Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (2000) states:
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent and commencement. – (1) This Act may be called the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.
(2) it extends to the Whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
2. Definitions – In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, –
d. “child in need of care and protection” means a child –
ix. who is victim of any armed conflict, civil commotion or natural calamity;
CHAPTER III
CHILD IN NEED OF CARE AND PROTECTION
29. Child Welfare Committee. – (1) The State Government may, by notification in [the] Official Gazette, constitute for every district or group of districts, specified in the notification, one or more Child Welfare Committees for exercising the powers and discharge the duties conferred on such Committees in relation to child in need of care and protection under this Act.
31. Powers of Committee. – (1) The Committee shall have the final authority to dispose of cases for the care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of the children as well as to provide for their basic needs and protection of human rights.
32. Production before Committee. – (1) Any child in need of care and protection may be produced before the Committee by one of the following persons:
(i) any police officer or special juvenile police unit or a designated police officer;
(ii) any public servant;
(iii) childline, a registered voluntary organisation or by such other voluntary organisation or an agency as may be recognised by the State Government;
(iv) any social worker or a public spirited citizen authorised by the State Government; or
(v) by the child himself.
33. Inquiry. – (1) On receipt of a report under section 32, the Committee or any police officer or special juvenile police unit or the designated police officer shall hold an inquiry in the prescribed manner and the Committee, on its own or on the report from any person or agency as mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 32, may pass an order to send the child to the children’s home for speedy inquiry by a social worker or child welfare officer.
(3) After the completion of the inquiry if the Committee is of the opinion that the said child has no family or ostensible support, it may allow the child to remain in the children’s home or shelter home till suitable rehabilitation is found for him or till he attains the age of eighteen years.
34. Children’s homes. – (1) The State Government may establish and maintain either by itself or in association with voluntary organisations, children's homes, in every district or group of districts, as the case may be, for the reception of child[ren] in need of care and protection during the pendency of any inquiry and subsequently for their care, treatment, education, training, development and rehabilitation.
37. Shelter homes. – (1) The State Government may recognise reputed and capable voluntary organisations and provide them assistance to set up and administer as many shelter homes for juveniles or children as may be required.
39. Restoration. – (1) Restoration of and protection to a child shall be the prime objective of any children’s home or the shelter home.
(2) The children’s home or a shelter home, as the case may be, shall take such steps as are considered necessary for the restoration of and protection to a child deprived of his family environment temporarily or permanently where such child is under the care and protection of a children’s home or a shelter home, as the case may be.
(3) The Committee shall have the powers to restore any child in need of care and protection to his parent, guardian, fit person or fit institution, as the case may be, and give them suitable directions.
Explanation. – For the purposes of this section “restoration of child” means restoration to –
(a) parents;
(b) adopted parents;
(c) foster parents.
CHAPTER IV
REHABILITATION AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION
40. Process of rehabilitation and social reintegration. – The rehabilitation and social reintegration of a child shall begin during the stay of the child in a children’s home or special home and the rehabilitation and social reintegration of children shall be carried out alternatively by (i) adoption, (ii) foster care, (iii) sponsorship, and (iv) sending the child to an after-care organisation.
CHAPTER V
MISCELLANEOUS
49. Presumption and determination of age. – (1) Where it appears to a competent authority that person brought before it under any of the provisions of this Act (otherwise than for the purpose of giving evidence) is a juvenile or the child, the competent authority shall make due inquiry so as to the age of that person and for that purpose shall take such evidence as may be necessary (but not an affidavit) and shall record a finding whether the person is a juvenile or the child or not, stating his age as nearly as may be.
62. Central, State, district and city advisory boards. – The Central Government or a State Government may constitute a Central or State Advisory board, as the case may be, to advise that Government on matter relating to the establishment and maintenance of the homes, mobilisation of resources, provision of facilities for education, training and rehabilitation of child[ren] in need of care and protection and juvenile[s] in conflict with law and co-ordination among the various official and non-official agencies concerned. 
India, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, Articles 1(1)–(2), 2(d)(ix), 29(1), 31(1), 32(1), 33(1) and (3), 34(1), 37(1), 39–40, 49(1) and 62(1).
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Articles 23, 24, 38, 50, 76 and 89 of the Geneva Convention IV, and of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Articles 70(1) and 77(1), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 4(3), are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Kenya
Kenya’s Children Act (2001) states that “where armed conflict occurs, respect for and protection and care of children shall be maintained in accordance with the law”. 
Kenya, Children Act, 2001, § 10(2).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Rwanda
Rwanda’s Law Relating to Rights and Protection of the Child against Violence (2001) provides:
Article: 1
For the purpose of this law, a child is anybody aged below eighteen (18) years with the exception of what is provided for in other laws.
Article: 23
The child should be cared for and rescued first in times of misfortune and war. 
Rwanda, Law Relating to Rights and Protection of the Child against Violence, 2001, Articles 1 and 23.
Spain
Spain’s Penal Code (1995), as amended in 2003, states:
Anyone who [commits any of the following acts] during armed conflict shall be punished with three to seven years’ imprisonment:
3. … [V]iolating the prohibitions … regarding the special protection owed to … children as stipulated by the international treaties to which Spain is a party. 
Spain, Penal Code, 1995, as amended on 25 November 2003, Article 612(3).
Venezuela
According to Venezuela’s Code of Military Justice (1998), as amended, it is a crime against international law to “make a serious attempt on the life of … children”. 
Venezuela, Code of Military Justice, 1998, as amended, Article 474.
Colombia
In 2005, in the Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
Minors are the subject of different levels of especial protection under international humanitarian law which are relevant in situations of internal armed conflict such as the one in Colombia; thus (i) minors are protected as part of the civilian population, (ii) in addition they receive special protection due to their status as especially vulnerable members of the civilian population. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, Judgment of 8 March 2005, § 4.5.4.2.1.
Colombia
In 2007, in the Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
Taking into account … the development of customary international humanitarian law applicable in internal armed conflicts, the Constitutional Court notes that the fundamental guarantees stemming from the principle of humanity, some of which have attained ius cogens status, … [include] the obligation to protect the special rights of children affected by armed conflict. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-291/07, Judgment of 25 April 2007, p. 112.
[footnote in original omitted]
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
National Strategy for Children at Risk
55. This strategy was adopted in 2006 and seeks to provide a framework for the development of a network of services and programmes which protect children and support their families … The aim is to protect children from exploitation, violence, and abuse. Various categories of children have been identified as “at risk” … Through implementation of this strategy over the last three years 2,366,177 children have been protected.
164. The MoLSAMD [Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs & Disabled] adopted the National Strategy for Children at Risk in 2006. One of the Strategy’s objectives is to build a supportive environment for children at risk by creating conditions for: adequate income and livelihoods for the maintenance of children; suitable and affordable shelters; access to basic healthcare; awareness on importance of nutrition; access to quality education; enabling a secure environment; preventing underage and forced marriages; social protection; awareness on respecting the rights of children; and access to safe drinking water. The Strategy also supports children who are at risk due to armed conflict and tries to secure a standard of living that is in line with the Convention’s standards.
… Child street workers
176. In Afghanistan there are no street children, but there are child street workers who resort to working in the streets because of their families’ poor economic conditions [and] conflict-related problems (internal displacement and weakening of community support networks) …
178. The existence of child street workers is a big challenge for the Government and civil society. The Government, in cooperation with international organizations, has established drop-in day centres to support these children. The children come to the centres daily at specific hours. Here they have access to … food … These centres have … social workers, and other service personnel.
255. In accordance with the National Strategy on the Protection of Children at Risk, article 71, safe play areas have been established throughout the country to facilitate the healthy physical and emotional development of children and preserve them from the risk of landmines and unexploded ordinances.
359. Despite the achievements, many serious challenges still lie ahead on the path of ensuring and institutionalizing child rights such as: … victimization of children during the armed conflict; … lack of access of children to standard living conditions; presence of street children. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 55, 164, 176, 178, 255 and 359.
Afghanistan also stated that the category of “children at risk” includes “child soldiers and other war-affected children … [as well as] internally displaced and returnee children”. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 55, footnote n. 17.
Afghanistan further stated: “The laws of Afghanistan define all individuals under the age of 18 years as a child.” 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 72.
Armenia
In 1997, in its initial report to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Armenia stated: “In times of armed conflict, the State and its organs must give children special protection. The right of the child to personal inviolability is guaranteed by law.” 
Armenia, Initial report to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 5 December 1998, UN Doc. E/1990/5/Add.36, submitted 14 July 1997, § 155.
Australia
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, the representative of Australia stated: “We are concerned that children continue to be subject to … trafficking and other violations.” 
Australia, Statement by its representative before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, 6 May 2010.
Azerbaijan
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Azerbaijan stated:
420. Although 13 years [have passed since] … the announcement of [a] cease fire in the military conflict started by Armenia, children still suffer from its consequences. The war-affected children can be categorized as follows:
(a) Children living in refugee towns or other temporary residences;
(b) Children suffer[ing] from explosive remnants of war (mines);
(c) Children from both categories [who] need physical or psychological rehabilitation
421. Starting 2005, 20-day annual camps [have been] organized for [the] psychological rehabilitation of children and youth [who] became disabled because of mines and [who are] still living in the front-line regions.
424. The Azerbaijani State is committed to [provide enduring] … protection [for] … the children of the war-affected areas in accordance with international legal norms. 
Azerbaijan, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 26 April 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/AZE/3-4, submitted 11 November 2009, §§ 420–421 and 424.
Belgium
In 2004, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Belgium stated: “In armed conflicts children have a right to special attention, in particular to prevent them from being exploited as soldiers. Special attention should be given to the different needs of boys and girls.” 
Belgium, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/1, submitted 30 March 2004, § 73(b).
Belgium
In 2007, in a statement before the UN Security Council on threats to international peace and security, the permanent representative of Belgium stated:
… Belgium welcomes the increased attention that the Security Council is giving to the protection of civilians – particularly that of … children and other vulnerable groups – in armed conflict. The relevant resolutions aimed at the protection of civilians must be effectively implemented. 
Belgium, Statement by the permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on threats to international peace and security, 8 January 2007, pp.10–11.
Belgium
In 2007, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on the humanitarian situation in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa, the deputy permanent representative of Belgium stated, with reference to Somalia: “While stressing the primary responsibility of the Transitional Federal Government [of Somalia], Belgium calls upon all parties immediately to ensure the protection of civilians, especially of children”. 
Belgium, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on the humanitarian situation in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa, 21 May 2007, p. 18.
Chad
In 2009, during the consideration of Chad’s initial report to the Committee against Torture, a statement of the delegation of Chad was summarized by the Committee in its records as follows:
In the area of protection of children, the Government of Chad had set up several programmes in cooperation with international organizations such as UNICEF. These programmes included … a draft global policy to promote all-round development of children, which was aimed at particularly vulnerable children such as … child soldiers. 
Chad, Statement of the delegation of Chad before the Committee against Torture during the consideration of the initial report of Chad, 30 April 2009, published in the summary record of the 873rd meeting, 25 September 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.873, § 28.
Chad
In 2011, in the Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, the Government of Chad stated:
2.1 The Government of Chad specifically undertakes to fully and effectively implement the following provisions:
f) Implement a concrete strategy to prevent … abuse of children by members of the armed forces. 
Chad, Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, 15 June 2011, Article 2.1(f).
China
In 2005, during a debate in the UN Security Council on children and armed conflict, China stated:
Children are the future of the world, and they represent humankind’s hopes for tomorrow. However, as the most vulnerable group, they are often adversely affected by armed conflict. All countries and parties have an obligation to try their best to protect children from the harm of armed conflict. In recent years, the United Nations adopted a series of measures to promote the protection of children in armed conflict. It has also achieved positive results in this area. The Security Council has adopted a series of resolutions – namely, resolutions 1261 (1999), 1314 (2000), 1379 (2001), 1460 (2003) and 1539 (2004) – that provide a very important legal framework for the protection of children. Some United Nations peacekeeping operations have also taken the protection of children very seriously, including by appointing child protection advisers and by assisting countries emerging from conflict to give full consideration to the special needs of children as part of their disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes. In addition, some of the peace agreements that the United Nations has promoted or participated in contain provisions on the protection of children. And some of the countries concerned have taken active steps to provide legislative safeguards for the protection of children. All of that has, to a certain degree, reduced the harm that armed conflict causes children, and such steps should be affirmed.
But despite that progress in the protection of children in armed conflict, countless children continue to suffer from the effects of such conflict. The situation of encroachment upon children's rights by parties to armed conflicts has not improved a great deal. The international community must make sustained efforts to truly change the situation. In that connection, we agree that, in the context of the maintenance of international peace and security, the Security Council should intensify its efforts to prevent and curb conflicts and actively address the root causes of the phenomenon of child soldiers in order to achieve our goal of protecting children. The United Nations should collect its experience in the area of protecting children during peacekeeping operations and give it special treatment so that future peacekeeping operations can benefit from that experience. At the same time, all parties to armed conflicts should strive to meet their obligations under relevant international law and to respect and safeguard the legitimate rights of children. Post-conflict reconstruction should solve the problem by prioritizing the return of children to their families, schools and communities and by providing sufficient resources to that end.
We appreciate the fact that the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, the United Nations Children's Fund, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other United Nations agencies are playing an active role in protecting children in armed conflict. We agree that coordination and cooperation between the United Nations and the relevant regional organizations and among United Nations agencies should be strengthened. We must adopt an integrated strategy in joining efforts to help countries in conflict to increase their ability to protect children. China will continue to work with the international community in making its due contribution to the protection of children. 
China, Statement by the ambassador before the Un Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, 23 February 2005.
China
In 2006, during a debate in the UN Security Council on children and armed conflict, China stated:
… it is regrettable that, at present, children in more than 30 countries around the world are harmed in various ways by armed conflicts. Some of them are killed in merciless wars, while others are forced into armed conflicts as a means of war, still others are kidnapped or subject to various forms of physical abuse. These children rightfully belong in classrooms, studying and acquiring knowledge. Instead, they have become victims of armed conflicts. What needs to be pointed out in particular is that, the recent sudden escalation of the conflict between Lebanon and Israel has resulted in the death of many children in aerial and artillery bombardments, which is shocking to us. We strongly appeal to the parties concerned to strictly abide by international humanitarian law to avoid hurting the innocent, particularly children, and to provide every facility and help for the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
All countries and parties have the obligation to do their utmost to protect children from being harmed in armed conflict. In recent years, the United Nations has taken a number of measures in promoting the protection of children in armed conflict, and positive results have been achieved. In the last seven years, the Security Council has adopted six consecutive resolutions, which provide a comparatively sound framework for the protection of children in armed conflict. Taking the protection of children as an important aspect of their operations, some United Nations peacekeeping missions have given full consideration to the special needs of children in helping the host countries in their disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs. Some peace agreements concluded with the facilitation and participation of the United Nations also include provisions for protecting children. Countries concerned have taken action to provide guarantees for the protection of children through legislation. These commendable developments have reduced the harm that armed conflict inflicts on children to a certain extent. China is very much concerned that armed conflict in different regions of the world causes harm to children. We support all efforts made by the United Nations, including the Security Council, in promoting the protection of children in armed conflict. I wish to emphasize the following points in this regard:
First, the Security Council should step up its efforts to prevent conflict and maintain peace. Stemming and reducing armed conflicts at their source would protect children by creating the objective conditions for it …
Second, when dealing with the issue of “Children and Armed Conflict”, we should always respect and support the role played by the governments of the countries concerned. Security Council Resolution 1612 “stresses the primary role of national governments in providing effective protection and relief to all children affected by armed conflict.” The operative part of this resolution also repeatedly makes reference to the important role of the governments of the countries concerned … At present, many national governments in conflict situations have adopted various strategies and plans prohibiting the recruitment of child soldiers and protecting children affected by armed conflict. All these factors have to be considered when carrying out international cooperation in this field.
Third, the work of the monitoring and reporting mechanism of the Security Council on Children and Armed Conflict and that of the working group should be further improved and enhanced …
Fourth, the protection of children in armed conflict is an endeavour on a large scale, calling for the collective efforts of all parties concerned. China appreciates the work done by the SRSG [Special Representative of the Secretary-General, here: Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict], including the cooperation she has engaged in with the governments concerned. At the same time, the UN specialized agencies, including UNICEF, and the resident offices of the UN system also have important responsibilities of their own in this field. China believes all parties concerned should strengthen their coordination and cooperation to provide concerted assistance to the countries involved to build up their capacity to protect children. In addition, some civil society organizations and humanitarian organizations have also participated in numerous efforts to protect children. They sometimes operate in very dangerous environments. We would like to recognize their hard work, and hope that they will abide by the principles of justice, neutrality and humanitarianism in helping to advance the local peace process.
Lastly, China once again urges parties to all armed conflicts to genuinely discharge their responsibilities to respect and protect the rights of children. While facilitating post-conflict reconstruction, the international community should give priority to solving such issues as the return of children to their families, to schools and to their society, and provide adequate resources for it. The protection of children has always been a focus in the work of the government of China, which has ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflicts as early as in 2002. We call on more countries to accede to the Protocol, and hope that the protocol provisions concerning the age limit for conscription will be observed. China hopes that, with the efforts of all parties, a favourable environment will be created for children all over the world to live and grow and enjoy a bright future. 
China, Statement by the ambassador before the Un Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, 24 July 2006.
Colombia
In a statement before the Human Rights Committee in 1988, the representative of Colombia reported that the child vaccination campaigns in Colombia had served as a model in other States, including El Salvador, where hostilities had been suspended in order to allow children to be vaccinated. 
Colombia, Statement before the Human Rights Committee, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SR.819, 14 July 1988, § 8.
Djibouti
In 2011, in the History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, Djibouti’s Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, under the heading “Codes and wisdom”, stated: “One does not kill children.” 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, 2011, p. 214.
Under the heading “Ethics of Debne warriors” [inhabitants of the Dikhil region in Djibouti], the ministry also stated:
5. Spare children … that are not armed.
6. Spare vulnerable persons (… [such as] children …) and release them. 
Djibouti, Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training, History and Geography Textbook for 9th Grade, 2011, p. 231.
Finland
In 2004, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Finland stated:
The Government of Finland’s report on human rights policy, released in March 2004, states that children in the midst of international conflicts and civil wars require special protection. Child soldiers, like other children affected by war, are victims. 
Finland, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 10 March 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/FIN/1, submitted 1 June 2004, § 18.
France
According to a statement by the permanent representative of France before the UN in 1999, France considers that the age limit to be protected as a child (15 years) in the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child is not satisfactory and that it should be raised to 18 years to ensure a better and more effective protection of children during conflicts. 
France, Statement of the permanent representative of France to the UN on the protection of civilians affected by armed conflict, New York, 12 February 1999, Politique étrangère de la France, February 1999.
Germany
In 2003, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the representative of Germany stated:
“Helpless outrage is a characteristic emotion of the global age”, a journalist writing about child war amputees from Freetown recently observed. I think that all of us feel outrage at the devastating effect of armed conflict on children. We are outraged at the cynicism and cruelty of adults who steal the childhood of boys and girls by making them fight in their wars.
The Council is one of the few bodies in the world that does not have to confine itself to “helpless outrage”. The Council can act. Germany is very pleased at the coincidence that its first public address to the Council should deal with children and armed conflict. This issue belongs firmly on the Council’s agenda. Germany will do whatever it can to ensure that we do not stop at debate but also take action …
We thank the Secretary-General, Mr. Olara Otunnu and Ms. Carol Bellamy for their opening remarks and for their reminders that we need practical and concrete progress on the pressing issues facing us.
Germany welcomes this year’s report by the Secretary-General.
Germany fully supports the Special Representative’s call for a vigorous monitoring effort by the United Nations to ensure that States fulfil their international obligations. The list annexed to this report is an important starting point. However, monitoring will only succeed if those who refuse to cooperate and to act upon their international obligations face consequences. We support every effort of the Council to add bite to these monitoring efforts. And we support Olara Otunnu’s concept of systematic monitoring as a trigger for action, as just set out in his opening remarks.
The Council has made promising progress towards including the rights of the child in its deliberations and actions with regard to specific country situations. The inclusion of child protection units in peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, most recently, Angola has helped to bring the problem into sharp relief. We are eager to hear about further results from these new components of peacekeeping operations. Germany considers it crucial that the Council take the rights of the child into account in all its country-specific actions. The problems facing us are by no means confined to the three aforementioned countries of Africa.
Urgent action is needed in many other fields as well. The Secretary-General’s report once again deals with the cruel effects of anti-personnel mines on children. Germany is strongly committed to the fight against anti-personnel landmines. It is crucial to enhance these efforts and to coordinate efforts in mine action. This is a field where every additional effort yields immediate results. Each mine we clear saves lives.
Many more pressing matters in this debate call for urgent action. They include the aspects of gender, humanitarian access and sexual exploitation – also by peacekeepers. Some of these will be touched upon by my colleague from Greece in his statement for the European Union, with which Germany fully associates itself.
The Council will hopefully soon adopt a further resolution on children and armed conflict. Germany has joined other members of the Council to make the draft resolution as action-oriented as possible …
Allow me to conclude by saying that the Secretary-General’s report underscores the importance of the mandate of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. We believe that both UNICEF and the Special Representative, as well as other actors in the United Nations system, have crucial and complementary roles to play in this field. We encourage them and all Member States to join efforts in a spirit of common purpose. 
Germany, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4684, 14 January 2003, pp. 8–9.
Germany
In 2004, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the representative of Germany stated:
Women and children are among the most vulnerable groups in times of conflict, whether they be civilians or child soldiers … In particular, children suffer. They are defenceless in situations of conflict if separated from or deprived of their parents, and their ability to cope with a quickly changing environment is very restricted. Many children without protection are being kidnapped and made child soldiers. Forcing children to carry arms rather than letting them develop peacefully is one of the cruellest acts. Women and children are also, to an unprecedented extent, victims of severe and atrocious sexual violence.
Germany thus proposes the following measures.
The first is a new resolution on the protection of civilians; the most recent resolution that the Security Council adopted on the protection of civilians in armed conflict (resolution 1296 (2000)) dates from 2000. That resolution, as well as the preceding relevant resolution (resolution 1265 (1999)), were regarded as a starting point. After four years we feel the need for an update of the most recent resolution, to take into account recent developments and the changing character of conflicts. Germany would support efforts aimed at adopting a new resolution.
A second measure would be more frequent reporting by the Emergency Relief Coordinator …
A third measure would be the promotion of the responsibility of new actors. There are new actors in the area of the protection of civilians in armed conflict whom we have to deal with. More than ever before, we need constructive engagement with non-State armed groups. They not only have the potential to deny humanitarian actors humanitarian access; they actually do it. They are also a potential source of harm to the civilian populations where they operate. Without legitimizing them and their actions, we must explore innovative ways to engage them in a constructive dialogue and, where necessary, to pressure them to make them abide by international humanitarian law and human rights norms. 
Germany, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4990, 14 June 2004, pp. 24–25.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
On the basis of the 2003 EU Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflict and the relating 2004 Plan of Action, [the Federal Government] together with its EU partners will work towards better protection of children in armed conflict, and to this purpose
- will demand respect for international humanitarian law and for other norms on the protection of children in armed conflicts … 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, p. 203.
Germany
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Germany stated:
2. Both in the United Nations and in the European Union (EU) context as well as bilaterally, the Federal Government firmly supports an improvement in the protection of children in armed conflicts, including implementation of the Optional Protocol and its application if possible on a worldwide basis.
3. Hence Germany is involved, together with its EU partners, in the rigorous application of the EU Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflict of December 2003. In the wake of a review of this Guideline in December 2005, the EU adopted Council conclusions with recommendations of a more extensive nature, and in April 2006 it also adopted an implementation strategy for the application of these recommendations. Their implementation will be a main focus of attention when Germany holds the EU Council Presidency during the first six months of the year 2007.
4. In May 2006 the EU States adopted a new batch of measures for bringing the subject of “protection of children in armed conflicts” into European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) operations.
5. In July 2006 Germany gave its support – together with its EU partners – to a declaration by the President of the Security Council on the subject of “Children and Armed Conflict”, which, amongst other things, contains an appeal to the international community of States to make a common effort to bring about a distinct improvement in the protection of children in conflict situations of this kind.
6. Germany is also one of the States that has been giving financial and political support, from the very outset, to the Office of the Special Representative for children and armed conflict, which was established in 1996. 
Germany, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OPAC/DEU/1, 17 April 2007, submitted 5 January 2007, §§ 2–6.
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
8. Which procedures are envisaged for the treatment of child soldiers injured, apprehended or detained by the Bundeswehr?
In the completed operation EUFOR RD CONGO, the following framework was adopted regarding apprehended or detained children and included in the pocket card of June 2006 for the German contingent of the operation EUFOR RD CONGO:
a) As far as possible they are to be treated in a child-sensitive way.
b) If there are doubts about the age of the apprehended individuals, they are to be treated as children.
f) Rights and obligations of parents or carers are to be respected as much as possible.
Moreover, armed confrontations with children or information that they are being used in armed groups are to be reported. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, pp. 4–5.
The Federal Government also wrote:
18. Does the Federal Government share the view that under-age members of Afghan armed groups should be treated differently than adults in case of detention?
a) If so, how is this currently ensured by the Bundeswehr, other ISAF troops and the Afghan authorities?
b) If not, why not?
In the view of the Federal Government all detained minors are to be treated in accordance with international law, in particular the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, p. 7.
The Federal Government further wrote:
19. In the course of ISAF [International Security Assistance Force] and OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom), was there an agreement on special procedures for dealing with child soldiers?
a) If so, which ones?
b) If not, why was this considered not to be necessary?
The Bundeswehr does not contribute forces to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).
Within ISAF, the ISAF rules inter alia contain the following provisions on the potential detention of minors:
a) The search of children is to be carried out particularly carefully and only in the presence of a superior.
b) In case a detainee person possibly is younger than 18 years, he or she is to be treated with special care. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, p. 7.
Ghana
In 1995, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Ghana reported that the “government agency responsible for abandoned and orphaned children worked with the Save the Children Fund to provide care for the children affected by the conflict” in the northern part of the country. 
Ghana, Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.39, 19 December 1995, § 126.
Guinea
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guinea stated:
18. Training programmes have been designed and implemented for judges and justice officials to familiarize them with the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child], and particularly articles 37 [prohibition of torture, arbitrary deprivation of liberty, human treatment, contact with family members, access to legal assistance and right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of liberty] and 40 [infringement of penal law by a child], and to familiarize members of the Armed Forces with the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
19. Every military garrison now has a Convention focal point.
480. The armed conflicts in neighbouring countries and their repercussions in Guinea … have affected children more than anyone else.
482. Action taken:
- Establishment of child protection units in the garrisons of the country
- Training of more than 2,000 senior and junior officers and enlisted personnel in the protection of children before, during and after armed conflicts
487. There are also shelters and counselling centres for the physical and psychological … rehabilitation of children in general. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 18–19, 480, 482 and 487.
India
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, India stated:
8A.2.1 Status and Trends
8. India does not face either international or non-international armed conflict situations. India is a party to the 1949 Geneva Convention and remains committed to fulfilment of its obligations there under.
8A.2.2 Legislation
9. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, (JJ Act, 2000), provides for care and protection, rehabilitation and social re-integration of children, who are vulnerable or victim of any form of abuse, torture, neglect or exploitation. The JJ Act, 2000, also includes children, who are victims of armed conflict or civil commotion, as children in need of care and protection.
10. The principles enshrined in the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Act, 2006, (JJ (Amendment) Act, 2006), and the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Rules, 2007, (JJ Rules, 2007) protect the interests of all children in need of care and protection. The JJ Rules, 2007, under the Principle of Safety, stipulate protection at all stages, from the initial contact till the time a child remains in contact with the care and protection system, and thereafter.
11. The NCPCR [National Commission for Protection of Child Rights] at Central level and State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs) at State level investigate cases of child rights violation. … Besides, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) also investigates incidences of rights violation. …
8A.2.3 Programmes
12. The Programme for Juvenile Justice, which provides shelter and rehabilitation for all children under care and protection, has been merged into the recently-launched Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS). The Scheme has provisions for specialised care services, with physical, psychological, counselling support and medical services to children in need of care and protection, including those affected by various forms of exploitation and abuse, and victims of any armed conflict or civil strife. 
India, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/IND/3-4, submitted 26 August 2011, § 8A.2.
[footnote in original omitted]
India
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, India stated:
18. Even though India does not face armed conflict, there are legislative provisions that prevent involvement of children in armed conflict and provide care and protection to children affected by armed conflict.
19. A child affected by armed conflict has been already defined by the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (JJ Act), 2000, as a child in need of care and protection. Therefore, all the measures available under this Act are available for such children, which have a standard component of minimum standards to be adhered to. …
20. The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS), launched by the MWCD [Ministry of Women and Child Development] in 2009, is a centrally-sponsored scheme that provides a safe and secure environment for overall development of children in need of care and protection, including children in difficult circumstances, such as children affected by, or involved in armed conflict. The objective of the Scheme is to contribute to the improvement in the well-being of children in difficult circumstances, and to the reduction of vulnerabilities to situations and actions that lead to abuse, neglect, exploitation, abandonment and separation of children. These will be achieved by:
(a) Improved access to, and quality of, child protection services;
[(b)] Increased public awareness about the reality of child rights, situation and protection in India;
[(c)] Clearly articulated responsibilities and enforced accountability for child protection;
[(d)] Established and functioning structures at all Government levels for delivery of statutory and support services to children in difficult circumstances;
[(e)] Introduction of operational-evidence-based monitoring and evaluation.
21. The [2000] Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict was ratified by India in 2005. Since then, the country has initiated the process of implementation of the various articles of the Convention. 
India, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/IND/1, submitted 26 August 2011, §§ 18–21.
Indonesia
In 1992, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Indonesia reported that according to its national legislation, “in any circumstances … children should be protected first”. 
Indonesia, Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.10, 14 January 1993, § 104.
Iraq
In 2012, in its Report on Iraqi Children After 2003, the Ministry of Human Rights of Iraq stated:
After the collapse of the dictatorial regime and consequent collapse of state institutions and the continuation of military operations and resulting suffering of children [from] displacement, murder, kidnapping and trafficking[,] among other practices which are a product of wars and bloody conflicts[,] … children and women … are among such vulnerable groups that are least capable to provide protection for themselves.
National strategies, plans, policies supporting childhood
Social policies of reform programs tackled personal security … as well as creating favorable opportunities for … finding solutions to treat the outcomes of wars and to achieve environmental security and identify the challenges facing the children of Iraq, such as the following phenomena: … children as victims of armed conflicts … [and] the dangers of mines on Iraqi children.
Protective measures
Out of the need to secure protection to the children of Iraq, especially the most vulnerable thereof, the [G]overnment of the [R]epublic of Iraq … had adopted a national strategy derived from [the] Iraqi reality to confront challenges threatening Iraqi children. Focus is made now to legislate several acts, programs, and policies to protect [the] most vulnerable and deprived factions of the society including … children victims of armed conflicts[.] 
Iraq, Ministry of Human Rights, Report on Iraqi Children After 2003, 19 December 2012, pp. 1, 4 and 36.
Israel
In 2009, in a report on Israeli operations in Gaza between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009 (the “Gaza Operation”, also known as “Operation Cast Lead”), Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the operational order contained the following provision: “Special protection shall be provided to … children”. 
Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Operation in Gaza 27 December 2008–18 January 2009: Factual and Legal Aspects, 29 July 2009, § 226.
Jordan
The Report on the Practice of Jordan states that special care is provided to children who have been orphaned or separated from their families. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) stated:
2. Children in armed conflict (art. 38 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child]), including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration (art. 39 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child])
122. … In time of war … the authorities responsible (Ministry of National [D]efence and Ministry of [S]ecurity) will take the necessary measures to protect the civilian population, including children.
124. … In the event of the threat of war and emergency general mobilization, the administrative authorities, the State bodies, the mass organizations and the social organizations will take care of the families of those who have been mobilized to perform their patriotic duty (art. 24, subpara. 4, of the Act on National Service Obligations) and to protect the civilian population generally; if fighting takes place, the Government will apply the provisions of the [1949] Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (arts. 14 to 17).
125. The international humanitarian law applicable to the Lao PDR in such circumstances will consist in the 1949 Geneva Convention[s], and, more particularly, the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War to which the Lao PDR is a signatory. As for the measures to be taken to protect children, the Government does not yet know what they would be, as the Lao PDR is currently living in a time of peace, and the Lao Government has no intention of provoking anyone and will not be the first to engage in war. However, if the Lao PDR is attacked, the Government will take account of the circumstances at the time to seek humanitarian assistance from friendly countries and international organizations.
126. In the current situation where everything is normal, the Government applies the general principles of the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] where it can; in applying the provisions of article 38 of the Convention, it will, of course, respect those principles, except in emergency situations beyond its control.
127. In the event of war, the Government will review the measures necessary for the physical and mental rehabilitation of children who are the victims of armed conflict and their social reintegration, according to the possibilities at the time.
128. Since the past 30 years have been a time of peace, children under 18 have never been the victims of war. As a result, the Government has no policy or plan to repair the physical and psychological effects of war on children and promote their social reintegration; similarly, no measure has been taken to demobilize child soldiers, as the Lao People’s Army contains no soldiers below the age of 18.
129. Given that the provisions of articles 38 and 39 of the Convention do not reflect the actual situation in the Lao PDR, the Government is unable to assess the progress made or difficulties encountered in implementing those articles. It is, however, in the process of looking into the possibility of signing the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict. 
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 10 August 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LAO/2, submitted 22 April 2009, §§ 122 and 124–129.
Nepal
In 2004, in a declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, the Prime Minister of Nepal stated:
Women and children shall enjoy the rights of special protection. The rights of women and children shall be fully protected and international laws such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women shall be respected. The mechanism to examine ways to end such discrimination shall be strengthened. 
Nepal, Declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, 26 March 2004, § 17.
Netherlands
Upon ratification of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Netherlands stated: “In times of armed conflict, provisions shall prevail that are most conducive to guaranteeing the protection of children under international law.” 
Netherlands, Reservations and declarations made upon ratification of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, 6 February 1995, reprinted in UN Doc. CRC/C/2/Rev.4, 28 July 1995, p. 27.
New Zealand
In 2010, in a statement before the Ministerial Follow-Up Forum to the Paris Commitments and Paris Principles on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups, the permanent representative of New Zealand to the United Nations stated:
I am now pleased to confirm New Zealand’s endorsement of the [2007] Paris Commitments and Paris Principles.
It is our hope that joining those who support these principles will bolster the ongoing and systematic commitment of the Security Council, Member States and the UN and its organs that is required to ensure that children are protected from the horrors of war. 
New Zealand, Statement by the permanent representative to the United Nations at the Ministerial Follow-Up Forum to the Paris Commitments and Paris Principles on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups, New York, 27 September 2010.
Norway
In 2008, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Norway stated: “Protection of children in war and armed conflict and children’s participation in peacebuilding, peace and reconciliation are a prioritized area within Norwegian strategy for children and young persons in the south.” 
Norway, Fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 May 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NOR/4, submitted 28 February 2008, § 662.
Norway
In 2009, in a White Paper on “Climate, Conflict and Capital”, Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated:
Despite the increased focus on children, serious violations of children’s rights are a major challenge for the international legal order. The contexts of conflicts have changed. Efforts to protect children must take into account new threats. …
The Government will … seek to ensure effective protection of children in armed conflicts and in connection with peacekeeping operations. 
Norway, Report to Parliament, White Paper on “Climate, Conflict and Capital”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 February 2009, § 5.4.
Norway
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the counsellor of Norway’s Permanent Mission to the UN stated:
Norway welcomes the Security Council’s development of an increasingly strong protection framework for Children in Armed Conflict, most recently through its resolution 1882. …
Norway is encouraged by the Security Council’s expressed readiness, as set out in its most recent presidential statement on the issue, to impose targeted measures against persistent violators of international law who are recruiting, sexually abusing, or maiming and killing children in war. 
Norway, Statement before the UN Security Council by the Counsellor at the Permanent Mission of Norway to the UN on the “Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict”, 7 July 2010.
Pakistan
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Pakistan stated: “The National Plan of Action for Children 2006 has a goal to protect children from the impact of armed conflict and ensure compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights.” 
Pakistan, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 19 March 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/PAK/3–4, submitted 4 January 2008, § 534.
Philippines
In 1993, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Philippines stated:
200. The Special Protection Act declares children as “Zones of Peace”. This Act provides that children shall not be the object of attack and shall be the object of special respect. They are to be protected from any form of threat, assault, torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. …
201. In any barangay where armed conflict occurs, the barangay chairperson shall submit to the municipal social welfare and development officer the names of all children residing in the barangay within 24 hours of the start of the conflict. …
203. In any case where a child is arrested for reasons related to armed conflict, he or she shall be entitled to … immediate full legal assistance, …
204. In support of the Special Protection Act, the Armed Forces of the Philippines issued in 1991 a memorandum order specifically on the protection of children during military operations.
206. Children who are lost, abandoned or orphaned as a result of an armed conflict are referred to the local Council for the Protection of Children or to the Department of Social Welfare and Development. All efforts are undertaken to locate the child’s parents and relatives. Arrangements are made for the temporary care of the child by a licensed foster family or a child-caring agency. 
Philippines, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.23, 3 November 1993, §§ 200, 201, 203, 204 and 206.
Philippines
In 2007, in its report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the Philippines stated:
67. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.
196. The government acknowledges that the imperative for the country’s military units to receive education and training along the lines of child protection and child rights must also be pursued. 
Philippines, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/PHL/1, 7 November 2007, §§ 67 and 196.
Russian Federation
In 2012, in a statement before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, the deputy permanent representative of the Russian Federation stated:
It is clear that, despite the measures that have been undertaken at the international and national levels, along with the existence of a broad international legal foundation, children continue to be among the most vulnerable groups affected by armed conflict. Russia condemns all serious offences committed against children, regardless of who perpetrates them, and advocates the prosecution of all such perpetrators. … The primary responsibility for protecting and rehabilitating children belongs to national Governments …
A key role in the [UN] Security Council’s activity in the area of protecting children in armed conflict unquestionably belongs to the Special Representative of the [UN] Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. In that regard, we welcome the appointment to the post of Ms. Leila Zerrougui and hope that her considerable experience in the United Nations system will help her make a significant contribution to measures taken at the international level to protect children affected by armed conflict, and to make efforts in this area more effective. …
In recent years, we have unquestionably been quite effective in achieving system-wide coordination of efforts in the area of the protection of children in armed conflict. … Here we should mention specifically the active part played by the Special Representative in the International Criminal Court’s first prosecution of a war crime [of] the recruitment and active use of children in combat in the Lubanga case. 
Russian Federation, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of the Russian Federation during a UN Security Council open debate on children and armed conflict, 19 September 2012, pp. 15–16.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Rwanda stated:
24. … Rwanda formulated a national policy on orphans and other vulnerable children since January 2003. This policy contains strategies and measures to respond to various situations of vulnerability of the child …
25. Specific objectives of the Policy on these children are the following:
(a) To guarantee the respect of the rights of the child during and after conflict situations. 
Rwanda, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 December 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/RWA/1, submitted 20 January 2010, §§ 24 and 25(a).
Special protection measures
17. With regard to special protection measures, laws, policies, strategies and programmes have been established to protect the categories of vulnerable children, namely refugee children, children affected by armed conflicts, children in conflict with the law, children in situations of exploitation, children belonging to a minority or an indigenous group and children living or working in the streets.
Somalia
In 1998, an ICRC publication entitled “Spared from the Spear” recorded traditional Somali practice in warfare as follows:
The leader … gave out the following instructions which were to be strictly followed:
4. The weak and vulnerable members of the enemy such as … children … should be left unharmed. 
Somalia, Spared from the Spear, 1998, p. 24.
The publication also described traditional Somali practice as follows:
In order to ensure that the values of honour and nobility were maintained at all times, traditional Somali society evolved a strict code of conduct that clearly defined the categories of people and things that were not to be abused in any way during a war. This convention of war, acknowledged and respected by almost all Somali pastoral nomads, is commonly known as xeerka biri-ma-geydada, or the “spared from the spear” code.
The traditional Biri-ma-geydo code covered certain categories of people who, far from being killed or harmed, were supposed to be cared for and assisted at all times. Adherence to this code was specially enjoined during hostilities. Among the types of persons afforded protection by this code were … children …
… [C]hildren belonged to the category of the weak and vulnerable persons whose harming was generally regarded with strong disapproval. Any man who allowed himself to come down to the lowly level of using force against … children was rightly regarded as a coward who could not face the men in battle and was, instead, taking out his anger on the weak and helpless. Looking at this matter from another angle … children were believed to constitute the … “seeds” that ensured the survival and continuity of society; and killing them was viewed as being tantamount to “cutting down the tree at its base”, leading society down the road to annihilation and extinction. 
Somalia, Spared from the Spear, 1998, pp. 30–31.
In 2011, in its comments on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning Somalia’s report, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia referred to “Spared from the Spear” as its “own Geneva Conventions”:
In times of hostilities, the Biri-Ma-Geydo (Spared from the Spear), i.e. Somalia’s own “Geneva Conventions”[,] which existed long before the adoption of the Hague and Geneva Conventions, mitigated and regulated the conduct of clan hostilities and the treatment of immune groups. 
Somalia, Comments by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on the concluding observations of the Human Rights Council concerning the report of Somalia, submitted 21 September 2011, § 4.
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated:
Somalia has not ratified AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II] and it is therefore not directly applicable to Somalia as a matter of treaty law. The Government is aware that many provisions of AP II represent customary IHL rules and therefore apply to the situation in Somalia. Such provisions include Article 4 providing guarantees to persons taking no active part in hostilities … due to the fact that these norms are reflected in Common Article 3 of the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 75.
Sri Lanka
In 1994, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka stated, with respect to child victims of armed conflict and refugees:
There are several urgent needs that have to be met [including] the special health and nutritional needs of infants and pre-school children … [and the] care and rehabilitation of children traumatized by violence. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.13, 5 May 1994, § 146.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
22. The Government agencies involved in the protection of the rights of the child are:
(a) National Child Protection Authority (NCPA);
(b) Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment (MCDWE);
(c) Department of Probation and Child Care Services (DPCCS);
(d) Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka (HRCSL).
23. There are many civil society organizations which collaborate with the above Government agencies on child protection issues. The Government has undertaken several initiatives to safeguard children’s protection rights including creating public awareness through the media which plays a key role in advocacy.
24. In April 2007, the Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment established a Task Force in relation to children affected by the armed conflict. It focused on issues raised in United Nations Security Council resolution 1612 and the Security Council Committee set up under it. Subject areas of focus in the Task Force include conformity of Sri Lankan legislation with the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] to provide protection for children affected by the armed conflict … , preventing the exposure of the identity of child combatants, promotion of universal birth registration, protection … of child soldiers, improving law enforcement and the strengthening of institutional capacity, specifically, the HRCSL and the NCPA, and the setting up of a National Database.
36. The former Special Representative of the [UN] Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict Mr. Olara Otunnu was invited by the Government to visit Sri Lanka in May 1998 … During his meeting with the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] he raised several issues concerning the protection, rights and welfare of children affected by the ongoing conflict. The LTTE made the following commitments in relation to children in armed conflict to Mr. Otunnu during his meeting with the LTTE[:]
(d) During his visit Mr Otunnu stressed the importance of all parties including the non-State sector, observing the Convention of the Rights of the Child. He urged the LTTE to make public their respect of the principles and provisions of the Convention. However, the LTTE did indicate their willingness, to enable their cadres to receive information and instructions on the provisions of the Convention …
37. These commitments were not implemented by the LTTE. …
57. Sri Lanka’s abiding commitment to the welfare of children irrespective of gender, ethnicity, caste and religion is borne out by its welfare programmes focussed on children, which includes the provision of free healthcare … island-wide. These welfare programmes, including its poverty alleviation programmes, have benefited children without discrimination and led to sustained declines in under five mortality and maternal mortality, high levels of life expectancy at birth and high levels of literacy. However, these main social benefits are seriously eroded when children are used in armed conflict and suffer death, maiming, abuse and exploitation.
58. The Government is firmly committed to ensure that all children have the right to live with their families in dignity, be free of fear, intimidation and harassment … and be healthy.
Assistance and Protection to Victims of Crime and Witnesses Bill
74. The priority and emphasis of the Government on the protection of children from abuse and exploitation is manifested through the creation of a separate statutory authority namely the NCPA [National Child Protection Authority]. The NCPA was established through an Act of Parliament in 1998. It functions as a multi-sectoral Government body with an infrastructure capable of effectively responding to child abuse and exploitation, so that the Government could fulfil its obligations under the Convention [on the Rights of the Child] in relation to child protection issues. The NCPA promotes legal reform, child friendly judicial processes, strengthening law enforcement and justice for children and promoting access to therapy, counselling and rehabilitation of child victims of abuse.
75. The NCPA also undertakes activities in relation to the conduct of special investigations, relating to child abuse …
76. According to …section 39 of the National Child Protection Authority Act No. 50 of 1998:
“Child” means a person under eighteen years of age;
“Child abuse” means any act or omission relating to a child which would amount to a contravention of any of the provisions … and includes the involvement of, a child in armed conflict which is likely to endanger the child’s life or likely to harm such a child physically or emotionally.
77. The NCPA has a mandate to provide support in relation to the provision of protective care for child combatants. Thus paragraph (i) of section 14 of the NCPA Act mandates the NCPA “to recommend measures to address … humanitarian concern[s] relating to children affected by armed conflict and the protection of such children, including measures for their mental and physical well-being and their reintegration into society”.
78. Among the other functions of the Authority are the following:
(a) To advi[s]e the Government on measures for the prevention of child abuse;
(b) To advise the Government on measures for the protection of victims of such abuse;
(c) To recommend legal, administrative or other reforms required for the effective implementation of the national policy for the prevention of child abuse; and
(d) To take appropriate steps where necessary for securing the safety and protection of children involved in criminal investigations and criminal proceedings.
79. The Government has established the Women and Children’s Police Bureau and 36 Women and Children’s Police Desks for law enforcement in relation to the abuse and exploitation of women and children across the country.
80. A separate Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment was established in 2005 by the present Government. This Ministry supports and assists the Government in its efforts to prevent child abuse and in the protection, rehabilitation and reintegration of children who have been subjected to abuse …
81. The Government has collaborated with the United Nations to set up the TFMR [Task Force for Monitoring and Reporting], the monitoring and reporting mechanism set-up under the Security Council resolution 1612.
82. In conformity with resolution 1612 paragraph 2(a), the Objective of the TFMR is: (a) the systematic gathering of timely, objective, accurate and reliable information on the recruitment and use of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and on other violations and abuses committed against children affected by armed conflict in Sri Lanka and (b) reporting to the Working Group of the Security Council on children and armed conflict as set up under resolution 1612.
83. In accordance with resolution 1612 and Section VI, paragraph 2 of the Terms of Reference of the Working Group on the Security Council on children and armed conflict, the TFMR will focus on violations against children affected by armed conflict beginning with its application against the party to the conflict listed in annex II of the [UN] Secretary General’s report (S/2005/72) as applicable to Sri Lanka.
107. All children in war affected areas[,] including those who have managed to escape from the LTTE as well as those vulnerable to recruitment[,] are provided [with] free preventive and curative health care by the Government. This has continued during the entire period of the conflict without discrimination, even in uncleared areas. All salaries of health staff in the North and East including medical professionals, nurses, labourers, technicians as well as public health staff including Family Health Workers, Public Health Inspectors and Medical Officers of Health are disbursed by the Government through regular allocations from the Treasury. Drugs, dressings, intravenous fluids and all other items are also provided by the Government. …
108. Children vulnerable to recruitment and those who have escaped have access to a wide network of Government primary health care services and free curative health care services. This includes an emphasis on maternal and child care services. This has continued throughout the conflict from 1983 and is sustained by the Government. The package of services for children in the North-East is the same as those provided in the rest of the country.
109. Children vulnerable to recruitment in the war affected areas have had continued access to immunization services. National Immunisation Days were carried out in conflict areas even during the height of the conflict, in the 1990s. These activities were undertaken through the organisation of “Days of Tranquillity” and “Corridors of Peace” by the Government and Ministry of Health in collaboration with UNICEF and civil society organizations such as Rotary. The programme enabled parents to bring their children to immunisation centres. All services were provided by local Ministry of Health staff. INGOs [International NGOs] and NGOs in addition to Rotary helped in such activities, including ICRC and UNHCR. The LTTE did not create barriers to such activities at that time.
110. The Health component of the Action Plan for Children Affected by War was developed as an effort to reach children vulnerable to recruitment in the North and East. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 22–24, 36(d), 37, 57–58, 74–83 and 107–110.
[footnote in original omitted]
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka stated:
118. There are provisions in several laws which prohibit the publication of particulars of children involved in legal proceedings in such a way as to enable their identification. Nevertheless the media, while not publishing the name and address of child victims, continues at times to publish other details regarding the victim’s family etc. which enable the identification of the victim. This is also relevant in the case of child combatants, particularly those who “surrender”. More advocacy is needed to prevent the exposure of their identity in the media.
345. The Government is finalizing an amendment to Emergency Regulations to deal with the situation of child surrendees – Emergency (Miscellaneous Provisions and Powers) Regulation No. 1 of 2005. The amendment will provide for … appearance before a Magistrate …
346. The Magistrate is required to make a determination regarding the placement of the child considering the best interests of the child and with a view to effecting family reunification or placing him or her with extended family having due regard to the safety of the child and family.
348. As a follow up to Security-Council resolution 1612 and the United Nations Secretary-General’s report on children affected by the conflict, a task force meets regularly under the Secretary [of the] Ministry of Child [D]evelopment to discuss and follow up outstanding issues, particularly in relation to action needed. These include issues such as … birth registration and the provision of alternat[iv]e care.
370. The most recent development in this area is an inter-agency initiative on children affected by armed conflict, supported by UNICEF. A workshop was held in March 2008 [with] the participation of the MoCDWE [Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment], DPCCS [Department of Probation and Child Care Services] and NCPA [National Child Protection Authority], district-level officials and NGOs working on this issue. The purpose of the workshop was to review and harmonize [the] existing child protection strategy for these children and establish the basis for the definition of minimum standards of practice across all State and non-State actors and agencies.
371. Working groups have begun to formulate standards and guidelines in eight thematic areas: advocacy strategy; community awareness/participation/protection; special protection; protective/interim care and case management; school reintegration, psychosocial support, gender and other cross-cutting issues; vocational training/livelihoods; government structures; and coordination structures/referral mechanisms. Models of best practice will be developed in each area.
372. As follow up, at national level there will be a consultation with the government to define coordination mechanisms at national and district level, to develop a referral mechanism model and to identify capacity building needs. At district level, the workshop conclusions will be shared with relevant child protection stakeholders in order to identify steps to develop [a] best practices model, to recommend to the national level actions and support needed, and to participate in the elaboration of operational guidelines.
426. Financial and human resource constraints and logistical difficulties weigh heavily against the expansion of juvenile courts beyond the existing one in Colombo. In January 2008 the President of Sri Lanka publicly recognized the need for more juvenile courts to hear cases involving children including child soldiers, referring to the undesirability of child offenders mingling with adult offenders. Possibly due to increased awareness and sensitivity among judges, there are ad hoc initiatives in certain courts to try and ensure separate hearings in cases involving children.
427. The Community Based Corrections Act[] No. 46 of 1999 provides for a range of non-custodial orders for the rehabilitation of offenders which could be imposed in lieu of imprisonment. These include unpaid community work; attending educational, vocational, personal training or development programmes; and undergoing assessment and treatment for alcohol or drug addiction. This Act has not been used in respect of children in conflict with the law. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 20 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 24 October 2008, §§ 118, 345–346, 348, 370–372 and 426–427.
Sudan
In 1993, in a statement before the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sudan referred to “days of tranquillity and corridors of peace. The former had begun in 1985 and had continued ever since … The corridors had been used, for example, in vaccination campaigns run by UNICEF and in most cases the rebel movements had participated in those campaigns.” 
Sudan, Statement before the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/SR.70, 1 February 1993, §§ 13 and 20.
Sudan
In 1993, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Sudan stated:
3. In fact, the efforts made by the Government of the Sudan … are conclusive proof of its concern with and commitment to the rights and happiness of children; the Sudan is the country which introduced security corridors in areas of fighting and sought to cooperate with United Nations agencies … to ensure the delivery of relief supplies to children, mothers and all citizens throughout the whole of the Sudan, including the areas controlled by the rebel movement.
17. … concerning the situation of children in areas of armed conflict, … “special” care is directed towards children and valuable efforts are being made … to protect children and respond to their needs. 
Sudan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.20, 2 August 1993, §§ 3 and 17.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
International humanitarian law offers special protection to children. Parties to a conflict are under an obligation to provide all the care and assistance that they need due to their young age or for any other reason. Food and medical aid must be provided to children before others. International humanitarian law also contains special guarantees for detained children, the inviolability of their nationality and civil status and for reunification with their families. Children orphaned by war or separated from their parents have the right to education in accordance with their own religion and culture. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 10; see also p. 12.
Switzerland
In 2012, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Switzerland stated: “Switzerland attaches particular importance to protecting and assisting children during armed conflicts”. 
Switzerland, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 30 October 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/CHE/2-4, submitted 19 July 2012, p. 117.
Syrian Arab Republic
The Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic asserts that the Syrian Arab Republic considers Article 77 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I to be part of customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
Uganda
In 2003, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Uganda stated:
The Army is a member of the National Council for Children a body responsible for coordinating all programs intended to ensure child survival, development and protection of all children in the country. With the support of Save the Children Denmark the army has been sensitised on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Children Statute. 
Uganda, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 14 February 2003, UN Doc. CCPR/C/UGA/2003/1, 25 February 2003, § 505.
Ukraine
In 2008, in its first periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ukraine stated:
The State is taking all feasible measures to ensure the protection of the rights of children in zones affected by military operation or armed conflict, and their care, giving them financial, medical and other kinds of assistance. 
Ukraine, First periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 29 October 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UKR/1, submitted 31 July 2008, § 15.
Ukraine also stated:
Ukraine is concerned by the massive impact that armed conflict has on children and … on the initiative of the Government of Ukraine, three groups of Iraqi children (109 individuals) who were living in a zone of armed conflict were offered medical services and social rehabilitation from September to November 2004. The case received broad media coverage, won public support and helped improve the international image of Ukraine. 
Ukraine, First periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 29 October 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UKR/1, submitted 31 July 2008, § 21.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Government Strategy on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (2010) states: “Specific population groups such as … children … benefit from additional protection provided for in specific conventions.” 
United Kingdom, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Government Strategy on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, March 2010, p. 4.
United States of America
In 1987, the Deputy Legal Adviser of the US Department of State affirmed: “We support … the principle that … children be the object of special respect and protection.” 
United States, Remarks of Michael J. Matheson, Deputy Legal Adviser, US Department of State, The Sixth Annual American Red Cross-Washington College of Law Conference on International Humanitarian Law: A Workshop on Customary International Law and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 2, 1987, p. 428.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, “Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II] reflect general US policy on treatment of persons in the power of an adverse party in armed conflicts governed by common Article 3” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The report also notes: “It is the opinio juris of the US that persons detained in connection with an internal armed conflict are entitled to humane treatment as specified in Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II].” 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
United States of America
On 8 May 2006, the US Delegation to the Committee against Torture responded orally to questions regarding US obligations under the 1985 Convention against Torture. On a question concerning juveniles detained at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, the US Department of Defense Legal Adviser responded:
With respect to Madame Belmir’s question about juveniles detained at Guantanamo and the reason for their detention, there are currently no juvenile detainees at Guantanamo … Let me briefly speak about the conditions of detention we provided them while at Guantanamo. After medical tests determined their ages, they were housed in a separate detention facility, separated at a significant distance from the other detainees, and the other detainees were not permitted to have access to them. Indeed, they were housed in a communal facility, rather than cells. They underwent assessments from medical, behavioral, and educational experts to address their needs. Furthermore, we taught them mathematics, English, and reading, and provided daily physical exercise and sports programs.
It is unfortunate that al Qaeda and the Taliban use juveniles as combatants. The United States detains enemy combatants engaged in armed conflict against it and the juveniles were detained to prevent further harm to them and to our forces. 
United States, Department of State, Oral Statements by the United States Delegation to the Committee Against Torture, Geneva, Switzerland, 8 May 2006.
United States of America
In May 2008, in a joint press briefing given in Geneva by the US Ambassador-at-Large and Director, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, and by the Deputy Assistant Secretary, Detainee Affairs, Department of Defense, the defense representative stated:
The U.S. does detain juveniles that are encountered on the battlefield. That both removes them from the dangerous effect of combat and at the same time it protects our forces and other innocent civilians. We go to great lengths when we do detain juveniles to recognize the special needs of a juvenile population and to provide them with a safe environment away from hostilities.
It is unfortunate, as I indicated, that children are and continue to be recruited into armed conflict. In Iraq in particular we have had to detain individuals who are juveniles who were involved in planting Improvised Explosive Devices, those are roadside bombs, that have also been actively engaged in fighting. I think many of you have read in the news over the past several weeks that there have been at least two suicide bombings involving children over the past week that did result in the death of more than 20 people in Iraq. Separately, there’s also reporting now related to juveniles being recruited in Pakistan between the ages of nine and twelve to make bombs and to become suicide bombers. It is unfortunate.
Now when we do encounter children who have been recruited into the armed forces to take up hostilities in a dangerous environment, we do believe that it is important to remove them from that battlefield environment. We do believe that in the short term that [we] can provide for them a more safe and secure environment for them to temporarily be housed. But we recognize that the primary purpose is to remove them from the battlefield. It protects the lives of innocent civilians who are being killed. It also protects the lives of our forces. And in some instances it may protect their own lives. 
United States, Statement by the Deputy Assistant Secretary, Detainee Affairs, Department of Defense, at a press briefing with the Ambassador-at-Large and Director, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Geneva, 21 May 2008.
Uzbekistan
In 2011, in its Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uzbekistan stated:
Uzbekistan supports the Declaration and Plan of Action “A world fit for children” adopted by resolution S-27/2 of the special session of the United Nations General Assembly of 10 May 2002. With a view to giving every child a better future, Uzbekistan supports and is taking steps to implement item 7 of the Declaration calling for children to be protected from the horrors of armed conflict and item 43 (b) of the Plan of Action concerning the protection of children from the impact of armed conflict and compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights law. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 5.
In the report, Uzbekistan also stated:
10. Guided by international instruments of a military-political and humanitarian nature, Uzbekistan is taking consistent measures to protect children, who make up more than 40 per cent of the population, against the horrors of war and armed conflict and their consequences.
11. The provisions of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child and of its [2000] Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict (hereinafter the “Protocol”) have been incorporated into the legislation and into the practice of State bodies, civil society organizations, officials, and citizens, including parents. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, §§ 10–11.
In the report, Uzbekistan further stated:
26. Uzbekistan acceded to the [2000] Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 12 December 2008, the year that marked the sixtieth anniversary of the [1948] Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Optional Protocol entered into force in the territory of Uzbekistan on 23 January 2009.
27. Since being ratified by the Uzbek parliament, the Optional Protocol, having become part of the country’s legal system, is subject to strict implementation by all State bodies, non-profit non-governmental organizations, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials, and citizens.
28. In accordance with the International Treaties Act of 22 December 1995, the Government of Uzbekistan, ministries and departments, and other State bodies competent for matters regulated by the Optional Protocol must ensure that the obligations assumed under the Protocol are fulfilled (art. 28).
29. In implementing the provisions of the Optional Protocol, Uzbekistan is guided by all the instruments of international law ratified by the parliament in the military-political and humanitarian sphere, including the provisions of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
30. The national legislation of Uzbekistan governing matters relating to the implementation of the Protocol includes the Constitution, the Rights of the Child (Safeguards) Act, the Universal Military Duty and Military Service Act, the Defence Act, the Citizens’ Petitions Act, the Human Rights and Freedoms (Reporting of Violations to the Courts) Act, the Code of Administrative Liability, the Criminal Code, and other laws and regulations. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, §§ 26–30.
In the report, Uzbekistan also stated:
Inasmuch as the legislation of Uzbekistan is in complete conformity with the provisions of article 38 of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child and its [2000] Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict, it is planned to intensify informational/awareness-raising, educational and publishing activities in this field, improve the efficiency of the national system for monitoring observance of the rights of the child, including in matters covered by the Optional Protocol, and stimulate the social partnership between the State and civil society institutions in this sphere. 
Uzbekistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UZB/1, submitted 24 January 2011, § 68.
Viet Nam
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Viet Nam stated:
2. Children in armed conflicts …
243. … Viet Nam … suffers from serious consequences of historically prolonged and fierce wars. Children have been amongst those that have suffered the most. The country has made significant efforts in the communication and education as well as in prevention and control of unexploded bombs, mines and ordnances left behind from wars. This has been carried out through organizing training courses for children and their families, as well as for staff at all levels. In addition, communication campaigns have been launched via the mass media and children have been provided with peer education, community-based education, as well as the integration of communication and education on the dangers of mines and bombs into education curriculums of primary schools in areas suffering serious consequences of unexploded mines, bombs and ordnances. Support and subsidy have been given to families and child victims of toxic chemicals, children wounded by unexploded mines, bombs and ordnances left from wars. In addition to the Government’s efforts, Viet Nam has received important assistance from international organizations, governments of other countries and non-governmental organizations. In 2006, 23,683 child victims of toxic chemicals received care and assistance. Thousands of children however, still suffer from disfigurement, malformations, and long-term health and brain-detriments as a result of their parents being infected with toxic chemicals, particularly, Agent Orange, or due to unexploded mines and bombs left over from wars.
244. In the future, Viet Nam will join international community efforts in improving education and health conditions, mobilizing resources and providing technical support to social programmes that address long-term consequences of the wars, and to therefore, speed up the implementation of relevant international legal provisions. The Government of Viet Nam calls for further supports from the United Nations, international organizations and governments of other countries to help the country redress consequences of the wars, especially consequences that affect children. 
Viet Nam, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 25 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/VNM/3-4, submitted 3 August 2009, §§ 243–244.
[footnote in original omitted]
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998, the UN Security Council expressed concern at the plight of children affected by the conflict in Sierra Leone and welcomed “the efforts of the government of Sierra Leone to coordinate an effective national response to the needs of children affected by armed conflict”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1181, 13 July 1998, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on children in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council called upon parties to armed conflicts “to undertake feasible measures during armed conflicts to minimize the harm suffered by children, such as ‘days of tranquillity’ to allow the delivery of basic necessary services and … to promote, implement and respect such measures”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1261, 25 August 1999, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms its grave concern at … the particular impact that armed conflict has on … children … and further reaffirms in this regard the importance of fully addressing their special protection and assistance needs in the mandates of peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace-building operations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1296, 19 April 2000, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000, the UN Security Council emphasized the need to provide special protection for children in armed conflict and listed in detail what practical measures could be taken. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1314, 11 August 2000, §§ 1–16, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
8. Calls upon States to respect fully the relevant provisions of applicable international humanitarian law relating to the rights and protection of children in armed conflict, in particular the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, inter alia, the Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War;
9. Reiterates its determination to continue to include specific provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations, including provisions recommending child protection advisers on a case-by-case basis and training for United Nations and associated personnel on child protection and child rights. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1460, 30 January 2003, §§ 8–9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 entitled “Proliferation of small arms and light weapons and mercenary activities: threats to peace and security in West Africa”, the UN Security Council:
reiterates its call to regional and subregional organizations to develop policies, activities and advocacy for the benefit of war-affected children in their regions. In this regard, the Council welcomes the Accra Declaration and Programme of Action on war-affected children and the subsequent establishment of a Child Protection Unit at the ECOWAS secretariat. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1467, 18 March 2003, annex, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Sierra Leone, the UN Security Council encouraged “the Government of Sierra Leone to pay special attention to the needs of women and children affected by the war, bearing in mind paragraph 42 of the report of the Secretary-General of 17 March 2003 (S/2003/321)”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1470, 28 March 2003, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Reiterating its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and, in this connection, its commitment to address the widespread impact of armed conflict on children,
1. Strongly condemns the recruitment and use of child soldiers by parties to armed conflict in violation of international obligations applicable to them, killing and maiming of children, rape and other sexual violence mostly committed against girls, abduction and forced displacement, denial of humanitarian access to children, attacks against schools and hospitals as well as trafficking, forced labour and all forms of slavery and all other violations and abuses committed against children affected by armed conflict;
7. Decides to continue the inclusion of specific provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations, including, on a case-by-case basis, the deployment of child protection advisers (CPAs), and requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the need for, and the number and roles of CPAs are systematically assessed during the preparation of each United Nations peacekeeping operation. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1539, 22 April 2004, preamble and §§ 1 and 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
Recalls that all the parties bear responsibility for ensuring security with respect to civilian populations, in particular women, children and other vulnerable persons, and expresses concern at the continuing levels of sexual violence. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1592, 30 March 2005, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirming its resolutions 1261 (1999) of 25 August 1999, 1314 (2000) of 11 August 2000, 1379 (2001) of 20 November 2001, 1460 (2003) of 30 January 2003, and 1539 (2004) of 22 April 2004, which contribute to a comprehensive framework for addressing the protection of children affected by armed conflict,
While noting the advances made for the protection of children affected by armed conflict, particularly in the areas of advocacy and the development of norms and standards, remaining deeply concerned over the lack of overall progress on the ground, where parties to conflict continue to violate with impunity the relevant provisions of applicable international law relating to the rights and protection of children in armed conflict,
Stressing the primary role of national Governments in providing effective protection and relief to all children affected by armed conflicts,
Recalling the responsibilities of States to end impunity and to prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other egregious crimes perpetrated against children,
Convinced that the protection of children in armed conflict should be regarded as an important aspect of any comprehensive strategy to resolve conflict,
Reiterating its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and, in this connection, its commitment to address the widespread impact of armed conflict on children,
Stressing its determination to ensure respect for its resolutions and other international norms and standards for the protection of children affected by armed conflict,
1. Strongly condemns the recruitment and use of child soldiers by parties to armed conflict in violation of international obligations applicable to them and all other violations and abuses committed against children in situations of armed conflict;
12. Decides to continue the inclusion of specific provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations, including the deployment, on a case-by-case basis, of child-protection advisers (CPAs), and requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the need for and the number and roles of CPAs are systematically assessed during the preparation of each United Nations peacekeeping operation; welcomes the comprehensive assessment undertaken on the role and activities of CPAs with a view to drawing lessons learned and best practices;
13. Welcomes recent initiatives by regional and subregional organizations and arrangements for the protection of children affected by armed conflict, and encourages continued mainstreaming of child protection into their advocacy, policies and programmes; development of peer review and monitoring and reporting mechanisms; establishment, within their secretariats, of child-protection mechanisms; inclusion of child-protection staff and training in their peace and field operations; sub- and interregional initiatives to end activities harmful to children in times of conflict, in particular cross-border recruitment and abduction of children, illicit movement of small arms, and illicit trade in natural resources through the development and implementation of guidelines on children and armed conflict;
14. Calls upon all parties concerned to ensure that the protection, rights and well-being of children affected by armed conflict are specifically integrated into all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction planning and programmes;
15. Calls upon all parties concerned to abide by the international obligations applicable to them relating to the protection of children affected by armed conflict as well as the concrete commitments they have made to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, to UNICEF and other United Nations agencies and to cooperate fully with the United Nations peacekeeping missions and United Nations country teams, where appropriate, in the context of the cooperation framework between the United Nations and the concerned Government, in the follow-up and implementation of these commitments;
16. Urges Member States, United Nations entities, regional and subregional organizations and other parties concerned, to take appropriate measures to control illicit subregional and cross-border activities harmful to children, including illicit exploitation of natural resources, illicit trade in small arms, abduction of children and their use and recruitment as soldiers as well as other violations and abuses committed against children in situations of armed conflict in violation of applicable international law;
17. Urges all parties concerned, including Member States, United Nations entities and financial institutions, to support the development and strengthening of the capacities of national institutions and local civil society networks for advocacy, protection and rehabilitation of children affected by armed conflict to ensure the sustainability of local child-protection initiatives;
18. Requests that the Secretary-General direct all relevant United Nations entities to take specific measures, within existing resources, to ensure systematic mainstreaming of CAAC issues within their respective institutions, including by ensuring allocation of adequate financial and human resources towards protection of war-affected children within all relevant offices and departments and on the ground as well as to strengthen, within their respective mandates, their cooperation and coordination when addressing the protection of children in armed conflict;
19. Reiterates its request to the Secretary-General to ensure that, in all his reports on country-specific situations, the protection of children is included as a specific aspect of the report, and expresses its intention to give its full attention to the information provided therein when dealing with those situations on its agenda. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1612, 26 July 2005, preamble and §§ 1 and 12–19, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Recalling the particular impact which armed conflict has on women and children, including as refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as on other civilians who may have specific vulnerabilities, and stressing the protection and assistance needs of all affected civilian populations,
5. Reaffirms also its condemnation in the strongest terms of all acts of violence or abuses committed against civilians in situations of armed conflict in violation of applicable international obligations with respect in particular to … (iii) violence against children … and demands that all parties put an end to such practices;
11. Calls upon all parties concerned to ensure that all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction planning have regard for the special needs of women and children … and include specific measures for the protection of civilians including … (iv) the facilitation of early access to education and training. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, preamble and §§ 5 and 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Calls on all concerned parties to ensure that the protection of children is addressed in the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement, and requests the Secretary-General to ensure continued monitoring and reporting of the situation of children and continued dialogue with parties to the conflict towards the preparations of time-bound action plans to end recruitment and use of child soldiers and other violations against children. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1769, 31 July 2007, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Chad, the Central African Republic and the subregion, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirming its resolution 1612 (2005) on children in armed conflict, taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Chad (S/2007/400) and the recommendations therein, and recalling the conclusions regarding Chad subsequently adopted by its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (S/AC.51/2007/16),
18. Takes note of the measures already undertaken by the authorities of Chad to put an end to the recruitment and use of children by armed groups, encourages them to pursue their cooperation with United Nations bodies, particularly UNICEF, and calls on all the parties involved to ensure that children are protected. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1778, 25 September 2007, preamble and § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Haiti, the UN Security Council:
Strongly condemns the grave violations against children affected by armed violence, as well as widespread rape and other sexual abuse of girls, and requests MINUSTAH to continue to promote and protect the rights of women and children as set out in Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1612 (2005). 
UN Security Council, Res. 1780, 15 October 2007, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President on Sierra Leone, the UN Security Council condemned as gross violations of IHL the “atrocities carried out against the civilian population, particularly … children”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/13, 20 May 1998, § 1.
UN Security Council
In 1998, in a statement by its President on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council strongly condemned “the targeting of children in armed conflicts … in violation of international humanitarian law”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/18, 29 June 1998, § 2.
UN Security Council
In 1999, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council expressed particular concern at “the harmful impact of armed conflict on children”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1999/6, 12 February 1999, § 5.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council strongly condemns these acts which jeopardize a peaceful solution to the crisis, stresses that all parties to the N’djamena humanitarian ceasefire agreement committed themselves to refraining from any act of violence or any other abuse against civilian populations, in particular women and children. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/18, 25 May 2004, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council underlines the vulnerability of women and children in situations of armed conflict, bearing in mind in this regard its resolutions 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security and 1539 (2004) as well as all other resolutions on children and armed conflict, and recognizes their special needs, in particular those of the girl child. It stresses the importance of developing strategies aimed at preventing and responding to sexual and gender-based violence, through the improvement in the design of peacekeeping and assessment missions by, inter alia, the inclusion of gender and child protection advisers. It stresses also the importance for women and children subject to exploitation and sexual violence to receive adequate assistance and support. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/46, 14 December 2004, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2005, in a statement by its President regarding children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council has considered the matter of children and armed conflict and took note with deep concern of the continued recruitment and use of children by parties to armed conflict in violation of international obligations applicable to them, as reported by the Secretary-General in his fifth report (S/2005/72). It reiterates its commitment to address in all its forms the impact of armed conflict on children.
The Council reaffirms its strong condemnation of the recruitment and use of child soldiers by parties to armed conflict in violation of international obligations applicable to them and of all other violations and abuses committed against children in situations of armed conflict. It urges all parties to armed conflict to halt immediately such intolerable practices.
The Council recalls all its previous resolutions, which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing the protection of children affected by armed conflict. It reiterates its determination to ensure respect for its resolutions and other international norms and standards for the protection of children affected by armed conflict.
The Council recalls particularly paragraph 2 of its resolution 1539 (2004) dated 22 April 2004, requesting the Secretary-General, taking into account the proposals contained in his report as well as any other relevant elements, to devise urgently an action plan for a systematic and comprehensive monitoring and reporting mechanism, which utilizes expertise from the United Nations system and the contributions of national Governments, regional organizations, non-governmental organizations in their advisory capacity and various civil society actors, in order to provide timely, objective, accurate and reliable information on the recruitment and use of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and on other violations and abuses committed against children affected by armed conflict, for consideration in taking appropriate action.
The Council takes note of the Secretary-General’s proposal for an Action Plan for the establishment of a monitoring, reporting and compliance mechanism, in accordance with this request and with paragraph 15 (b) of resolution 1539 (2004) and has started consideration of the Secretary-General’s proposal.
The Council reiterates the crucial need for a systematic and comprehensive monitoring and reporting mechanism, and its determination to ensure compliance and to put an end to impunity. The Council further reiterates its intention to complete expeditiously the process of the establishment of the mechanism.
In this regard, it has started work on a new resolution with the aim of its early adoption and with due consideration of views expressed by the United Nations Member States during the open debate held on 23 February 2005, in order to take forward the implementation of its previous resolutions with a view to ending the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and other violations and abuses committed against children affected by armed conflict situations, and promoting their reintegration and rehabilitation. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/8, 23 February 2005, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2005, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Council is gravely concerned about limited progress on the ground to ensure the effective protection of civilians in situations of armed conflict. It stresses in particular the urgent need for providing better physical protection for displaced populations as well as for other vulnerable groups, in particular women and children. Efforts should be focused in areas where these populations and groups are most at risk. At the same time, it considers that contributing to the establishment of a secure environment for all vulnerable populations should be a key objective of peacekeeping operations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/25, 21 June 2005, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council called “for a reinvigorated effort by the international community to enhance the protection of children affected by armed conflict”.  
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/33, 24 July 2006, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council welcomes the steps taken by national, international and “mixed” criminal courts and tribunals against those who are alleged to have committed grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict in violation of applicable international law.
However, the Security Council strongly condemns the … killing and maiming of children, rape and other sexual violence, abductions, denial of humanitarian access to children and attacks against schools and hospitals by parties to armed conflict. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/48, 28 November 2006, pp. 1–2.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on protection of children affected by armed conflicts, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon States fully to respect the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto, of 1977, as well as those of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which accord children affected by armed conflicts special protection and treatment. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/157, 20 December 1993, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the continuing conflict in the Sudan:
To stop attacks on sites that usually have a significant presence of children as well as during the “days of tranquillity” which had been agreed for the purpose of ensuring peaceful polio vaccination campaigns. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 55/116, 4 December 2000, § 3(d), voting record: 85-32-49-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to an armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/114, 17 December 2003, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of and assistance to Palestinian children, the UN General Assembly:
Demands, in the meanwhile, that Israel, the occupying Power, respect relevant provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, in order to ensure the well-being and protection of Palestinian children and their families. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/155, 22 December 2003, § 2, voting record: 106-5-65-15.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
Deeply concerned also that, in situations of poverty, war and armed conflict, girl children are among those most affected and that their potential for full development is thus limited,
15. Also urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls affected by armed conflicts and in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape and sexual abuse, and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account the special needs of girls affected by armed conflict in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes;
16. Deplores all the cases of sexual exploitation and abuse of women and children, especially girls, in humanitarian crises, including those cases involving humanitarian workers and peacekeepers;
17. Urges all States and the international community to respect, protect and promote the rights of the child, taking into account the particular vulnerabilities of the girl child in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict situations, and calls for special initiatives designed to address all of the rights and needs of girls affected by armed conflicts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/156, 22 December 2003, preamble and §§ 15–17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Emphasizing that the Convention on the Rights of the Child must constitute the standard in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, and bearing in mind the importance of the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, as well as other relevant human rights instruments,
noting the importance of the debates held by the Security Council on children and armed conflict, of Council resolutions 1379 (2001) of 20 November 2001 and 1460 (2003) of 30 January 2003 and of the undertaking by the Council to give special attention to the protection, welfare and rights of children in armed conflict when taking action aimed at maintaining peace and security, including provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of peacekeeping operations, as well as the inclusion of child protection advisers in these operations,
Profoundly concerned that the situation of children in many parts of the world remains critical as a result of the persistence of … armed conflict … and convinced that urgent and effective national and international action is called for,
8. Calls upon all States to end impunity for perpetrators of crimes committed against children, recognizing in this regard the contribution of the establishment of the International Criminal Court as a way to prevent violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, in particular when children are victims of serious crimes, including the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and to bring perpetrators of such crimes to justice, and not to grant amnesties for these crimes;
38. Further calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, to pay particular attention to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations, including by facilitating their work;
41. Calls upon:
(c) All States to take appropriate steps to ensure compliance with the principle that depriving children of their liberty should be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time, in particular before trial, and to ensure that, if they are arrested, detained or imprisoned, children are provided with adequate legal assistance and are separated from adults, to the greatest extent feasible, unless it is considered in their best interest not to do so, and also to take appropriate steps to ensure that no child in detention is sentenced to forced labour or corporal punishment or deprived of access to and provision of health-care services, hygiene and environmental sanitation, education, basic instruction and vocational training, taking into consideration the special needs of children with disabilities in detention, in accordance with their obligations under the Convention;
46. Urges all States:
(b) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular to protect them from acts that constitute violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and to ensure that they receive timely, effective and unhindered humanitarian assistance as well as support for physical and psychological recovery;
47. Emphasizes the importance of giving systematic consideration to the rights, special needs and particular vulnerability of the girl child during conflicts and in post-conflict situations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/157, 22 December 2003, preamble and §§ 8, 38, 41(c), 46(b) and 47, voting record: 179-1-0-11.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to an armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/141, 15 December 2004, § 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on a new international humanitarian order, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to armed conflicts to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/171, 20 December 2004, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
7. Recognizes that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict and bear the brunt of atrocities and other consequences of conflict, and in this regard takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security submitted to and discussed by the Security Council;
8. Reiterates the importance of the full and effective implementation of standards and procedures to better address the specific protection needs of refugee children and adolescents and to safeguard rights and, in particular, to ensure adequate attention to unaccompanied and separated children and former child soldiers in refugee settings, as well as in the context of voluntary repatriation and reintegration measures. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/172, 20 December 2004, §§ 7–8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on missing persons, the UN General Assembly requested States to “pay the utmost attention to cases of children reported missing in connection with armed conflicts and to take appropriate measures to search for and identify those children”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/189, 20 December 2004, § 6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
42. … notes … the importance of the undertaking by the [UN Security] Council to give special attention to the protection, welfare and rights of children in armed conflict when taking action aimed at maintaining peace and security, including provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of peacekeeping operations, as well as the inclusion of child protection advisers in those operations;
48. Calls upon States:
(d) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular from violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and to ensure that they receive timely, effective humanitarian assistance in accordance with the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and international humanitarian law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/261, 23 December 2004, §§ 42 and 48(d), voting record: 166-2-1-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the 2005 World Summit Outcome, the UN General Assembly stated:
118. We … call upon all States concerned to take concrete measures to ensure accountability and compliance by those responsible for grave abuses against children. We also reaffirm our commitment to ensure that children in armed conflicts receive timely and effective humanitarian assistance, including education, for their rehabilitation and reintegration into society.
141. We express dismay at the increasing number of children involved in and affected by armed conflict … We support cooperation policies aimed at strengthening national capacities to improve the situation of those children and to assist in their rehabilitation and reintegration into society. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/1, 16 September 2005, §§ 118 and 141, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to an armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/124, 15 December 2005, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
6. Recognizes that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict and bear the brunt of atrocities and other consequences of conflict, and calls upon States to promote and protect the human rights of all refugees and other persons of concern, paying special attention to those with specific needs, and to tailor their protection responses appropriately,
7. Reiterates the importance of the full and effective implementation of standards and procedures, including the monitoring and reporting mechanism outlined in Security Council resolution 1612 (2005) of 26 July 2005, to better address the specific protection needs of refugee children and adolescents and to safeguard rights and, in particular, to ensure adequate attention to unaccompanied and separated children and children affected by armed conflict, including former child soldiers in refugee settings, as well as in the context of voluntary repatriation and reintegration measures. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/128, 16 December 2005, §§ 6–7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
Deeply concerned also that, in situations of poverty, war and armed conflict, girl children are among those most affected and that their potential for full development is thus limited,
15. Also urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls affected by armed conflicts and by post-conflict situations and in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape and sexual abuse, and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account the special needs of girls affected by armed conflict in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes;
17. Urges all States and the international community to respect, protect and promote the rights of the child, taking into account the particular vulnerabilities of the girl child in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict situations, and calls for special initiatives designed to address all of the rights and needs of girls affected by armed conflicts. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/141, 16 December 2005, preamble and §§ 15 and 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly
28. Also calls upon all States to ensure that no child in detention is sentenced to forced labour or corporal punishment or deprived of access to and provision of health-care services, hygiene and environmental sanitation, education, basic instruction and vocational training;
33. Calls upon States:
(c) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular from violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and to ensure that they receive timely, effective humanitarian assistance, in accordance with international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and calls upon the international community to hold those responsible for violations accountable, inter alia, through the International Criminal Court. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/231, 23 December 2005, §§ 28 and 33(c), voting record: 130-1-0-60.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to an armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/134, 14 December 2006, § 21, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
32. Also calls upon all States to ensure that no child in detention is sentenced to forced labour or any form of cruel or degrading punishment, or deprived of access to and provision of health-care services, hygiene and environmental sanitation, education, basic instruction and vocational training;
36. Calls upon States:
(e) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular from violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and to ensure that they receive timely, effective humanitarian assistance, in accordance with international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and calls upon the international community to hold those responsible for violations accountable, inter alia, through the International Criminal Court. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/146, 19 December 2006, §§ 32 and 36(e), voting record: 185-1-0-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the human rights situation arising from Israeli military operations in Lebanon, the UN General Assembly:
1. Condemns all acts of violence against civilians, including the bombardment by Israeli military forces of Lebanese civilians causing extensive loss of life and injuries, including among children …
2. Emphasizes the importance of the safety and well-being of all children;
3. Expresses deep concern about the negative consequences, including the mental and psychological impact, of the Israeli military operations for the wellbeing of Lebanese children;
5. Deplores the death of more than 1,100 civilians, one third being children, as a result of the Israeli military operations in Lebanon. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/154, 19 December 2006, §§ 1–3 and 5, voting record: 112-7-64-9.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on missing persons, the UN General Assembly requested States to “pay the utmost attention to cases of children reported missing in connection with armed conflicts and to take appropriate measures to search for and identify those children”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/155, 19 December 2006, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN General Assembly:
Encourages Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to organize training programmes and to support projects with a view to training or educating military forces, law enforcement officers and government officials in human rights and humanitarian law issues connected with their work and to include a gender and child rights perspective in such training, and appeals to the international community and requests the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to support endeavours to that end. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/173, 19 December 2006, § 8, voting record: 137-0-43-12.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Notes with concern the tragic plight of children in conflict situations in Africa, particularly the phenomenon of child soldiers, and stresses the need for the protection of children in armed conflicts, post-conflict counselling, rehabilitation and education. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/230, 22 December 2006, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly strongly called upon the Government of Myanmar “to intensify measures to ensure the protection of children affected by armed conflict”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/232, 22 December 2006, § 3(c), voting record: 82-25-45-40.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly welcomed “the completion of the disarmament and demobilization of child soldiers in the Afghan Military Forces” and stressed “the importance of the reintegration of child soldiers and of care for other children affected by war”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to an armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/94, 17 December 2007, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on youth policies and programmes, the UN General Assembly called upon Member States, with the support of the international community:
To ensure that national policies and programmes on youth development address the particular needs of young people who are in distressed circumstances or otherwise socially excluded or marginalized, including indigenous, migrant, refugee and displaced youth, young persons living in situations of armed conflict, terrorism, hostage-taking, aggression, foreign occupation, civil war or post-conflict settings, young people subjected to racism or xenophobia, street children, poor youth in urban or rural areas and youth affected by natural or man-made disasters. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, § 8(l), adopted without a vote.
Through this resolution, the UN General Assembly adopted the Supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, § 2, adopted without a vote.
The Supplement states:
44. Youth are often among the main victims of armed conflict. Children and youth are killed or maimed, made orphans, abducted, taken hostage, forcibly displaced, deprived of education and health care and left with deep emotional scars and trauma. Children illegally recruited as child soldiers are often forced to commit serious abuses. Armed conflict destroys the safe environment provided by a house, a family, adequate nutrition, education and employment. During conflict, health risks increase among youth, especially young women. Young women and girls face additional risks, in particular those of sexual violence and exploitation.
45. During conflict, young men and women who are forced to take on “adult” roles miss out on opportunities for personal or professional development. When conflict ends, many of the young people who must make the transition to adulthood while dealing with the traumas of war are at the same time required to adapt quickly to their new roles, often as parents and caretakers of the victims of war. Without services to help them to deal with their situation, youth and young adults may fail to integrate into society.
50. Governments should protect young persons in situations of armed conflict, post-conflict settings and settings involving refugees and internally displaced persons, where youth are at risk of violence and where their ability to seek and receive redress is often restricted, bearing in mind that peace is inextricably linked with equality between young women and young men and development, that armed and other types of conflicts and terrorism and hostage-taking still persist in many parts of the world, and that aggression, foreign occupation and ethnic and other types of conflicts are an ongoing reality affecting young persons in nearly every region, from which they need to be protected.
53. Governments should encourage the involvement of young people, where appropriate, in activities concerning the protection of children and youth affected by armed conflict, including programmes for reconciliation, peace consolidation and peacebuilding. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, Annex, §§ 44–45, 50 and 53, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States and the international community to respect, promote and protect the rights of the girl child, taking into account the particular vulnerabilities of the girl child in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict situations, and further urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls, in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape, sexual abuse and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account their special needs in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/140, 18 December 2007, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
37. Also calls upon all States to ensure that no child in detention is sentenced to forced labour or any form of cruel or degrading punishment, or deprived of access to and provision of health-care services, hygiene and environmental sanitation, education, basic instruction and vocational training;
41. Calls upon States:
(e) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular from violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law, and to ensure that they receive timely, effective humanitarian assistance, in accordance with international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and calls upon the international community to hold those responsible for violations accountable, inter alia, through the International Criminal Court. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/141, 18 December 2007, §§ 37 and 41(e), voting record: 183-1-0-8.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, ECOSOC:
Reaffirms the obligation of all States and parties to armed conflict to protect civilians in armed conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law, and invites States to promote a culture of protection, taking into account the particular needs of women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2003/5, 15 July 2003, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on a Supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, ECOSOC recommended to the UN General Assembly that it adopt a draft resolution that stated, inter alia:
44. Youth are often among the main victims of armed conflict. Children and youth are killed or maimed, made orphans, abducted, taken hostage, forcibly displaced, deprived of education and health care and left with deep emotional scars and trauma. Children illegally recruited as child soldiers are often forced to commit serious abuses. Armed conflict destroys the safe environment provided by a house, a family, adequate nutrition, education and employment. During conflict, health risks increase among youth, especially young women. Young women and girls face additional risks, in particular those of sexual violence and exploitation.
50. Governments should protect young persons in situations of armed conflict, post-conflict settings and settings involving refugees and internally displaced persons, where youth are at risk of violence and where their ability to seek and receive redress is often restricted. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2007/27, 27 July 2007, §§ 44 and 50, voting record: 49-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Expresses its deep concern:
(a) At the continuing violations of human rights in Myanmar, as reported by the Special Rapporteur, including … abuse of women and children by government agents … and the widespread use of forced labour, including for work on infrastructure projects and as porters for the army;
(d) At continuing violations of the rights of children in contravention of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular by the lack of conformity of the existing legal framework with the Convention, by recruitment of children into forced labour programmes and into the armed forces, and by discrimination against children belonging to ethnic and religious minority groups. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/63, 21 April 1998, § 3(a) and (d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights reaffirmed “the importance of the special attention for children in situations of armed conflict, in particular in the areas of health and nutrition, education and social reintegration”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/76, 22 April 1998, § 13(d).
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families and communities;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee children, especially unaccompanied refugee minors, and internally displaced children who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(b) To take extra measures to protect refugee children, particularly girls, from being abducted by guerrilla groups;
(c) To increase and enhance cooperation at regional and international levels to combat networks of abduction and child trafficking and to suppress their activities;
(d) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed groups, as distinct from armed forces of States, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the special needs of abducted girl children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/85, 25 April 2003, §§ 4–5 and 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
42. Calls upon:
(c) All States and relevant United Nations bodies and agencies and regional organizations to integrate the rights of the child into all activities in conflict and post-conflict situations, to ensure adequate child protection training of their staff and personnel and to facilitate the participation of children in the development of strategies in this regard, making sure that there are opportunities for children’s voices to be heard;
43. Recommends that, whenever sanctions are imposed, in particular in the context of armed conflict, their impact on children be assessed and monitored and, to the extent that there are humanitarian exemptions, they be child-focused and formulated with clear guidelines for their application, in order to address possible adverse effects of the sanctions, and reaffirms the recommendations of the General Assembly and the International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/86, 25 April 2003, §§ 42(c) and 43, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families and communities;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee children, especially unaccompanied refugee minors, and internally displaced children who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(b) To take extra measures to protect refugee children and internally displaced children, particularly girls, from being abducted by guerrilla groups;
(c) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the special needs of abducted girl children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/47, 20 April 2004, §§ 4–5 and 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
39. … Takes note of the undertaking by the [UN Security] Council to give special attention to the protection, welfare and rights of children in armed conflict when taking action aimed at maintaining peace and security, including provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of peacekeeping operations, as well as the inclusion of child protection advisers in these operations;
44. Calls upon:
(c) All States and relevant United Nations bodies and agencies and regional organizations to integrate the rights of the child into all activities in conflict and postconflict situations, to ensure adequate child protection training of their staff and personnel and to facilitate the participation of children in the development of strategies in this regard, making sure that there are opportunities for children’s voices to be heard;
45. Recommends that, whenever sanctions are imposed, in particular in the context of armed conflict, their impact on children be assessed and monitored and, to the extent that there are humanitarian exemptions, they be childfocused and formulated with clear guidelines for their application, in order to address possible adverse effects of the sanctions, and reaffirms the recommendations of the General Assembly and the International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, §§ 39, 44(c) and 45, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on missing persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights requested States to “pay the utmost attention to cases of children reported missing in connection with armed conflicts and to take appropriate measures to search for and identify those children”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/50, 20 April 2004, § 6, voting record: 52-0-1.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Urges all States to take all necessary and possible measures, in conformity with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, to prevent loss of life, in particular that of children, during internal and communal violence, civil unrest, public demonstrations, public emergency and armed conflicts, and to ensure, through education, training and other measures, that police, law enforcement officials, armed forces and other government officials act with restraint and in conformity with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and to include a gender perspective in such measures. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/34, 19 April 2005, § 7, voting record: 36-0-17.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Also condemns the abduction of children from camps of refugees and internally displaced persons by armed forces and armed groups, and their subjection of children to participation in fighting, torture, killing and rape as victims and as perpetrators;
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families, extended families and communities;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee and internally displaced children, especially unaccompanied and separated children, who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(c) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups and their participation in hostilities, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices and practical measures such as prompt and comprehensive birth registration of all children (including refugee and internally displaced children), documentation of children, preservation of family unity and its facilitation in case of separation, access to education, health care, vocational training and employment;
6. Encourages all African States to integrate the rights of the child into all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction phases;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the rights and special needs of abducted girl children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/43, 19 April 2005, §§ 2, 4–6 and 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
36. Strongly condemns any recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts contrary to international law, and urges all parties to armed conflict to end such practice, and all other violations against children, including killing or maiming, rape or other sexual violence, abduction, denial of humanitarian access, attacks against schools and hospitals and the forced displacement of children and their families;
37. Calls upon all States to pay special attention to the protection, welfare and rights of girls affected by armed conflict;
39. Calls upon:
(c) All States and relevant United Nations bodies and agencies and regional organizations to integrate the rights of the child into all activities in conflict and postconflict situations, to ensure adequate child protection training of their staff and personnel, including through the drafting and dissemination of codes of conduct addressing the issue of sexual exploitation and abuse of children, to ensure that States take effective preventive measures against sexual exploitation and abuse by their military and civilian peacekeepers and hold them to account, and to facilitate the participation of children in the development of strategies in this regard, making sure that there are opportunities for children’s voices to be heard and given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/44, 19 April 2005, §§ 36–37 and 39(c), voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the protection of the human rights of civilians in armed conflicts, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Gravely concerned about violations of human rights law and international humanitarian law during armed conflicts, in all parts of the world, and their impact on the civilian population, especially women, children and vulnerable groups,
2. Urges all parties to armed conflicts to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, in particular to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population, and also urges all States to comply with their human rights obligations in this context.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/63, 20 April 2005, preamble and § 2, voting record: 51-1-1.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Sierra Leone in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged the Government of Sierra Leone:
To continue to give priority attention, in cooperation with the international community, to programmes aimed at addressing the plight … of women and children in its care, in particular those sexually abused and gravely traumatized and displaced as a result of the conflict. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/76, 20 April 2005, § 2(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Nepal, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
7. Calls upon all parties to the conflict to respect human rights and international humanitarian law, in particular common article 3 of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, as well as to act in conformity with all other relevant standards relating to the protection of civilians, particularly of women and children, and to allow the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian organizations to those in need of assistance;
8. Urges the Government of Nepal:
(e) To take appropriate measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence, as emphasized by the Security Council in resolution 1325 (2000), and to prevent and prosecute traffickers in women and children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/78, 20 April 2005, §§ 7 and 8(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
5. Expresses deep concern at:
(a) The reported cases of rape, arbitrary and summary executions, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and violence … in particular against women and children …
(b) The prevalence of sexual violence and abuse, in particular among displaced children, children engaged in exploitative and hazardous labour …
7. Firmly condemns:
(b) The ongoing widespread violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian law, in particular against internally displaced persons, refugees, minorities, vulnerable groups, women and children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, §§ 5(a)–(b) and 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights requested the Transitional Government to take specific measures “to respond to the specific needs of women and girls during and after the conflict”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/85, 21 April 2005, § 6(h), adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council:
3. Expresses its deep concern regarding the seriousness of the ongoing violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur, including armed attacks on the civilian population and humanitarian workers, widespread destruction of villages, and continued and widespread violence, in particular gender-based violence against women and girls, as well as the lack of accountability of perpetrators of such crimes;
4. Calls upon all parties to the conflict in Darfur to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with a special focus on vulnerable groups including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as humanitarian workers. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 4/8, 30 March 2007, §§ 3–4, adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Human Rights Council Group of Experts on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council reiterated its call upon all parties “to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with special focus on vulnerable groups, including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as human rights defenders and humanitarian workers”. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 6/35, 14 December 2007, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
In 1994, in a joint statement, the ICRC, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF reaffirmed that they “will continue to do their utmost to improve protection, medical and social conditions … so that the safety and the welfare of [unaccompanied] children can be ensured”. 
ICRC, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF, Joint statement on the evacuation of unaccompanied children from Rwanda, 27 June 1994, § 4.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1997, in its Conclusion on Refugee Children and Adolescents, the UNHCR Executive Committee called upon States and relevant parties “to respect and observe rights and principles that are in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law [including] … (iv) the right of children affected by armed conflict to special protection and treatment”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 84(XLVIII): Refugee Children and Adolescents, 20 October 1997, § a(iv).
UNICEF
In 1994, in a joint statement, the ICRC, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF reaffirmed that they “will continue to do their utmost to improve protection, medical and social conditions … so that the safety and the welfare of [unaccompanied] children can be ensured”. 
ICRC, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF, Joint statement on the evacuation of unaccompanied children from Rwanda, 27 June 1994, § 4.
UN Secretary-General
In 1998, in a report on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, which included a section on internally displaced children, the UN Secretary-General noted that UNICEF was “pressing for an end to the systematic abduction of children from northern Uganda … [to] camps in southern Sudan … [where] they were tortured, enslaved, raped and otherwise abused”. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, UN Doc. A/53/325, 26 August 1998, § 20.
UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflicts
In 1996, in a report on the impact of armed conflict on children, the UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflicts recommended that “during conflicts, Governments should support the health of their population by facilitating ‘days of tranquillity’ or ‘corridors of peace’ to ensure continuity of basic child health measures and delivery of humanitarian relief”. 
UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflicts, Report on the impact of armed conflict on children, UN Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996, Annex, § 165(c); see also §§ 208 and 280.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1987, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly condemned the imprisonment and torture of children during armed conflicts. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 881, 1 July 1987, § 13.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1991, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly expressed shock at the hundreds of deaths daily in the Kurdish provinces of Iraq, with special reference to children. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1150, 24 April 1991, § 3.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation adopted in 1995 on Turkey’s military intervention in northern Iraq, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly asked Turkey to guarantee the fundamental rights of civilians, with special reference to vulnerable groups, including children. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1266, 26 April 1995, § 5.
European Parliament
In a resolution adopted in 1989, the European Parliament expressed grave concern at the trial and imprisonment in Turkey of persons below adult age for political offences and called for their release. 
European Parliament, Resolution on human rights violations in Turkey, 16 January 1989, § A(1).
European Parliament
In a resolution adopted in 1989, the European Parliament stated that it considered that the most serious negative developments in the world with regard to respect for human rights included large-scale detention and reported torture or ill-treatment of children and minors in areas of civil unrest. 
European Parliament, Resolution on the May Day events and continuing aggravation of the domestic political climate in Turkey, 26 June 1989, § 6(d).
World Conference on Human Rights
In the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 expressed deep concern about “violations of human rights during armed conflicts, affecting the civilian population, especially … children” and therefore called upon States and all parties to armed conflicts “strictly to observe international humanitarian law”. 
World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 14–25 June 1993, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/23, 12 July 1993, § I(29); see also § II (50).
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution on protection of children in armed conflicts in which it recalled that “according to the Geneva Conventions and the two Additional Protocols, children under the age of 15 years who have taken direct part in hostilities and fall into the power of an adverse Party continue to benefit from special protection, whether or not they are prisoners of war” and invited “governments and the Movement to do their utmost to ensure that children who have taken part, directly or indirectly, in hostilities are systematically rehabilitated to normal life”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. IX, §§ 1, 3 and 6.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995)
The 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1995 adopted a resolution on protection of the civilian population in period of armed conflict in which it urgently drew attention to “the obligation to take all requisite measures to provide children with the protection and assistance to which they are entitled under national and international law”, strongly condemned “the deliberate killing and exploitation of, and abuse of and violence against, children”, and called for “particularly stringent measures to prevent and punish such behaviour”. The Conference further encouraged
States, the Movement and other competent entities and organizations to develop preventive measures, assess existing programmes and set up new programmes to ensure that child victims of conflict receive medical, psychological and social assistance, provided if possible by qualified personnel who are aware of the specific issues involved. 
26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 3–7 December 1995, Res. II, § C(a), (b) and (g).
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent requested that all the parties to an armed conflict take effective measures to ensure that “in the conduct of hostilities, every effort is made … to spare the life, protect and respect the civilian population, with particular protective measures for … groups with special vulnerabilities such as children” and that “children receive the special protection, care and assistance … to which they are entitled under national and international law”. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.1, § 1(a) and (f).
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1993, in its preliminary observations on Sudan, the Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed concern at “the effects of armed conflict on children … In emergency situations, all parties involved should do their utmost to facilitate humanitarian assistance to protect the lives of children.” 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Preliminary observations on Sudan, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.6, 18 February 1993, § 9.
In its concluding observations on the report of Sudan, the Committee stated that it continued to be alarmed at “the effects of emergency situations on children, as well as the problems faced by homeless … children. Reports on the forced labour and slavery of children give cause for the Committee’s deepest concern.” 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Sudan, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.10, 18 October 1993, § 14.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1993, in its concluding observations on the report of Peru, the Committee on the Rights of the Child stated:
8. The Committee is concerned that due to the internal violence [in Peru], several registration centres had been destroyed, adversely affecting the situation of thousands of children who are often without any identity documents, thus running the risk of their being suspected of involvement in terrorist activities.
9. The Committee deplores that, under [Peruvian law], children between 15 and 18 years of age who are suspected of being involved in terrorist activities do not benefit from safeguards and guarantees afforded by the system of administration of juvenile justice under normal circumstances.
18. The Committee also recommends that the provision of [the] law … be repealed or amended in order for children below 18 years of age to enjoy fully the rights guaranteed to [juveniles in non-emergency situations]. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Peru, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.8, 18 October 1993, §§ 8, 9 and 18.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1995, in its concluding observations on the report of the United Kingdom, the Committee on the Rights of the Child stated:
The Committee is concerned about the absence of effective safeguards to prevent the ill-treatment of children under emergency legislation. In this connection, the Committee observes that … it is possible to hold children as young as 10 for seven days without charge. It is also noted that the emergency legislation which gives the police and the army the power to stop, question and search people on the street has led to complaints of children being mistreated. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UN Doc. CRC/C/38, 20 February 1995, § 212.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1997, in its consideration of reports of Uganda, the Committee on the Rights of the Child stated:
19. The Committee is deeply concerned that the rules of international humanitarian law applicable to children in armed conflict are being violated in the northern part of the State party, in contradiction to the provisions of article 38 of the Convention. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the abduction, killings and torture of children occurring in this area of armed conflict and the involvement of children as child soldiers.
21. The Committee is concerned about the difficulties encountered by refugee and displaced children in securing access to basic education, health and social services.
24. The Committee is also concerned at the insufficiency of the measures taken by the State party for the physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of children victims of war and abuse and, further, that the existing alternative care institutions lack material and financial resources and specialized personnel.
34. The Committee recommends that awareness of the duty to fully respect the rules of international humanitarian law, in the spirit of article 38 of the Convention, inter alia with regard to children, should be made known to the parties to the armed conflict in the northern part of the State party’s territory, and that violations of the rules of international humanitarian law entail responsibility being attributed to the perpetrators. Furthermore, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to stop the killing and abduction of children and the use of children as child soldiers in the area of the armed conflict. While taking note of the regional initiatives already being undertaken, the Committee also recommends that, where appropriate, the State party liaise with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on children in armed conflict.
37. The Committee recommends that special attention be directed to refugee and internally displaced children to ensure that they have equal access to basic facilities. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports of Uganda, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.80, 21 October 1997, §§ 19, 21, 24, 34 and 37.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
In 1995, in examining a case involving the house arrest of the wife of the former President of Peru and their children, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights considered that the detention of the minors required separate examination. In view of the special protection required for children under international law, the Commission found the measures taken by the Peruvian armed forces depriving the children of their freedom to be “particularly repugnant”. 
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case 11.006 (Peru), Report, 7 February 1995, Sections VI(B)(1) and VII(1).
Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission
In its Civilians Claims (Eritrea’s Claim) partial award in 2004, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, in considering the specific protection afforded to children, stated:
International humanitarian law imposes clear burdens on belligerents with respect to the protection of children … Article 24 of [the 1949] Geneva Convention IV sets out special protections for children under the age of fifteen who are separated from their families or orphaned:
The parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their own resources, and that their maintenance, the exercise of their religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances.
Further guidance appears in Article 38 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which calls for parties to take “all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.” 
Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, Civilians Claims, Eritrea’s Claim , Partial Award, 17 December 2004, § 154.
[footnote in original omitted]
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “Children shall be treated with all regard due to their … age.” 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 666.
Council of Delegates (1991)
At its Budapest Session in 1991, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on child soldiers in which it appealed to all parties to armed conflicts “strictly to observe the rules of international humanitarian law affording special protection to children” and invited National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “to do everything possible to protect children during armed conflicts, particularly by ensuring that their basic needs are met”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Budapest Session, 28–30 November 1991, Res. 14, §§ 1 and 3.
ICRC
In 1994, in a Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, the ICRC stated: “Children and adolescents shall be granted favoured treatment at all times.” 
ICRC, Memorandum on Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Angola, 8 June 1994, § I, IRRC, No. 320, 1997, p. 503.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
In 1994, in a joint statement, the ICRC, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF reaffirmed that they “will continue to do their utmost to improve protection, medical and social conditions … so that the safety and the welfare of [unaccompanied] children can be ensured”. 
ICRC, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF, Joint statement on the evacuation of unaccompanied children from Rwanda, 27 June 1994, § 4.
ICRC
In 1994, in a joint statement, the ICRC, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF reaffirmed that they “will continue to do their utmost to improve protection, medical and social conditions … so that the safety and the welfare of [unaccompanied] children can be ensured”. 
ICRC, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, UNHCR and UNICEF, Joint statement on the evacuation of unaccompanied children from Rwanda, 27 June 1994, § 4.
Council of Delegates (1995)
At its Geneva Session in 1995, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on children in armed conflicts which recognized that “the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols, as well as Articles 38 and 39 of the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, accord children special protection and treatment”. The resolution also endorsed the Plan of Action for the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which aimed “to take concrete action to protect and assist child victims of armed conflicts”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Geneva Session, 1–2 December 1995, Res. 5, preamble and § 2.
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards
The Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights of Åbo Akademi University in Turku/Åbo, Finland in 1990, states: “Every child has the right to the measures of protection required by his or her condition as a minor and shall be provided with the care and aid the child requires.” 
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, 30 November–2 December 1990, Article 10, IRRC, No. 282, p. 334.
DRC Pledge of Commitment
In 2008, the armed groups party to the DRC Pledge of Commitment, “deeply deploring the insecurity that has prevailed for a long time in the province of North Kivu, causing massive displacements of populations and enormous suffering of civilians as well as massive violations of human rights”, made a commitment to strictly observe “rules of international humanitarian law and human rights law, notably … [to] halt acts of violence, abuse, discrimination and exclusion, in any form … and in particular against … children; … [and] [to ensure the] promotion of children’s rights in conflict or post-conflict zones.” 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Preamble and Article III, §§ 1–5.
Note: For practice concerning attacks against schools, see Rule 7D.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 24, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides that “[t]he parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to ensure that [the education of] children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families,” is facilitated. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 24, first para.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 50, first and third paragraphs, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
The Occupying Power shall, with the co-operation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.
Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or friend. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 50, first and third paras.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 94, second paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “The education of [interned] children … shall be ensured; they shall be allowed to attend schools either within the place of internment or outside.” 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 94, second para.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Article 13 of the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights provides: “The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education.” It further provides: “Primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all.”  
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 2200 A (XXI), 16 December 1966, Article 13.
Additional Protocol I
Article 78(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: “Whenever an evacuation occurs … each child’s education, including his religious and moral education as his parents desire, shall be provided while he is away with the greatest possible continuity.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 78(2). Article 78 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 254.
Additional Protocol II
Article 4(3)(a) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “Children … shall receive an education, including religious and moral education, in keeping with the wishes of their parents, or in the absence of parents, of those responsible for their care.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 4(3)(a). Article 4 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.50, 3 June 1977, p. 90.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 28 of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child provides: “The States Parties recognize the right of the child to education”. 
Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 44/25, 20 November 1989, Article 28.
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
Article 11 of the 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child provides: “Every child shall have the right to an education.” 
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, adopted by the Sixteenth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Res. 197 (XVI), Monrovia, 17–20 July 1990, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990), Article 11.
Agreement on Human Rights annexed to the Dayton Accords
Article 1(12) of the 1995 Agreement on Human Rights annexed to the Dayton Accords states: “The Parties shall secure to all persons within their jurisdiction the right to education.” 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 6, Agreement on Human Rights, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995, Article 1(12).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 26 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides: “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.” 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 217 A (III), 10 December 1948, Article 26.
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
Rule 13.5 of the 1985 Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice states: “While in custody, juveniles shall receive … educational [assistance]”. 
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 40/33, 29 November 1985, also known as the Beijing Rules, Rule 13.5.
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
Rule 24.1 of the 1985 Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice states: “Efforts shall be made to provide juveniles, at all stages of the proceedings, with … education.” 
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 40/33, 29 November 1985, also known as the Beijing Rules, Rule 24.1.
Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
Guideline 20 of the 1990 Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency states: “Governments are under an obligation to make public education accessible to all young persons.” 
United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 45/112, 14 December 1990, also known as the Riyadh Guidelines, Guideline 20.
Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty
Rule 38 of the 1990 Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty states: “Every juvenile of compulsory school age has the right to education suited to his or her needs and abilities and designed to prepare him or her for a return to society.” 
United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of Their Liberty, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 45/113, 14 December 1990, Rule 38.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 4 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with Article 78(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 4.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 1 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that hostilities be conducted in accordance with Article 78(2) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 1.
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 23 of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement states:
1. Every human being has the right to education.
2. To give effect to this right for internally displaced persons, the authorities concerned shall ensure that such persons, in particular displaced children, receive education which shall be free and compulsory at the primary level. Education should respect their cultural identity, language and religion.
3. Special efforts should be made to ensure the full and equal participation of … girls in educational programmes. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 23.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides that the parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures for children under seven years of age to ensure that “their maintenance, the exercise of their religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances. The latter shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 4.007; see also Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.12.
The manual also states: “The occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.009; see also Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 6.06.
The manual adds:
Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or friend. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.009.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts: “Children shall receive the assistance and care they require, in particular concerning their education, including their religious or moral education.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.04.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides that “the occupying power must ensure that … proper steps are taken to maintain [the] education and religious welfare” of children under 15 years of age. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 1215.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
The occupying power must take necessary steps to ensure that children under 15 years of age and who are separated from their families are not left to their own resources, and that proper steps are taken to maintain their education and religious welfare. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 12.29.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that in situations requiring the evacuation of children: “The evacuation does not obviate the obligation to continue to ensure the (religious or moral) education of these children as desired by their parents.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 30, § 131; see also p. 50, § 231.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides that belligerents “must ensure the maintenance of [children under 15] and facilitate the exercise of their religion, while their education must as far as possible be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 11-3, § 25.
The manual further states, with respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular: “Children are to receive such aid and protection as required including: a. an education which makes provision for their religious and moral care”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-3, § 22.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on the treatment of civilians in the hands of a party to the conflict or an occupying power:
Belligerents must make provision for the care of children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the conflict. They must ensure the maintenance of such children and facilitate the exercise of their religion, while their education must as far as possible be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1114.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflicts, the manual states: “[The 1977 Additional Protocol II] provides that children are to receive such aid and protection as required including: a. an education which makes provision for their religious and moral care”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1714.1.a.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “Evacuation [of children] does not dispense with the duty to continue to provide [for] each child’s education (including his religious and moral education) as his/her parents desire.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 53.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides that education shall be provided to children. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 74.
Indonesia
The Report on the Practice of Indonesia, with reference to the Military Manual (1982), states that children under 15 years of age, orphaned or separated from their families as a result of conflict, shall be given access to education. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 5.3, referring to The Basics of International Humanitarian Law, Legal Division of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1982.
Italy
Italy’s IHL Manual (1991) provides that the occupying power “shall take all necessary measures to ensure … the education of minors”. 
Italy, Manuale di diritto umanitario, Introduzione e Volume I, Usi e convenzioni di Guerra, SMD-G-014, Stato Maggiore della Difesa, I Reparto, Ufficio Addestramento e Regolamenti, Rome, 1991, Vol. I, § 48(9).
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009), in a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, states: “All practicable measures must be taken … to ensure that those who have become orphaned or separated from their families as a result of the war are not left to their own resources and that … their education … [is] facilitated in all circumstances.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 215.
In the same section, the manual also states: “As far as children are concerned, it is provided that the occupying power, with the cooperation of national and local authorities, must facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.” 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 234(B).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
1060. Children must receive the care and help that they need.
1061. This involves: receiving an upbringing, including religious and moral, in accordance with the wishes of the parents or carers. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 1060–1061.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides that belligerents “must ensure the maintenance of [children under 15] and facilitate the exercise of their religion, while their education must as far as possible be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition”.  
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1112(1).
The manual further states: “The Occupying Power must take the necessary steps to ensure that children under fifteen separated from their families are not left to their own resources and that proper steps are taken to maintain their education and religious welfare.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1317(2).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states that children “are to receive such aid and protection as they require, including an education which makes provision for their religious and moral care”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1813(1).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides: “Necessary measures must be taken for children under 15 years … in any circumstances, so that their care, religious practice and education are facilitated.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 157(1).
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “As concerns children, international humanitarian law envisages the following: … the right of children to receive an education shall be guaranteed”. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.4.11.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) provides that belligerents “must ensure the maintenance of [children under 15] and facilitate the exercise of their religion, while their education must as far as possible be entrusted to persons of similar cultural tradition”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 36.
The manual further states:
If the local institutions are not adequate for the purpose, the Occupant must make arrangements for the maintenance and education of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who can not be adequately looked after by a near relative or friend. The persons entrusted for the maintenance and education of such children shall, if possible, be persons of the children’s own nationality, language and religion. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 538.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states: “In the event of an evacuation of non-nationals, each child’s education must be provided with the greatest possible continuity. This should include moral and religious education as desired by parents.” 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.15.
In its discussion on the 1977 Additional Protocol II, the manual states:
In general, “children shall be provided with the care and aid they require” but the protocol also lays down particular requirements. These include an education which makes provision for their religious and moral care. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 15.39.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Articles 24 and 50 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, §§ 263 and 383.
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Croatia
Croatia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1993) and Directive on Displaced Persons (1991) provide that displaced children shall be educated. 
Croatia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1993, Article 13; Directive on Displaced Persons, 1991, Articles 2 and 13.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Law on Child Protection (2009) states: “The State ensures the … education … for children affected by armed conflict, tensions or civil troubles, especially those who are found and not identified in relation to their family environment.” 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 72.
The Law also states: “For the purpose of the present law, it is understood as: 1. child: every person under the age of 18”. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 2(1).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended to 2010, states:
The Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories of Georgia [shall] support IDPs in the enjoyment of their rights at temporary dwelling spaces, together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
e) Ensure the IDPs’ constitutional right to education and free education at public secondary schools at the expenses of the government. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended in 2010, Article 5(2)(e).
The Law defines an IDP as:
a citizen of Georgia or a stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to a threat to his or his relatives’ life, health and freedom, as a result of an aggression by a foreign state, an internal conflict or massive violations of human rights. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended to 2010, Article 1.
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended in 2011, states:
Article 1 – The Term IDP and [the] Prohibition of Discrimination
1. Internally displaced person from the occupied territory – IDP is a citizen of Georgia or stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to the threat to his life, health and freedom or life, health and freedom of his family members, as a result of aggression of a foreign state, internal conflict o[r] mass violation of human rights or [a]s a result of events determined by … paragraph 11 of article 2 of this Law.
Article 2 – Rules of Recognition as IDP and Granting of … IDP Status
11. In case of marriage of [an] IDP[,] a person’s IDP status shall be retained. If both or one of the parents to a child is [an] IDP, a child may be granted IDP status based on consent of the parents.
Article 5.4 –Ensuring the [rights of] IDP[s] in the Temporary Residence
1. The Ministry supports the IDPs in [the] enjoyment of their rights in … temporary dwelling spaces together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
c) Ensure the IDP’s constitutional right to education and free education at public secondary schools at the expense[] of the Government[.] 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended in 2011, Articles 1(1), 2(11) and 5.4(1)(c).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (2014) states:
Article 6. Definition of an IDP
1. A citizen of Georgia or a stateless person with a status residing in Georgia shall be considered as an IDP, if he/she was forced to leave his/her permanent place of residence because of threat to his/her or his/her family member[s’] life, health or freedom caused by the occupation of the territory by a foreign state, aggression, armed conflict, mass violence and/or massive human rights violations and/or he/she cannot return to his/her permanent place of residence due to the above mentioned reasons.
2. An underage person is entitled to ... IDP status if one or both of the parents have and/or had IDP status, only based on the consent from [the] parent(s) or his/her other legal representative.
3. In case IDP status is not granted to an underage person in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article, IDP status will be granted based on personal application when the person reaches [the] age of majority.
Article 16. Social Protection of an IDP
1. The Ministry [of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia], within its mandate, together with other state bodies shall support an IDP to exercise his/her rights. In particular, they shall
c) ensure enjoyment of the constitutional right to education and state-funded general education as established by the legislation of Georgia. 
Georgia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 2014, Articles 6 and 16(1)(c).
Guinea
Guinea’s Children’s Code (2008) states:
A Child under the age of 15 years of age who is deprived of their liberty for reasons linked to an armed conflict shall benefit from all the protection granted to him by International Humanitarian Law.
In particular:
- A Child shall receive schooling, including religious and moral education, according to the wishes of his parents or guardians. 
Guinea, Children’s Code, 2008, Article 435.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Articles 24, 50 and 94 of the Geneva Convention IV, and of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 78(2), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 4(3)(a), are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Russian Federation
The Report on the Practice of the Russian Federation considers the 1997 Law on Refugees to be applicable to internally displaced persons. One of the principal rights contained in this law is the right of children to receive a primary education. 
Report on the Practice of the Russian Federation, 1997, Chapter 5.5.
No data.
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
164. The MoLSAMD [Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs & Disabled] adopted the National Strategy for Children at Risk in 2006. One of the Strategy’s objectives is to build a supportive environment for children at risk by creating conditions for … access to quality education … The Strategy also supports children who are at risk due to armed conflict and tries to secure a standard of living that is in line with the Convention’s standards.
176. In Afghanistan there are no street children, but there are child street workers who resort to working in the streets because of their families’ poor economic conditions, conflict-related problems (internal displacement and weakening of community support networks), and lack of educational opportunities.
178. The existence of child street workers is a big challenge for the Government and civil society. The Government, in cooperation with international organizations, has established drop-in day centres to support these children. The children come to the centres daily at specific hours. Here they have access to schooling [and] learning skills of their interest … These centres have teachers, social workers, and other service personnel.
230. …
- The MoE [Ministry of Education], in cooperation with relevant civil society organizations, has implemented a two-phase accelerated education programme targeting children, especially girls, who were deprived of education during conflict and Taliban era and reintegrate them into mainstream education. From February 2003 to end of 2005, education was provided in 17 provinces in more than 6,800 classes to 170,000 primary students by 6,800 teachers. The second stage, which is currently continuing, supports students aged 10 to 15 years to complete two education years in one year upon which they are enrolled into basic mainstream education schools. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 164, 176, 178 and 230.
Afghanistan also stated: “The laws of Afghanistan define all individuals under the age of 18 years as a child.” 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 72.
Chad
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Chad stated:
235. Chad is having to cope with an influx of refugees as a result of the conflicts which broke out in 2003 in Darfur and the Central African Republic.
236. In 2005, the east of the country was sheltering 220,000 refugees from Darfur, 60 per cent of them aged under 18.
237. In the south, Chad is sheltering some 40,000 refugees from the Central African Republic. Some 5,500 refugees are estimated to be living in urban areas. They are from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda, as well as from Sudan and the Central African Republic.
243. It should be noted that “Djanjaweed” incursions and rebel attacks have caused the internal displacement of 115,677 persons in the regions of Wadi Fira (Department of Dar Tama), Ouaddai (Departments of Assongha and Dar Sila), and Salamat (Department of Bahr Azoum). This total is estimated to include 48,578 children of pre-school age and 34,817 of school age (Source: UNHCR/N’Dj., 31 January 2007).
251. In the period 2004–2006 United Nations institutions, in particular UNICEF and UNHCR, in partnership with NGOs established an education system in the refugee camps both in the east and in the south of the country. There are about 75,000 children attending pre-school and primary school in the east. Some 360 classrooms have been built and 135 are under construction.
252.This education system established to help refugee children also benefits children affected by armed conflicts. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 December 2007, UN Doc. CRC/C/TCD/2, submitted 7 June 2007, §§ 235–237, 243 and 251–252.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated:
8. As a result of the conflict in Darfur in 2003, Chad was faced with an influx of Darfur refugees in the east of the country. In 2005 there were 220,000 refugees from Darfur, 60 per cent of whom were under the age of 18. The refugees are cared for by the Government of Chad with the support of the United Nations and international and national refugee organizations …
10. Conflict between communities, Janjaweed incursions and rebel attacks have caused the internal displacement of 50,000 persons in the Dar Sila region, 1,981 of them school aged children and 136 children separated from their parents. Protection and humanitarian assistance are provided by United Nations agencies, the Government and national human rights organizations.
11. In 2005 some 7,500 children were attending primary school or preschool in the east of the country. Approximately 360 classrooms have been built and another 135 are under construction. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, §§ 8 and 10–11.
Colombia
In 2006, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to Colombia’s third periodic report, Colombia stated:
By way of educational assistance to children who find themselves in situations of forced displacement as a result of violence, the Ministry of National Education, in coordination with the Education Secretariats, ICBF [Colombian Family Welfare Institute] and other government ministries and bodies, acts to ensure that they are incorporated in the school system. In this way, children are provided with a traditional-style education or instruction based on flexible educational models offering relevant alternative solutions in keeping with the dispersed and mobile nature of the population. 
Colombia, Written replies by the Government of Colombia to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues formulated by the Committee on the Rights of the Child in connection with its consideration of the third periodic report of Colombia, 26 April 2006, UN Doc. CRC/COL/Q/3/Add.1, p. 56.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2008, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to its second periodic report, the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated:
Providing the necessary assistance for the physical and psychological rehabilitation as well as social reintegration of children who have left the armed forces or armed groups has been part of the DDR [disarmament, demobilization and reintegration] programme since its inception in 2001. Generally speaking, the process of psychological counselling and assistance in family and community reintegration is as follows:
(b) … Counselling sessions are held with them throughout their stay at the centre. Their educational level is assessed, and children found to have very weak skills take remedial classes in reading and writing and in basic education (rules of good behaviour and manners) …
Reintegration is undertaken on the basis of the educational projects of the “peace villages” in the form of occupational or educational guidance. The following occupations are the most common:
- Bakery and confectionery trade
- Sewing and dressmaking
- Bicycle and motorcycle repairs
- Automobile mechanics
- Carpentry
- Metalworking
- Fishing, agriculture and animal husbandry
- Masonry and bricklaying. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Written replies by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the second periodic report of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 30 December 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/COD/Q/2/Add.1, submitted 24 December 2008, pp. 12–13.
El Salvador
In 2002, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, El Salvador stated:
495. The Welfare Programme for FMLN [Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional] Children was adopted to facilitate the educational reintegration and technical training of minors demobilized from the FMLN, aged between 15 and 16 on 16 January 1992, who had not had access to the Land Programme under the Supplementary Agreement between the Government of El Salvador and the FMLN.
496. The National Secretariat for the Family conducted a national survey to identify child beneficiaries of the project and the reintegration option they wished to choose, either technical training or education at Ministry of Education establishments. Among the children identified, 152 opted to attend public educational establishments and 97 to enrol for technical training. The National Educational Supervision Directorate of the Ministry of Education took the requisite steps to have them enrolled, giving them priority access to baskets of basic educational materials and priority for exemption from the corresponding enrolment quota.
497. Only nine of the children who opted for enrolment in educational establishments were successfully incorporated in the system. The National Secretariat for the Family, with support from the World Food Programme, supplied them with a basic food basket for a period of six months. Only one of the nine children completed the course of studies.
498. The Vocational Training Programme funded by the European Economic Community, and the Programme for Integration and Promotion of Employment of Demobilized Persons financed by the German corporation for international cooperation GTZ and the National Secretariat for the Family, attended to the needs of the target group and to those of a further 25 children for whom no provision had been made in the Programme. 
El Salvador, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 22 October 2003, UN Doc. CRC/65/Add.25, submitted 10 July 2002, §§ 495–498.
[C]hildren's right – in particular girls’ – to quality education in war and disasters is a vital part of protecting children during conflict. Attending school can create a sense of normality and a vision for a better future in an otherwise chaotic situation. It is therefore all the more disturbing that there were attacks on education facilities in at least 70 countries in 2009-2013. Since then it has just escalated in a number of conflicts. We must increase our efforts to uphold the right to education, even in conflict situations. … The Safe Schools Declaration expresses a commitment to protect education from attack. It merits our full consideration and we hope that it will be endorsed by as many as possible. 
Finland, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
France
According to the Report on the Practice of France, the French authorities consider the persistent closing of schools and universities in the West Bank to be a matter of serious concern. 
Report on the Practice of France, 1999, Chapter 5.7.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Georgia
In 2014, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Georgia stated:
II. Violation of the rights of the child in the Occupied Regions of Georgia
Introduction
6. Information below covers violations of the rights of the child in the occupied regions of Georgia in the two-year period of 2012–2013. However, many trends identified in the document date back to more than a decade, but have become particularly manifest after the Russian occupation of the Abkhazia and Tsk[h]invali regions in 2008. The Russian troops drawing barbed wire fences, digging trenches and erecting other physical barriers along the Administrative Boundary Lines (hereinafter ABL) near Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region became commonplace and intense throughout 2012. As a result, lives of residents in the occupied regions and those living in the vicinity, including children, have been adversely affected. … Violations of the rights of the child in the Occupied Regions have taken place in the fields of inter alia … education, and constitute a grave breach of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child. The matter of fact that the effective control over these Georgian territories is now exercised by the Russian military and the political officialdom, puts the responsibility over these violations on the shoulders of the Russian Federation as the subject of international law.
7. At the same time, the Government of Georgia has been pursuing the Engagement Strategy and Action Plan (2010), which provide for inter alia educational and healthcare opportunities for the residents of the occupied regions, including children.
Restrictions on the Right to Education on Ethnic Grounds
11. Restrictions on the children’s right to education are imposed in several forms, ranging from restrictions regarding documentation and choice of schools to violations of the rights of teachers, pupils and parents on ethnic grounds.
12. To begin with, the pupils of the Gali district holding Georgian birth certificates are deprived of their fundamental right to study in [their] native language and are treated as “foreigners” in occupied Abkhazia. …
Restriction of Education in Native Language; Illegal Detentions of Pupils and Teachers
23. In the schools of the Gali district, predominantly inhabited by ethnic Georgians, studies in or of the Georgian language is either totally prohibited or allowed for a limited period of time. The Georgian language is replaced by the teaching of the Russian language. Georgian teachers have no other way but to teach Georgian informally at their own personal risk and those teachers or pupils who are found to be “implicated” in teaching/learning Georgian (e.g. by carrying a Georgian textbook) are often subject to physical assault. As a result, pupils have to walk from the occupied region through unsafe routes to study in Georgian schools in the Zugdidi district kilometers away. In some cases, Georgian pupils have to go to nearby schools that happen to be on the occupied territory. However, pupils and teachers face increasing difficulties and are often detained when moving across the ABL or via the bypass routes between the occupied regions and the rest of Georgia to pursue studies/teaching.
IV. General Principles
Non-discrimination
47. Due to Russia’s occupation of Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia and Abkhazia[,] Georgia has been prevented from the opportunity to ensure protection of human rights, including children’s rights in th[ose] parts of the country. Serious facts of discriminations and human rights violations have been reported by numerous … reputable international organizations, committed predominantly against population of Georgian origin. People of Georgian ethnicity, including children, have been deprived of fundamental rights, such as … [the] right to receive education in their “mother tongue”[.] 
Georgia, Fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 28 June 2016, UN Doc. CRC/C/GEO/4, submitted 11 December 2014, §§ 6–7, 11–12, 23 and 47.
[footnote in original omitted]
Guinea
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guinea stated:
471. Guinea has been greatly affected by the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone that have raged since 24 December 1989. Faithfully observing international human rights agreements, the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] and the [1990] African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Guinea has generously opened its doors to more than half a million refugees, including more than 305,000 children and young persons under 18 years of age (or 61 per cent of the refugee population), traumatized and hounded by a war that threatens their survival. They have been given shelter throughout the national territory, but especially in Guinée Forestière.
480. The armed conflicts in neighbouring countries and their repercussion[s] in Guinea … have affected children more than anyone else.
488. Social reintegration [of separated children, including former child soldiers,] is accomplished through:
- At the vocational level, placing children in different trades: driving instruction, mechanics, hairdressing, soap-making, etc.
- At the educational level, adaptation of some refugees to the Guinean education system with support for school meals and supplies
490. We witnessed more than 9,000 children and young persons organized into self-defence groups to defend and liberate [their] homeland … On the initiative of the Ministry for Children, a social and vocational training demobilization and reintegration project was … launched in the prefectures of Kissidougou and Guéckédou in Guinée Forestière. This project involved … 350 young persons, who received vocational training in eight key areas: coppersmithing, dressmaking, electrical work, bricklaying, information technology, farming, trade and carpentry. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 471, 480, 488 and 490.
Malaysia
With reference to two memoranda on accommodation in detention camps, the Report on the Practice of Malaysia states that during the communist insurgency, children were detained in Advanced Approved Schools and were provided with an education. 
Report on the Practice of Malaysia, 1997, Chapter 5.5, referring to Memorandum on Accommodation in Detention Camps, 13 June 1950, Ref. (4) in DCHQ/87/50 and Memorandum on Accommodation in Detention Camps, 6 December 1950, Ref. (56) in DCHQ/187/50.
Nigeria
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Nigeria stated:
The armed conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia caused an influx of refugees into Nigeria, the bulk of them are women and children. The National Commission for Refugees (NCR) maintains a camp in Oru, Ogun State where educational … facilities have been provided for children.
… Refugee children enjoy equal rights as nationals with regards to all the rights enshrined in the CRC [1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child], for instance:
- Education: Refugee children have access to existing primary and post primary schools. Public schools are free for refugees. Refugee children also have access to extra curricula activities such as sports and cultural activities … A day care centre is also established for over 200 refugee children who were not of primary school age. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 8.2.1.
Nigeria further stated:
The following steps are being taken at all levels of government to stamp out discrimination:
- Schools for refugees and displaced children have been established in the border towns of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Bauchi and Ogun States. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 3.1.1.
[C]hildren's right – in particular girls’ – to quality education in war and disasters is a vital part of protecting children during conflict. Attending school can create a sense of normality and a vision for a better future in an otherwise chaotic situation. It is therefore all the more disturbing that there were attacks on education facilities in at least 70 countries in 2009-2013. Since then it has just escalated in a number of conflicts. We must increase our efforts to uphold the right to education, even in conflict situations. … The Safe Schools Declaration expresses a commitment to protect education from attack. It merits our full consideration and we hope that it will be endorsed by as many as possible. 
Norway, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Evacuations adopted by the Presidential Human Rights Committee of the Philippines in 1991 provide: “The government shall undertake appropriate measures so that the schooling of children evacuees shall not be prejudiced.” 
Philippines, Presidential Human Rights Committee, Resolution No. 91-001 Providing for Guidelines on Evacuations, Manila, 26 March 1991, § 12.
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated:
Somalia has not ratified AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II] and it is therefore not directly applicable to Somalia as a matter of treaty law. The Government is aware that many provisions of AP II represent customary IHL rules and therefore apply to the situation in Somalia. Such provisions include Article 4 providing guarantees to persons taking no active part in hostilities … due to the fact that these norms are reflected in Common Article 3 of the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 75.
Sri Lanka
In 1994, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka stated, with respect to child victims of armed conflict and refugees: “There are several urgent needs that have to be met [including] … education for children of school age”. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.13, 5 May 1994, § 146.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
19. The Government is encouraged that the TMVP [Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal] facilitated the release in April 2008 of 39 children held by the paramilitary group known as the Karuna faction. These children now have access to … vocational training … which the Government working in close cooperation with international partners – notably UNICEF – stands ready to provide. …
24. In April 2007, the Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment established a Task Force in relation to children affected by the armed conflict. It focused on issues raised in United Nations Security Council resolution 1612 and the Security Council Committee set up under it. Subject areas of focus in the Task Force include conformity of Sri Lankan legislation with the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] to provide protection for children affected by the armed conflict, … [and] the promotion of compulsory education …
55. The Women and Children’s Division of the Department of Labour is the focal point for implementing ILO-IPEC [International Labour Organization-International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour] [a]ctivities in Sri Lanka. The IPEC activities are monitored by a Steering Committee of Stakeholders chaired by the Secretary to the Ministry of Labour Relations and Manpower.
56. Among other things, with regard to Children in armed conflict, the IPEC programme implements a number of activities in the districts of Amparai, Mullaitivu, Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mannar, Trincomalee, and Vavuniya which are in the North and the East of Sri Lanka. The specific IPEC responses are delivered within two inter-UN agency projects: The Action Plan for Children affected by War and the project on Repatriation, Reintegration, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (4Rs) in North East of Sri Lanka. The target group of beneficiaries are vulnerable children, including child soldiers from female-headed households and internally displaced families and adult family members. In both projects, IPEC has taken the lead in the area of vocational skills training. The development objective of IPEC’s North-East programme is to contribute to the withdrawal of child labour, specifically child soldiers from the worst forms of child labour through reintegration training programmes, and the prevention of entry of children into child labour through employment linked training programmes, particularly self-employment, for the target group and contributed to increasing the quality and capacity of training provides. Training has been undertaken in [a] variety of ways: formal centre-based training, informal rural skills training at the community level, mobile training, placement in apprenticeships and on-the-job-training. Simultaneously, children were also exposed to life skills training, provided with vocational and career guidance, and business start[-]up knowledge to enable them to explore their potential for self-employment and entrepreneurial business opportunities. The IPEC has also assisted more than 20 training providing organizations to upgrade their technical capacities and training equipment to deliver quality programs. …
57. Sri Lanka’s abiding commitment to the welfare of children irrespective of gender, ethnicity, caste and religion is borne out by its welfare programmes focussed on children, which includes the provision of … education island-wide. These welfare programmes, … have benefited children without discrimination and led to … high levels of literacy. However, these main social benefits are seriously eroded when children are used in armed conflict and suffer death, maiming, abuse and exploitation.
58. The Government is firmly committed to ensure that all children [are] free to learn, study …
96. Guidelines on Protective care, Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Child Combatants have been developed in collaboration with the office of the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation.
97. The Guidelines include the following:
(f) To provide education and vocational training at the interim protective centre based on the individual capacities of the children. This will be planned in a manner in which it will be meaningful to the children, with the objective of a livelihood relevant to their own communities;
(g) To respond effectively to the psychosocial needs of the children. These can commence with the introduction of diverse activities and interventions such as … education …
(i) Plan and develop community based interventions which take into account family realities of such children such as … education, [and] skill development …
113. However, the Government from the inception of the conflict has provided free primary, secondary and tertiary education to children in conflict affected areas. This includes free text books and school uniforms. The salaries for teachers, school supplies and recurrent costs to run the schools are paid by the Government. This includes 266,000 pupils and 11,000 teachers in the Northern Province and 377,000 pupils and 16,000 teachers in the Eastern Province.
114. … [T]he President, by regulation dated 12th September 2006, appointed the Commissioner-General of Rehabilitation (CGR) who is entrusted with specific responsibilities in relation to all “surrendees” of the conflict, including children.
115. …
(c) The CGR is entrusted … to provide such surrendee with appropriate vocational, technical or other training. …
118. Once the surrendees are accommodated at the permanent [rehabilitation] centre at Ambepussa, … the Government has developed a programme which includes skills development, vocational training, training in aesthetics, language education and sports. … All surrendees will be provided with such services as are necessary for their physical and mental wellbeing. … This interim protective care will include … education, … [and] vocational training … The NCPA [National Child Protection Agency] will collaborate with the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation on many of these aspects including the Ministries of Vocational Training, Child Development and Women’s Empowerment as well as UNICEF.
122. An interim care protective environment will be established and created for those children who need to remain. This will take the form of a child friendly education institution and be staffed by specially trained persons. Stigmatization is sought to be prevented by laying emphasis on education. …
Income generation and education programmes
134. All children in Sri Lanka including children vulnerable to recruitment living in the North and East have access to free primary, secondary and tertiary education. Education could be regarded as a preventive tool against child recruitment. At present, there are 1,848 functioning Government schools in the North and East, out of which 1,545 schools are Tamil medium schools. However the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] has in the past and continues even at present to try to recruit children in schools through indoctrination and the use of propaganda material. This is particularly prevalent in “uncleared” areas in North where the LTTE is still active.
135. A total of 726,591 children attend school in the North and the East which is 19.12 per cent of the Island’s school population. The Government and Ministry of Education allocate resources from the Treasury to cover all teacher salaries, including salaries of the Ministry staff of the North and East and provide free school uniform materials and textbooks. Since there are no private schools in Kilinochchi, Mannar and Vavuniya in the Northern district and Ampara and Trincomalee in the East, all the primary and secondary education is provided free by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry also provides free tertiary education free through universities in Jaffna and Batticaloa.
Financial assistance
137. The Government seeks financial support … so that all children are able to attend school and therefore not be recruited. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 19, 24, 55–58, 96, 97(f),(g) and (i), 113–114, 115(c), 118, 122, 134–135 and 137.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, in the section on children affected by armed conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
336. The Action Plan for Children Affected by War was a multi-sectoral programme drawn up in 2003 during the period following the Ceasefire Agreement. … The Action Plan included provision for … education. …
343. The Government has established a dedicated centre for “child surrendees”, the Ambepussa Rehabilitation Centre. Around 90 children have been through the centre, with 25 currently in residence. The CGR has developed a policy framework for the rehabilitation of “child surrendees” in collaboration with the NCPA [National Child Protection Authority]. Accordingly they are provided with vocational training, language and literacy skills …
345. The Government is finalizing an amendment to Emergency Regulations to deal with the situation of child surrendees – Emergency (Miscellaneous Provisions and Powers) Regulation No. 1 of 2005. The amendment will provide for the establishment of Protective Child Accommodation Centres and Protective Child Rehabilitation Centres, the latter to extend … vocational training and other services. …
348. As a follow up to Security-Council resolution 1612 and the United Nations Secretary-General’s report on children affected by the conflict, a task force meets regularly under the Secretary [of the] Ministry of Child [D]evelopment to discuss and follow up outstanding issues, particularly in relation to action needed. These include issues such as … access to education.
352. The Government has taken measures to ensure that children affected by conflict are not denied their right to education throughout the entire period of the conflict. Non-formal and “catch up” education programmes have also been conducted. Infrastructure improvements include the constructing of school buildings, toilets and water supply facilities particularly in the Northern and Eastern Provinces. This also included the reactivation of School Attendance Committees. Teachers have been trained in psychosocial counseling.
354. A comprehensive assessment of the education sector needs in the conflict-affected areas was done in 2003. …
355. The Sri Lankan Government adopted several measures to provide extra educational support for displaced children. Catch Up Education (CUE) was one such initiative. Under the Six-Year Provincial Primary Education Plan (1999–2004) of the Northern and Eastern Province (as it then was) teachers were trained in a short orientation programme in CUE. … This programme was expanded and the Vanni Education Rehabilitation Project (VERP) supported by German Government Assistance (GTZ) was launched in 2002.
357. Learning from past experience in CUE, education authorities have with UNICEF support created a new consolidated syllabus specially designed for children who have been out of regular school for up to six months. … Aware of the need for sensitivity to the emotional impact of the conflict on children, their families and teachers, the new curriculum contains a strong psychosocial component.
358. The Human Rights Commission’s National Protection and Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons (NPDS/IDP project) have recently completed a study on the Right to Education of IDPs.
359. The study assesses the situation in six conflict-affected districts, with about 361,060 displaced persons of whom nearly 30 per cent are school-age children, representing 2 per cent of the total student population of the country. The study identifies several problems relating to the education at preschool, primary and secondary levels, and tertiary and higher education.
360. It signals the need for better management of the preschool system by the Provincial Councils and more financial and other resources for the management and supervision of preschools. In primary and secondary education issues highlighted are temporary closure of schools and schools being used as IDP accommodation; high dropout rate due to financial constraints; and child labour and child military recruitment.
361. The study revealed that a number of schools were temporarily closed and some others were occupied by displaced persons, interrupting the education of thousands of children and causing the relocation of hundreds of teachers from their original schools. With the Government taking control of the East measures were quickly put in place with the assistance of INGOs [international NGOs] to bring normalcy to the lives of the displaced. In several affected administrative Divisions children are back in schools with furniture, books and uniforms provided by the Ministry of Education.
362. Where children are affected by the disruption to infrastructure facilities such as water and electricity, the Ministry of Resettlement is putting in place measures to restore these facilities under the Emergency Assistance Programme to the Resettled IDPs in Batticaloa.
363. There are indications that in areas of severe teacher shortage, schools may be resorting to the use of volunteers, at a time when the national policy of the government is to put a stop to the use of untrained teachers. In a bid to address some of these issues, the Eastern Province Education Department is hoping to obtain UNICEF assistance to enhance the quality of education in the East with targeted teacher training programmes including psychosocial interventions for displaced teachers. In Trincomalee the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) is supporting a project to Improve School Management to Enhance Quality of Education with Special Reference to Science and Mathematics (ISMEQUE). In more Northern areas the security situation makes it harder to maintain normalcy in schooling. Security concerns particularly regarding travel to and from school have resulted in some children dropping out of school.
364. As the absence of birth certificates was identified as a major obstacle to displaced children gaining admission to schools on relocation, the National Policy on Admissions to Schools was revised to remedy this situation. The policy makes special provision for admission to schools after displacement, by stating that it is not necessary to have a birth certificate for school entry. The school should accept a letter from the village head (the lowest administrative unit in the country) and a certification by the IDP camp that the child has been affected by a disaster, natural or man-made. An affidavit can be submitted to confirm the date of birth.
365. A Needs Assessment of the Asian Development Bank, World Bank and World Food Programme (WFP) in 2003 showed 50,000 school aged children as out of school in the North and East, with a 15 per cent dropout rate. Measures have been taken by both government and NGOs to address this situation. Under the WFP’s Food for Education concept which recognizes poverty and lowering of socio-economic status of displaced people as a main cause of school drop-out, about 22,000 children from Grades 1–9 get midday meals.
366. The Mid-Day Meal Programme under the Government’s vision document Mahinda Chintana also provides mid-day meals to selected schools. Government officials regularly visit these schools to ensure implementation and reduce further dropouts. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 20 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 24 October 2008, §§ 336, 343, 345, 348, 352, 354–355 and 357–366.
Sri Lanka
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, Sri Lanka stated:
End of war and rehabilitation of former child soldiers
70. His Excellency the President, by Regulation dated 12 September 2006, appointed a Commissioner General of Rehabilitation (CGR) who is entrusted with specific responsibilities in relation to all “surrendees” of the ongoing conflict which include adults and children. The CGR now takes the lead in the rehabilitation of “Child Surrendees” and functions under the President’s Office.
72. The CGR is entrusted with the task of providing surrendees with [inter alia] … appropriate vocational, technical or other training. There are at present three such centres. The centre in Ambepussa is for children and women. …
73. The CGR centre at Ambepussa receives surrendees under the age of eighteen years and women. This Centre has been set up by the Government exclusively to care for and reintegrate children leaving armed groups. This rehabilitation process involves … special school education classes and vocational training. …
75. Surrendees have a choice of the following vocational training courses that are provided at the centre, those who had dropped out of school or illiterate are provided with non-formal education. On the completion of such training surrendees are awarded certificates which would help them to obtain employment. Plans are also underway to impart language training …
78. New regulations have been framed under section 5 of the Public Security Ordinance by the President in order to introduce “Child Friendly” procedures and processes related to the surrender and release of children recruited as combatants.
79. Under these regulations the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation in consultation with the District Secretary of any district, the relevant Provincial Commissioner of Probation of Child Care Services and the Chairman, National Child Protection Authority identifies suitable locations for the establishment of the following:
(b) Protective Child Rehabilitation Centres for the purpose of providing … vocational and other training for the facilitation of the process of reintegration of such child into his family, community and into society.
88. The officer in charge of a Protective Child [soldier] Accommodation Centre or protective child [soldier] rehabilitation centre in which such child is placed shall:
(f) Provide the child with education or appropriate vocational, technical and other training with a view to equipping him to pursue a career of his choice.
90. The Regulation … provides access to education and vocational training based on their individual needs and capacities. …
94. Several other measures [were] taken by the Government in association with UNICEF and the NGO Community concerning inter alia, psychosocial support and assistance for children affected by armed conflict and towards ensuring their right to education …
98. As a reflection of the government’s commitment at the highest executive level to combat child recruitment, His Excellency President Mahinda Rajapaksa launched on 26th February 2009 the joint Government of Sri Lanka and UNICEF Public Awareness Campaign on Child Recruitment …
99. “Bring back the Child” is a multimedia campaign that calls on those who recruit children to stop, and for those children currently in their ranks to be released, so that they can return to their families and have access to services, including … education and vocational training. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 23 September 2010, UN Doc. CAT/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 17 August 2009, §§ 70, 72–73, 75, 78, 79(b), 88(f), 90, 94 and 98–99.
Sudan
In 1993, in a statement before the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Sudan reported that “education for displaced children had been made available in the form of special schools in the camps”. 
Sudan, Statement before the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/SR.90, 5 November 1993, § 28.
[C]hildren's right – in particular girls’ – to quality education in war and disasters is a vital part of protecting children during conflict. Attending school can create a sense of normality and a vision for a better future in an otherwise chaotic situation. It is therefore all the more disturbing that there were attacks on education facilities in at least 70 countries in 2009-2013. Since then it has just escalated in a number of conflicts. We must increase our efforts to uphold the right to education, even in conflict situations. … The Safe Schools Declaration expresses a commitment to protect education from attack. It merits our full consideration and we hope that it will be endorsed by as many as possible. 
Sweden, Statement by the permanent representative of Sweden before the UN Security Council during an open debate on children and armed conflict, made on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 18 June 2015.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states: “Children orphaned by war or separated from their parents have the right to education in accordance with their own religion and culture.” 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 10.
Thailand
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
78. The MOE [Ministry of Education] Regulation on Proof of Admission of Students into Educational Institutions, approved by the Cabinet on 5 July 2005 and its order dated 27 October 2005, require all educational institutions to admit children of school age to study in their institutes, with or without evidence of civil registration, by using birth certificates or letters of certification of birth, or other proof issued by government authorities, or documents permitted by the MOE, or personal history record of the child recorded by parents, caretakers, non-governmental organizations or the children themselves. … The Regulation also requires the MOE to provide suitable education to displaced children fleeing armed conflict, with a view to develop their quality of life and promote peaceful co-existence.
Children in temporary shelters for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict
103. The organization of education for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict has been on-going since 1998, in cooperation with over 10 NGOs. The education provided consists of three levels, namely pre-school, primary and lower secondary (Grade 1–10), and covers a variety of subjects, including Thai, Burmese, Karen, English, science, mathematics, history, geography, sanitation and some others. Evaluation is conducted on a three-year basis. A certificate of completion is issued by the education committee based in the areas in cooperation with the organizations responsible for the curricula. After completion of Grade 10, the children may choose to continue with vocational training, organized by the MOI [Ministry of Interior] in cooperation with UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees] and private organizations, to enable them to acquire vocational skills and become self-relian[t] when returning to the country of origin.
104. The MOE is in the process of reviewing various teaching and learning curricula[] used by NGOs to ensure common standards and consistency with the national curriculum in accordance with the National Education Plan of 2002–2016. The Ministry is also responsible for approving certificates of education issued by NGOs to enable displaced person[s] to further their education, if they so wish, in their country of origin or in the third country. 
Thailand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 September 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/3-4, submitted 11 July 2011, §§ 78 and 103–104.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, “Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II] reflect general US policy on treatment of persons in the power of an adverse party in armed conflicts governed by common Article 3” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The report also notes: “It is the opinio juris of the US that persons detained in connection with an internal armed conflict are entitled to humane treatment as specified in Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II].” 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
United States of America
On 8 May 2006, the US delegation to the Committee against Torture, responded orally to questions regarding US obligations under the 1985 Convention against Torture. On a question concerning juveniles detained at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, the US Department of Defense Legal Adviser responded:
With respect to Madame Belmir’s question about juveniles detained at Guantanamo and the reason for their detention, there are currently no juvenile detainees at Guantanamo . . . Let me briefly speak about the conditions of detention we provided them while at Guantanamo. After medical tests determined their ages, they were housed in a separate detention facility, separated at a significant distance from the other detainees, and the other detainees were not permitted to have access to them. Indeed, they were housed in a communal facility, rather than cells. They underwent assessments from medical, behavioral, and educational experts to address their needs. Furthermore, we taught them mathematics, English, and reading, and provided daily physical exercise and sports programs.
It is unfortunate that al Qaeda and the Taliban use juveniles as combatants. The United States detains enemy combatants engaged in armed conflict against it and the juveniles were detained to prevent further harm to them and to our forces. 
United States, Department of State, Oral Statements by the United States Delegation to the Committee Against Torture, Geneva, Switzerland, 8 May 2006.
United States of America
In May 2008, in a joint press briefing given in Geneva by the US Ambassador-at-Large and Director, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, and by the Deputy Assistant Secretary, Detainee Affairs, Department of Defense, the defense representative stated:
In Iraq, for example, we have developed an extensively robust program of a Juvenile Education Center working with the Iraqi government. It’s a separate school, exclusively for those juveniles who have taken part in hostilities and who have been recruited into armed conflict, which is something we very much oppose. And this school in particular has athletic fields; it has a special Iraqi curriculum developed with the Iraqi government for them. We take all measures to encourage as robust a communication with their families as is possible. And our policy is to the maximum extent practicable to not detain a juvenile more than a year. 
United States, Statement by the Deputy Assistant Secretary, Detainee Affairs, Department of Defense, at a press briefing with the Ambassador-at-Large and Director, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Geneva, 21 May 2008.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on children in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council:
Strongly condemns … attacks on objects protected under international law, including places that usually have a significant presence of children such as schools … and calls on all parties concerned to put an end to such practices. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1261, 25 August 1999, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the protection of children in situations of armed conflict, the UN Security Council reiterated “the importance of ensuring that children continue to have access to basic services during conflict and post-conflict periods, including, inter alia, education and health care”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1314, 11 August 2000, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon Member States and international organizations to ensure that children affected by armed conflict are involved in all disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, taking into account the specific needs and capacities of girls, and that the duration of these processes is sufficient for a successful transition to normal life, with a particular emphasis on education, including the monitoring, through, inter alia, schools, of children demobilized in order to prevent re-recruitment. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1460, 30 January 2003, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Reiterates its requests to all parties concerned, including United Nations agencies, funds and programmes as well as financial institutions to ensure that all children associated with armed forces and groups, as well as issues related to children, are systematically included in every disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process, taking into account the specific needs and capacities of girls, with a particular emphasis on education, including the monitoring, through, inter alia, schools, of children demobilized in order to prevent re-recruitment and bearing in mind the assessment of best practices, including those contained in paragraph 65 of the report of the Secretary-General [of 10 November 2003].  
UN Security Council, Res. 1539, 22 April 2004, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon all parties concerned to ensure that all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction planning have regard for the special needs of women and children … and include specific measures for the protection of civilians including … (iv) the facilitation of early access to education and training. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN General Assembly urged all parties involved in Kosovo “to support the efforts of the United Nations Children’s Fund to ensure that all children in Kosovo return to school as soon as possible and to contribute to the rebuilding and repair of schools destroyed or damaged during the conflict in Kosovo”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/183, 17 December 1999, § 21, voting record: 108-4-45-31.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly called upon “the Transitional Administration to provide Afghan children with educational and health facilities in all parts of the country, recognizing the special needs of girls, and to ensure their full access to those facilities”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, § 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on special assistance for the economic recovery and reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all parties concerned in the region to cease any recruitment, training and use of child soldiers, which are contrary to international law, welcomes the initial steps taken by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers, in particular through education, and urges the Government and all parties to continue their efforts in this context, and to take into account the particular needs of girl ex-combatants. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/123, 17 December 2003, § 9, voting record: 169-1-0-21.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, the UN General Assembly:
9. Acknowledges that education is among the most effective initial means of ensuring protection for unaccompanied minors, especially girls, by shielding them from exploitative activities such as child labour, military recruitment or sexual exploitation and abuse;
10. Calls upon the Secretary-General, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, the United Nations Children’s Fund, other United Nations organizations and other international organizations to mobilize adequate assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors in the areas of relief, education, recreational activities, health and psychological rehabilitation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/150, 22 December 2003, §§ 9–10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Reiterates the importance of providing Afghan children with educational and health facilities in all parts of the country, recognizing the special needs of girls, and encourages the Government of Afghanistan, with the assistance of the international community, to expand those facilities and to promote full and equal access to them by all members of Afghan society. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/112 B, 8 December 2004, § 5, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the 2005 World Summit Outcome, the UN General Assembly stated:
We also reaffirm our commitment to ensure that children in armed conflicts receive timely and effective humanitarian assistance, including education, for their rehabilitation and reintegration into society. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/1, 16 September 2005, § 118, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Reiterates the necessity of providing Afghan children with educational and health facilities in all parts of the country, recognizing the special needs of girls, and encourages the Government of Afghanistan, with the assistance of the international community, to expand those facilities and to promote full and equal access to them by all members of Afghan society. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/32 B, 30 November 2005, § 6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, the UN General Assembly noted with concern “the tragic plight of children in conflict situations in Africa, particularly the growing phenomenon of child soldiers, and reiterates the need for post-conflict counselling, rehabilitation and education”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/223, 23 December 2005, § 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon States “to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, in particular through educational measures, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/231, 23 December 2005, § 33(b), voting record: 130-1-0-60.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Reiterates the necessity of providing Afghan children with educational and health facilities in all parts of the country, recognizing the special needs of girls, strongly condemns terrorist attacks on education facilities, and encourages the Government of Afghanistan, with the assistance of the international community, to expand these facilities, to train professional staff and to promote full and equal access to them by all members of Afghan society, including in remote areas. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/18, 28 November 2006, § 30, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon States “to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, in particular through educational measures, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/146, 19 December 2006, § 36(b), voting record: 185-1-0-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
39. Reiterates the necessity of providing Afghan children with educational and health facilities in all parts of the country, …
40. Recognizes the special needs of girls, strongly condemns terrorist attacks on education facilities and encourages the Government of Afghanistan, with the assistance of the international community, to expand these facilities, to train professional staff and to promote full and equal access to them by all members of Afghan society, including in remote areas. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, §§ 39 and 40, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon States “to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, in particular through educational measures, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/141, 18 December 2007, § 41(b), voting record: 183-1-0-8.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on a supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, ECOSOC recommended to the UN General Assembly that it adopt a draft resolution that stated, inter alia:
Governments should take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of children and young victims of armed conflicts, in particular by restoring access of those children and youth to health care and education, including through “Education for All” programmes, as well as to put in place effective youth employment strategies to help provide a decent living for young people and to facilitate their reintegration into society. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2007/27, 27 July 2007, § 52, voting record: 49-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights reaffirmed “the importance of special attention for children in situations of armed conflict, particularly in the area of … education”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/76, 22 April 1998, § 13(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all States to “take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … children affected by armed conflicts”.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/19, 22 April 2003, § 6(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all States to “take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … children affected by armed conflicts”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/25, 16 April 2004, § 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Recognizes that education is an integral part of the process of demobilization, effective disarmament, rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society of children involved in armed conflicts, and that it is a means of facilitating a return to normality for such children and is a key protection measure against re-recruitment by parties to armed conflict as well as against sexual abuse and exploitation and other rights violations. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, § 43, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all States to “take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … children affected by armed conflicts”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/21, 15 April 2005, § 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon African States:
To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups and their participation in hostilities, through, inter alia, … practical measures such as … access to education … vocational training and employment. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/43, 19 April 2005, § 5(c), adopted without a vote.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 1997, in its Conclusion on Refugee Children and Adolescents, the UNHCR Executive Committee called upon States and relevant parties “to respect and observe rights and principles that are in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law [including] … (iii) the right of children and adolescents to education”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 84(XLVIII): Refugee Children and Adolescents, 20 October 1997, § a.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 2007, in its Conclusion on Children at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee recommended the following for States, the UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners:
Encourage the inclusion of all children in education programmes and strengthen children’s capacities, including by enabling their equal access to quality education for girls and boys in all stages of the displacement cycle and in situations of statelessness; promote learning and school environments that are safe, do not perpetuate violence, and promote a culture of peace and dialogue; designate child-friendly spaces in camp and urban environments; and promote access to post-primary education wherever possible and appropriate, life-skills and vocational trainings for adolescents and support recreational activities, sports, play and cultural activities. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII): Children at Risk, 5 October 2007, preamble, § h(viii).
UN Secretary-General
In 2000, in his report on the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, the UN Secretary-General stated: “Violations of common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and of Article 4 of Additional Protocol II thereto committed in an armed conflict not of an international character have long been considered customary international law.” 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, UN Doc. S/2000/915, 4 October 2000, § 14.
UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflict
In 1996, in a report on the impact of armed conflict on children, the UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflict recommended that, with respect to education, “all possible efforts should be made to maintain education systems during conflicts”, including “outside of formal school buildings” and in camps for displaced persons. 
UN Expert on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflict, Report on the impact of armed conflict on children, UN Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996, § 203(a)–(d)
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1995, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions reported that in some of the camps for displaced persons in northern Burundi, “a number of NGOs have attempted to provide some minimum educational facilities”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1995, § 82.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in Zaire, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights recommended that the government establish resettlement programmes for IDPs, with special emphasis on the provision of education for children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Zaire, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/6/Add.1, 16 September 1996, p. 25, § (j).
UN Secretary-General (Representative)
In 1997, in a report on his visit to Mozambique, the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons noted that “as regards education, displaced children were to some extent accommodated within the existing school system”, but that “education was severely interrupted and the quality remained poor for a number of years”. 
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, Report on the Representative’s visit to Mozambique from 24 November to 3 December 1996, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/43/Add.1, 24 February 1997, § 47.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly urged member States “to supply children in the former Yugoslavia affected by the conflict with a minimum of education and the educational and play materials (books, toys, etc.) which is vital for children’s development”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 1011, 28 September 1993, § 7(x).
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation on the former Yugoslavia adopted in 1994, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly stated that children and students who had been moved outside the areas of fighting should, “as far as possible, … be able to continue their education in refugee camps or at least in the neighbourhood, where tuition in their own language can more easily be provided”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1239, 14 April 1994, § 25.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent requested that all the parties to an armed conflict take effective measures to ensure that “children receive the special protection, care and assistance, including access to education and recreational facilities, to which they are entitled under national and international law”. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.1, § 1(f).
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1995, in discussing the question of children and armed conflict, the Committee on the Rights of the Child recalled that provisions essential for the realization of the rights of the child included access to education. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report on the 8th Session, UN Doc. CRC/C/38, 20 February 1995, §§ 45, 70 and 135.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1997, in its concluding observations on the report of Uganda, the Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed concerns “about the difficulties encountered … by displaced children in securing access to basic education” and recommended that Uganda pay special attention to “internally displaced children to ensure that they have equal access to basic facilities”. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Uganda, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.80, 21 October 1997, §§ 21 and 37.
UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
In 1999, in its General Comment on Article 13 of the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights held: “Education has to be within safe physical reach, either by attendance at some reasonably convenient geographic location … or via modern technology.” It also held: “States parties have immediate obligations in relation to the right to education, such as the ‘guarantee’ that the right ‘will be exercised without discrimination of any kind’ and the obligation ‘to take steps’ towards the full realization of article 13.”
According to the Committee, States must also “fulfil (provide) the availability of education by actively developing a system of schools, including building classrooms, delivering programmes, providing teaching materials and training teachers”. 
UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 13 (The right to education (Article 13 of the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)), 8 July 1999, §§ 6(b), 43 and 50.
European Court of Human Rights
In its judgment in the Cyprus case in 2001, the European Court of Human Rights found that “there has been a violation of Article 2 of Protocol No. 1 [to the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights (right to education)] in respect of Greek Cypriots living in northern Cyprus in so far as no appropriate secondary-school facilities were available to them”. 
European Court of Human Rights, Cyprus case, Judgment, 10 May 2001, § 280.
Council of Delegates (1991)
At its Budapest Session in 1991, the Council of Delegates adopted a resolution on child soldiers in which it invited National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies “to do everything possible to protect children during armed conflicts, particularly by … organizing educational activities for them”. 
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Council of Delegates, Budapest Session, 28–30 November 1991, Res. 14, § 3.
No data.
Note: For practice concerning the establishment of hospital and safety zones to protect children, see Rule 35.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 17 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “The parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of … children …”. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 17.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 24, second paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children [orphaned or separated from their families] in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 24, second para.
Additional Protocol I
Article 78(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
No Party to the conflict shall arrange for the evacuation of children, other than its own nationals, to a foreign country except for a temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of the health or medical treatment of the children or, except in occupied territory, their safety, so require. Where the parents or legal guardians can be found, their written consent to such evacuation is required. … In each case, all Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible precautions to avoid endangering the evacuation. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 78(1). Article 78 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 254.
Additional Protocol II
Article 4(3)(e) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides:
Measures shall be taken, if necessary, and whenever possible with the consent of their parents or persons who by law or custom are primarily responsible for their care, to remove children temporarily from the area in which hostilities are taking place to a safer area within the country and ensure that they are accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 4(3)(e). Article 4 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.50, 3 June 1977, p. 90.
Lieber Code
Article 19 of the 1863 Lieber Code provides:
Commanders, whenever admissible, inform the enemy of their intention to bombard a place, so that the non-combatants, and especially … children, may be removed before the bombardment commences. 
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated as General Order No. 100 by President Abraham Lincoln, Washington D.C., 24 April 1863, Article 19.
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 4 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 78(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 4.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.3 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 78(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.3.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “The belligerents shall endeavour to conclude agreements for the removal from besieged areas of … children”. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 1.014.
The manual also provides:
The belligerent parties shall facilitate the reception of such children in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 4.007.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides:
No party in conflict shall undertake the evacuation of children to a foreign country. If an evacuation has been undertaken, they shall take all the necessary measures to facilitate the return of the children to their families and their country. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.12.
With respect to non-international conflicts in particular, the manual states: “All the necessary measures shall be taken so that, with the consent of their parents or guardians, they [children under 15 years] are transferred from the area in which hostilities are taking place.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.04.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) states: “The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children”. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 735; see also Commanders’ Guide (1994), § 926.
The manual further states:
As is the case with women, children are granted special protection under LOAC. Important rules are shown below …
e. children who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
7.38 … [In the context of siege warfare] The opposing parties are required to try and conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children …
9.50 … [C]hildren who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in G. P. I. [1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 7.38 and 9.50.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Brazil
Brazil’s Operations Manual for the Evacuation of Non-Combatants (2007) states:
In case the Ministry of Foreign Affairs does not state who is to be evacuated with priority, the Joint Command shall follow this guidance:
b) the table below sets out who shall be evacuated with priority.
Categories
B – Unaccompanied children (under 12 years of age).
D – Adults with children.
E – Adolescents (from 12 to 17 years of age). 
Brazil, Manual de Operações de Evacuação de Não-Combatentes, Ministério da Defesa, Estado-Maior de Defesa, MD33-M-08, Ordinance No. 1351/EMD/MD of 11 October 2007, published in Diário Oficial da União, No. 198, 15 October 2007, § 7.4.1(b).
The Operations Manual also states:
1.2.1 Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations are conducted by the Ministry of Defence, upon request by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, for the evacuation of non-combatants whose lives are in danger, from their host country to a safe place of destination …
3.4.1 Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations … may be triggered by sudden changes in the government of the host country, changes in its political or military orientation with regard to Brazil, or hostile threats to Brazilian citizens by internal or external forces in that country.
Annex A. Rules of Engagement and the Law of Armed Conflict
3. The Law of Armed Conflict
According to the policy of the Ministry of Defence, the principles of the Law of Armed Conflict regulate the actions taken by the Joint Command in the defence of its personnel, property and equipment. 
Brazil, Manual de Operações de Evacuação de Não-Combatentes, Ministério da Defesa, Estado-Maior de Defesa, MD33-M-08, Ordinance No. 1351/EMD/MD of 11 October 2007, published in Diário Oficial da União, No. 198, 15 October 2007, §§ 1.2.1 and 3.4.1, and Annex A, § 3.
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (1992) provides that at the approach of the enemy, “all persons shall be evacuated, with priority … children”. 
Cameroon, Droit international humanitaire et droit de la guerre, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les Forces Armées, Présidence de la République, Ministère de la Défense, Etat-major des Armées, Troisième Division, Edition 1992, p. 67, § 242(1).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “In case of an evacuation, the parties to a conflict shall not evacuate children to a foreign country other than that of their own nationality, except if it is a temporary evacuation required for health or security reasons.” 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 30, § 131; see also p. 50, § 231 and p. 76, § 321.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides:
Belligerents must also facilitate the reception of these children [children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families] by neutral countries for the duration of hostilities, with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 11-3, § 25.
The manual also states: “If circumstances permit, the parties to a conflict must endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged areas of … children”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 6-4, § 35.
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual provides:
If the children’s safety requires their removal from the area in which they are, this should be done, whenever possible, with the consent of their parents or guardians. Persons responsible for the safety and well-being of the children should also accompany them. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-3, § 23.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on land warfare: “If circumstances permit, the parties to a conflict must endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged areas of … children”. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 614.6.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflicts, the manual states:
If the children’s safety requires their removal from the area in which they are, this should be done whenever possible with the consent of their parents or guardians. Persons responsible for the safety and well being of the children should also accompany them. 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1714.2.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states: “In the case of evacuation, no party to the conflict shall evacuate children, other than its own nationals, to a foreign country except for temporary evacuation for compelling reasons regarding the health or security of the children.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 53.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular: “All measures shall be taken in order to temporarily transfer the children to safety zones, accompanied by persons responsible for their safety.” 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 74.
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states that “children may be temporarily evacuated for reasons related to armed conflict”. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 26.
France
France’s LOAC Manual (2001) provides: “The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of … children”. 
France, Manuel de droit des conflits armés, Ministère de la Défense, Direction des Affaires Juridiques, Sous-Direction du droit international humanitaire et du droit européen, Bureau du droit des conflits armés, 2001, p. 64.
Indonesia
The Report on the Practice of Indonesia, with reference to the Military Manual (1982), states that children under 15 years of age, orphaned or separated from their families as a result of conflict, should be evacuated to neutral States. 
Report on the Practice of Indonesia, 1997, Chapter 5.3, referring to The Basics of International Humanitarian Law, Legal Division of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1982.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009), in a section on the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, states: “This Convention includes provisions for the parties to a conflict to make local agreements for the evacuation of … children … from besieged or encircled areas”. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 209.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides:
Children shall not be evacuated without reason to a foreign country. Exception shall be made for a temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of the health and safety of the children so required. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VIII-3.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Unnecessary evacuation of children to another country should be avoided. An exception is made for temporary evacuation, for compelling reasons relating to their health or safety. There are a number of detailed rules for such an evacuation. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0811.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
1060. Children must receive the care and help that they need.
1061. This involves … adopting measures (including temporary escorting, by adults responsible for their safety and wellbeing, as far as possible with the consent of their parents or carers) whenever children have to be transferred outside the area of hostilities to a safer part of the country. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 1060–1061.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides:
Belligerents must also facilitate the reception of these children [children under 15 who have been orphaned or separated from their families] by neutral States for the duration of hostilities, with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards as above. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1112(1); see also § 1405(5).
The manual refers to Article 17 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, which “requires that belligerents endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 508(3).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual provides:
If children’s safety requires their removal from the area in which they are, the consent of their parents or guardians should be obtained whenever possible and the children accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1813(1).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides: “In besieged or encircled areas where there is a civilian population, it shall be endeavoured to conclude local agreements with the enemy to organize the evacuation of … children”. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, División de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 9.4.a.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) states: “In besieged or encircled areas where there are civilians, efforts must be made to conclude local agreements with the enemy for the evacuation of … children.” 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 9.4.a.
Sweden
Sweden’s IHL Manual (1991) provides:
It is also possible for the parties to reach an agreement during a conflict that all acts of war shall cease temporarily within a given part of a conflict area. Such agreements are commonly made to afford protection to civilian populations, and specially to such exposed groups as children. 
Sweden, International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, with reference to the Swedish Total Defence System, Swedish Ministry of Defence, January 1991, Section 3.4.1, p. 84.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides: “Belligerents shall conclude special agreements in order to evacuate … children … from besieged areas.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 33.
The manual further provides that it is prohibited to evacuate children into a foreign country, except with the temporary authorization of the government. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 157.
Ukraine
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
As concerns children, international humanitarian law envisages the following:
- evacuation of children from the area in which hostilities are taking place shall be organized (if necessary and with the consent of their parents or persons who substitute them). 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 1.4.11.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) states: “The belligerents should endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 29.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Pamphlet (1981) states: “A local cease-fire may be arranged for the removal from besieged or encircled areas of … children”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of Armed Conflict, D/DAT/13/35/66, Army Code 71130 (Revised 1981), Ministry of Defence, prepared under the Direction of The Chief of the General Staff, 1981, Section 9, p. 34, § 3.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
There are no restrictions on the evacuation to a foreign country by a belligerent state of children of its own nationality. Children who are not nationals of a belligerent state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless:
a. evacuation is temporary;
b either:
(1) it is compelled by reason of the health or medical treatment of the children, or
(2) except in occupied territory, the safety of the children so demands;
c. the written consent of the parents or legal guardians of each child is obtained;
d. the evacuation is made under an agreement between the state arranging for the evacuation, the state(s) receiving the children and the state(s) whose nationals are evacuated;
e. the evacuation is supervised by the protecting power; and
f. the parties to the conflict take all feasible precautions to avoid endangering the evacuation. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.14.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) provides:
The commanders of United States ground forces will, when the situation permits, inform the enemy of their intention to bombard a place, so that the noncombatants, especially … children, may be removed before the bombardment commences. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 43.
The manual further states: “The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas, of … children”. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 256; see also § 44.
The manual also provides:
The parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children [under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war] in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 263.
United States of America
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) states: “Removal of … children … from besieged or encircled areas is encouraged.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 14-3.
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan’s Law on the Rights of the Child (1998) states: “[T]ake all possible measures to evacuate children located in the areas of military operations to more secure places and protect their lives”. 
Azerbaijan, Law on the Rights of the Child, 1998, Article 37.
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Guinea
Guinea’s Children’s Code (2008) states:
Article 437: During an armed conflict, measures for temporary evacuation of children as a result of hostilities shall be taken in accordance with the rules of International Humanitarian Law, particularly with regard to the consent of the parents or guardians, identification of children, their security and well-being … and their return.
Article 438: The provisions of the preceding article shall apply to children displaced internally in the Republic of Guinea due to natural disaster, internal conflict, civil unrest, and collapse of economic and social structure or any other reason. 
Guinea, Children’s Code, 2008, Articles 437–438.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Articles 17 and 24 of the Geneva Convention IV, and of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 78(1), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 4(3)(e), are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Philippines
The Act on Child Protection (1992) of the Philippines provides that children should be given priority during evacuations resulting from armed conflict. 
Philippines, Act on Child Protection, 1992, Sections 23–24.
No data.
Azerbaijan
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Azerbaijan stated: “Pursuant to the Rights of the Child Act, the military authorities must do everything possible to evacuate children from conflict zones to safe places in order to protect their lives and health.” 
Azerbaijan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 31 March 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/AZE/1, submitted 14 November 2008, § 7.
El Salvador
In 2002, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, El Salvador stated:
With regard to children who disappeared as a result of the armed conflict, some were evacuated from the conflict zones to ensure their physical safety; however, no specific record was kept of their movements or of whether they were handed over to humanitarian, governmental or non-governmental organizations. 
El Salvador, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 22 October 2003, UN Doc. CRC/65/Add.25, submitted 10 July 2002, § 499.
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
8. Which procedures are envisaged for the treatment of child soldiers injured, apprehended or detained by the Bundeswehr?
In the completed operation EUFOR RD CONGO, the following framework was adopted regarding apprehended or detained children and included in the pocket card of June 2006 for the German contingent of the operation EUFOR RD CONGO:
d) As soon as possible they are to be evacuated from the immediate danger zone. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, pp. 4–5.
Nigeria
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Nigeria stated:
In cases of domestic conflicts, such as communal clashes, riots and religious violence, the civilian population, including children, are usually protected by the deployment of police personnel and in extreme circumstances, military personnel. These personnel evacuate the vulnerable groups to safer environment where [p]sychological, posttraumatic and humanitarian assistance are given to child victims of armed conflict or violence by the combined efforts of [the] Government, NGOs and international agencies. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 8.2.3.
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated:
Somalia has not ratified AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II] and it is therefore not directly applicable to Somalia as a matter of treaty law. The Government is aware that many provisions of AP II represent customary IHL rules and therefore apply to the situation in Somalia. Such provisions include Article 4 providing guarantees to persons taking no active part in hostilities … due to the fact that these norms are reflected in Common Article 3 of the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 75.
United States of America
In 1987, the Deputy Legal Adviser of the US Department of State affirmed:
We support the principle that no state arrange for the evacuation of children except for temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of the health or medical treatment of the children or safety, except in occupied territory, so require. 
United States, Remarks of Michael J. Matheson, Deputy Legal Adviser, US Department of State, The Sixth Annual American Red Cross-Washington College of Law Conference on International Humanitarian Law: A Workshop on Customary International Law and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, Vol. 2, 1987, p. 428.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, “Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II] reflect general US policy on treatment of persons in the power of an adverse party in armed conflicts governed by common Article 3” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The report also notes: “It is the opinio juris of the US that persons detained in connection with an internal armed conflict are entitled to humane treatment as specified in Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II].” 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
UN Secretary-General
In 2000, in his report on the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, the UN Secretary-General stated:
Violations of common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and of Article 4 of Additional Protocol II thereto committed in an armed conflict not of an international character have long been considered customary international law. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, UN Doc. S/2000/915, 4 October 2000, § 14.
No data.
No data.
No data.
No data.
No data.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 68, fourth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.” 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 68, fourth para.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Article 6(5) of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides: “Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age.” 
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 2200 A (XXI), 16 December 1966, Article 6(5).
American Convention on Human Rights
Article 4(5) of the 1969 American Convention on Human Rights provides: “Capital punishment shall not be imposed upon persons who, at the time the crime was committed, were under 18 years of age.” 
American Convention on Human Rights, adopted by the OAS Inter-American Specialized Conference on Human Rights, San José, 22 November 1969, also known as Pact of San José, Article 4(5).
Additional Protocol I
Article 77(5) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: “The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of eighteen years at the time the offence was committed.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 77(5). Article 77 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 251.
Additional Protocol II
Article 6(4) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “The death penalty shall not be pronounced on persons who were under the age of eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 6(4). Article 6 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.50, 3 June 1977, p. 85.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 37(a) of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child provides:
No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age. 
Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 44/25, 20 November 1989, Article 37(a).
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 4 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 77(5) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 4.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.3 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 77(5) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.3.
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) provides: “In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who was under the age of 18 at the time of the offence.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.028(1).
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular: “The death penalty shall not be pronounced against a person who is under the age of 18.” 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 7.10; see also §§ 3.28 and 5.11.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides: “The death penalty must not be executed on children who are under the age of 18 at the time the offence was committed.” 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states that “the death penalty must not be executed on children who are under the age of 18 at the time the offence was committed”. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.50.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Cameroon
Cameroon’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states that “no death penalty for an offence related to an armed conflict shall be executed against persons who are under the age of 18 at the time when the offence was committed”. 
Cameroon, Droit des conflits armés et droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces de défense, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 30, § 131; see also p. 50, § 231 and p. 76, § 321.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular: “Regardless of the offence committed, no death penalty shall be pronounced upon persons under the age of eighteen at the time of the offence.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-4, § 30.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on non-international armed conflicts: “Regardless of the offence committed, no death penalty shall be pronounced upon persons under the age of eighteen at the time of the offence.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1716.3.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states with regard to the protection of children: “[T]he death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of 18 at the time the offence was committed.” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 53; see also p. 92.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book III, Volume 2 (Instruction of second-year trainee officers):
I.1.3. Children
Additional Protocol I specifies that children have the right to the care and aid they require because of their age … No death sentence must be executed against a person who had not attained the age of 18 years at the moment of the offence. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 2: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 2ème année, Manuel de l’instructeur, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 22; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 32.
Mexico
Mexico’s Army and Air Force Manual (2009) states: “In no case may this [death] penalty be pronounced on a protected person who was under the age of eighteen at the time the offence was committed”. 
Mexico, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para el Ejército y la Fuerza Área Mexicanos, Ministry of National Defence, June 2009, § 238(F).
Netherlands
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides: “The death penalty shall not be pronounced on persons who were under the age of eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. XI-5.
Netherlands
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Section 11 - Prosecutions and procedural guarantees
1071. The prosecution and punishment of offences relating to the armed conflict should be subject to the following conditions (this relates to the bearing of arms and the committing of offences and war crimes during the internal armed conflict):
- for parties which still maintain capital punishment, the death penalty must not be imposed on persons who were younger than 18 years old at the time of committing the offence, on pregnant women or on women who are mothers of young children.
The Netherlands has abolished capital punishment. No Dutch judicial authority may pronounce a death sentence. Furthermore, the Netherlands may not agree to hand over persons under Dutch jurisdiction who are suspected or convicted of an offence carrying the death penalty, unless guarantees are given that the death penalty will not be carried out. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1071 and p. 173.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced [by the Occupying Power] against a protected person who was under 18 years of age at the time of the offence.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1327(1)(c).
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict may not be pronounced on a person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 32.o.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict may not be pronounced on a person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence”. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 33(n), p. 252.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides that the occupying power can only pronounce the death penalty when the accused is over the age of 18 years. 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 173.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) provides: “In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who was under 18 years of age at the time of the offence.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 566(c).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK LOAC Manual (2004) states:
Death penalties for offences related to the armed conflict are not to be carried out on those aged under eighteen years at the time of the offence. In any event, United Kingdom courts may not impose death sentences. 
United Kingdom, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Ministry of Defence, 1 July 2004, § 9.9.2; see also § 16.48 (enforcement of the law of armed conflict).
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Article 68 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 438.
Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s Juvenile Code (2005) states: “Children cannot be [sentenced] to life imprisonment or the death penalty.” 
Afghanistan, Juvenile Code, 2005, Article 39(1)(c).
The Code states also: “[A c]hild [is a] person who [is under] the age of 18.” 
Afghanistan, Juvenile Code, 2005, Article 4(1).
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Guinea
Guinea’s Children’s Code (2008) states: “In no circumstances shall the death penalty or life imprisonment without the possibility of release be imposed for offences committed by Children who were under the age of 18 at the time of their commission.” 
Guinea, Children’s Code, 2008, Article 345.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Article 68 of the Geneva Convention IV, and of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 77(5), as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 6(4), are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Israel
Israel’s Order Concerning Security Provisions (1970) states: “No death sentence may be passed by a court if the accused was under the age of eighteen at the time of committing the offence.” 
Israel, Order Concerning Security Provisions, 1970, Section 51(B).
Japan
Japan’s Juvenile Law (1948), as amended in 2010, states: “In the case where a person who is under 18 years of age at the time of his commission of an offence is to be punished with the death penalty, life imprisonment shall be imposed.” 
Japan, Juvenile Law, 1948, as amended in 2010, Article 51. (For a translation of Article 51, see Japan’s initial report to the Committee Against Torture, UN Doc. CAT/C/JPN/1, 21 March 2007, submitted 20 December 2005, Annex XIV, p. 101.)
Jordan
According to the Report on the Practice of Jordan (1998), national legislation provides that the death penalty may not be pronounced on a minor who was under 18 years of age at the time of the offence. 
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1998, Chapter 5.3
Jordan
In 2005, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Jordan stated: “No one under the age of 18 may be sentenced to death.” 
Jordan, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2 March 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/JOR/3, submitted 11 July 2005, § 295.
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Philippines
The Philippines’ Republic Act No. 9344 (2006), the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006, provides:
Every child in conflict with the law shall have the following rights, including but not limited to:
(b) the right not to be imposed a sentence of capital punishment or life imprisonment, without the possibility of release. 
Philippines, Republic Act No. 9344, 2006, Section 5(b).
Viet Nam
Viet Nam’s Penal Code (1999) provides that the death penalty “shall not apply to juvenile offenders … at the time of committing crimes or being tried”. 
Viet Nam, Penal Code, 1999, § 35.
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe’s Constitution (2013) states:
Chapter 4 – Declaration of Rights
48. Right to life
(2) A law may permit the death penalty to be imposed only on a person convicted of murder committed in aggravating circumstances, and –
(c) the penalty must not be imposed on a person –
(i) who was less than twenty-one years old when the offence was committed; …
86. Limitation of rights and freedoms
(2) The fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be limited only in terms of a law of general application and to the extent that the limitation is fair, reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors, including –
(b) the purpose of the limitation, in particular whether it is necessary in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, regional or town planning or the general public interest;
(3) No law may limit the following rights enshrined in this Chapter, and no person may violate them –
(a) the right to life, except to the extent specified in section 48;
87. Limitations during public emergency
(1) In addition to the limitations permitted by section 86, the fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be further limited by a written law providing for measures to deal with situations arising during a period of public emergency, but only to the extent permitted by this section and the Second Schedule.
(4) No law that provides for a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislative or other measure taken in consequence of such a declaration may –
(a) indemnify, or permit or authorise an indemnity for, the State or any institution or agency of the government at any level, or any other person, in respect of any unlawful act; or
(b) limit any of the rights referred to in section 86(3), or authorise or permit any of those rights to be violated. 
Zimbabwe, Constitution, 2013, Sections 48(2)(c)(i), 86(2)(b) and (3)(a), and 87(1) and (4).
Colombia
In 2005, in the Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
Criminal prosecutions of minors must strictly comply with the minimum constitutional and international norms found in (i) Article 44 of the Constitution [and] (ii) the Beijing Rules or “the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice” … They all include standards that must be complied with as part of the Colombian domestic legal framework, as expressly stated in Article 44 of the Constitution according to which children are entitled to the totality of rights found in international instruments. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, Judgment of 8 March 2005, § 4.6.2; see also § 4.2.5.
The Court also found: “Rule 17 [of the ‘Beijing Rules’] states that … capital punishment shall not be imposed for any crime committed by minors.” 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, Judgment of 8 March 2005, § 4.2.5.1.15.
(footnote in original omitted )
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
97. Article 76.1 of the Penal Code also ensures that the death penalty is not applied to children under any circumstances. According to article 39 of the Juvenile Code (2005) children cannot be sentenced to life imprisonment or capital punishment.
290. Article 39 of the Juvenile Code (2005) prohibits capital punishment or life sentence of children. Article 76 of the Penal Code states that if a minor commits a crime for which the penalty is capital punishment or life sentence, the court can place the child in detention, provided that his custody period … [does] not exceed five years … The Juvenile Code (2005) will be applied in the cases of underage persons detained for their participation in anti-government armed groups. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 97 and 290.
Afghanistan also stated that: “The laws of Afghanistan define all individuals under the age of 18 years as a child.” 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 72.
Afghanistan further stated that there had been “three decades of war and instability” in the country. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 4.
Chad
In 1997, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Chad stated: “The death penalty is not applicable to minors.” 
Chad, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 July 1997, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.50, submitted 14 January 1997, § 90.
Pakistan
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Pakistan stated that “the Juvenile Justice System Ordinance 2000, recently promulgated in Pakistan, imposes an absolute ban on the death sentence for persons under the age of 18 years”. 
Pakistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 April 2003, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.21, submitted 19 January 2001, p. 131; see also pp. 18, 37, 49, 106 and 122.
Peru
In 1993, Peru informed the Committee on the Rights of the Child that “children convicted of committing terrorist activities could not receive life sentences” and that “even if the death penalty were introduced for terrorists, it would not be applied to adolescents under the age of 18 because the Convention [on the Rights of the Child] took precedence over all other legislation”. 
Peru, Statement before the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/SR.84, 30 September 1993, §§ 25 and 39.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Rwanda stated:
42. With regard to the conformity of the implementation of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] to the general principles of the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child, the following should be noted.
53. Rwanda abolished capital punishment [Organic Law No. 24/2007 of 27 June 2007 on the Abolition of Death Sentence] and it should be noted that even before the adoption of this measure, capital punishment was not rendered against persons aged less than 18 years because Article 77 of the Penal Code [(1977)] exempted minors from capital punishment. The results of this provision was that when a person aged between 14 years and 18 years at the time of offence was liable to the death penalty or to life imprisonment, his/her sentence was commuted to 20 years in prison. In addition, the Penal Code of Rwanda prohibited the execution of an expectant mother before delivery (Article 31). 
Rwanda, Initial Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 December 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/RWA/1, submitted 20 January 2010, §§ 42 and 53.
[footnote in original omitted]
Somalia
In 2011, in its report to the Human Rights Council, Somalia stated:
Somalia has not ratified AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II] and it is therefore not directly applicable to Somalia as a matter of treaty law. The Government is aware that many provisions of AP II represent customary IHL rules and therefore apply to the situation in Somalia. Such provisions include … Article 6 providing the rule on penal prosecutions due to the fact that these norms are reflected in Common Article 3 of the [1949] Geneva Conventions. 
Somalia, Report to the Human Rights Council, 11 April 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/11/SOM/1, § 75.
Syrian Arab Republic
The Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic asserts that the Syrian Arab Republic considers Article 77 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I to be part of customary international law. 
Report on the Practice of the Syrian Arab Republic, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
Uganda
In 2003, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Uganda stated:
In Uganda’s national legislation a sentence of death is not imposed on … a person below the age of 18 years … Section 104 of the [Trial on Indictments Decree, 1971] states that a sentence of death shall not be pronounced or recorded against a person, who at the time of committing the offence, he or she was under the age of 18 years. In these circumstances, the person shall instead be detained for such a period of time as the Minister may order. 
Uganda, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 14 February 2003, UN Doc. CCPR/C/UGA/2003/1, 25 February 2003, § 141.
United States of America
According to the Report on US Practice, “Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II] reflect general US policy on treatment of persons in the power of an adverse party in armed conflicts governed by common Article 3” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The report also notes: “It is the opinio juris of the US that persons detained in connection with an internal armed conflict are entitled to humane treatment as specified in Articles 4, 5 and 6 [of the 1977 Additional Protocol II].” 
Report on US Practice, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon:
All States, in particular States in which the death penalty has not been abolished, to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including, in particular, articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and articles 6 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, keeping in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989, and calls upon those States to abolish by law, as soon as possible, the death penalty for those below the age of 18 years at the time of the commission of the offence.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/157, 22 December 2003, § 41(a), voting record: 179-1-0-11.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon:
All States, in particular States in which the death penalty has not been abolished, to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including, in particular, articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and articles 6 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, keeping in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and the guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989, and calls upon those States to abolish by law, as soon as possible, the death penalty for those below the age of 18 years at the time of the commission of the offence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/261, 23 December 2004, § 38(a), voting record: 166-2-1-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
27. Calls upon all States, in particular those States in which the death penalty has not been abolished:
(a) To abolish by law, as soon as possible, the death penalty for those below the age of 18 years at the time of the commission of the offence;
(b) To comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;
(c) To keep in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and the guarantees set out in United Nations safeguards adopted by the Economic and Social Council. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/231, 23 December 2005, § 27, voting record: 130-1-0-60.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
31. Calls upon all States, in particular those States in which the death penalty has not been abolished:
(a) To abolish by law, as soon as possible, the death penalty and life imprisonment without possibility of release for those under the age of 18 years at the time of the commission of the offence;
(b) To comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;
(c) To keep in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and the guarantees set out in United Nations safeguards adopted by the Economic and Social Council. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/146, 19 December 2006, § 31, voting record: 185-1-0-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States in which the death penalty has not been abolished to comply with their obligations under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 6, 7 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, bearing in mind the safeguards and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/173, 19 December 2006, § 4, voting record: 137-0-43-12.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
31. Calls upon all States, in particular those States in which the death penalty has not been abolished:
(a) To abolish by law, as soon as possible, the death penalty and life imprisonment without possibility of release for those under the age of 18 years at the time of the commission of the offence;
(b) To comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;
(c) To keep in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and the guarantees set out in United Nations safeguards adopted by the Economic and Social Council. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/141, 18 December 2007, § 31, voting record: 183-1-0-8.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission Human Rights:
Recalling Economic and Social Council resolution 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, annexed thereto, and Council resolution 1989/64 of 24 May 1989 on their implementation, as well as the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 40/34 of 29 November 1985,
6. Calls upon all States in which the death penalty has not been abolished to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 6, 7 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, bearing in mind the safeguards and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 and 1989/64. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/53, 24 April 2003, preamble and § 6, voting record: 37-0-16.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 entitled “The question of the death penalty”, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Recalling article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which affirms the right of everyone to life, article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 6 and 37 (a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
Deeply concerned that several countries impose the death penalty in disregard of the limitations set out in the Covenant and the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
2. Reaffirms resolution 2000/17 of 17 August 2000 of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights on international law and the imposition of the death penalty on those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence;
4. Urges all States that still maintain the death penalty:
(a) Not to impose it for crimes committed by persons below 18 years of age, and to exclude pregnant women from capital punishment;
(e) Not to enter any new reservations under article 6 of the Covenant which may be contrary to the object and the purpose of the Covenant and to withdraw any such existing reservations, given that article 6 enshrines the minimum rules for the protection of the right to life and the generally accepted standards in this area;
8. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to submit to the Commission, at its sixtieth session, in consultation with Governments, specialized agencies and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, a yearly supplement on changes in law and practice concerning the death penalty worldwide to his quinquennial report on capital punishment and implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, paying special attention to the imposition of the death penalty against persons younger than 18 years of age at the time of the offence. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/67, 24 April 2003, preamble and §§ 2, 4(a) and (e) and 8, voting record: 23-18-10.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All States, in particular States in which the death penalty has not been abolished, to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and articles 6 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, keeping in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989; and calls upon those States to abolish by law as soon as possible the death penalty for those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/86, 25 April 2003, § 35(a), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon all States in which the death penalty has not been abolished to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 6, 7 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, bearing in mind the safeguards and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 and 1989/64. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/37, 19 April 2004, § 7, voting record: 39-0-12.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the administration of justice, in particular juvenile justice, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged States to ensure that “under their legislation and practice neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without the possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below 18 years of age”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/43, 19 April 2004, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All States, in particular, States in which the death penalty has not been abolished, to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and articles 6 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, keeping in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989, and calls upon those States to abolish by law as soon as possible the death penalty for those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, § 35(a), voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the question of the death penalty, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Recalling article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirms the right of everyone to life, article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 6 and 37 (a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
Deeply concerned that several countries impose the death penalty in disregard of the limitations set out in the Covenant and the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
2. Reaffirms resolution 2000/17 of 17 August 2000 of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights on international law and the imposition of the death penalty on those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence;
4. Urges all States that still maintain the death penalty:
(a) Not to impose it for crimes committed by persons below 18 years of age;
(g) Not to enter any new reservations under article 6 of the Covenant which may be contrary to the object and the purpose of the Covenant and to withdraw any such existing reservations, given that article 6 enshrines the minimum rules for the protection of the right to life and the generally accepted standards in this area;
8. Requests the SecretaryGeneral to submit his quinquennial report on capital punishment and implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, paying special attention to the imposition of the death penalty against persons younger than 18 years of age at the time of the offence. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/67, 21 April 2004, preamble and §§ 2, 4(a) and (g) and 8, voting record: 29-19-5.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon all States in which the death penalty has not been abolished to comply with their obligations under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, including in particular articles 6, 7 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, bearing in mind the safeguards and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 and 1989/64. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/34, 19 April 2005, § 6, voting record: 36-0-17.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
In particular, States in which the death penalty has not been abolished, to comply with their obligations as assumed under relevant provisions of international human rights instruments, particularly articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and articles 6 and 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, keeping in mind the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty and guarantees set out in Economic and Social Council resolutions 1984/50 of 25 May 1984 and 1989/64 of 24 May 1989, and calls upon those States to abolish by law as soon as possible the death penalty for those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/44, 19 April 2005, § 27(a), voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the question of the death penalty, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Recalling article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirms the right of everyone to life, convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is essential for the protection of this right and recalling article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and articles 6 and 37 (a) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
Reaffirming also resolution 2000/17 of 17 August 2000 of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights on international law and the imposition of the death penalty on those aged under 18 at the time of the commission of the offence,
1. Expresses its concern at the continuing use of the death penalty around the world, alarmed in particular at its application after trials that do not conform to international standards of fairness and that several countries impose the death penalty in disregard of the limitations set out in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty;
7. Urges all States that still maintain the death penalty:
(a) Not to impose it for crimes committed by persons below 18 years of age;
(g) To withdraw and/or not to enter any new reservations under article 6 of the Covenant that may be contrary to the object and purpose of the Covenant, given that article 6 enshrines the minimum rules for the protection of the right to life and the generally accepted standards in this area. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/59, 20 April 2005, preamble and §§ 1 and 7(a) and (g), voting record: 26-17-10.
No data.
African Conference on the Use of Children as Soldiers
In the Maputo Declaration on the Use of Children as Soldiers, the participants at the African Conference on the Use of Children as Soldiers in 1999 called upon African States:
to respect fully the provisions of international humanitarian law, in particular in the case of captured child soldiers, especially by … ensuring that neither the death penalty nor life imprisonment without possibility of release is imposed for offences committed by persons below 18 years of age. 
African Conference on the Use of Children as Soldiers, Maputo, 19–22 April 1999, Maputo Declaration on the Use of Children as Soldiers, § 5.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the consolidated second and third periodic reports of the Philippines in 2003, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee notes that the death penalty is prohibited for persons under 18 years of age, but is concerned that minors have been sentenced to death, seven of whom are currently detained on death row.
[The State party] should also ensure compliance with article 6, paragraph 5, of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights] prohibiting the imposition of the death sentence for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the consolidated second and third periodic reports of the Philippines, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/79/PHL, 1 December 2003, § 10.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan in 2007, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee notes with concern that although the Interim National Constitution prohibits the imposition of the death penalty on those under the age of 18, exceptionally in Northern Sudan the death penalty can in fact be imposed on minors. While it takes note of the State party’s reply that offenders under the age of 18 are subjected to protection and re-education measures, it emphasises that the Constitutional Court has been seized, by a person claiming to be a minor, with a case challenging a death sentence against the individual concerned. It repeats that the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights] does not allow the death penalty to be imposed for crimes committed by individuals aged under 18, and permits no derogation from that article (arts. 2, 4 and 6 of the Covenant).
In keeping with article 6 of the Covenant, the State party should guarantee that the death penalty will not be applied to persons aged under 18 years. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3, 29 August 2007, § 20.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of the United States in 2006, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee welcomes the Supreme Court’s decision in Roper v. Simmons (2005), which held that the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. In this regard, the Committee reiterates the recommendation made in its previous concluding observations, encouraging the State party to withdraw its reservation to article 6 (5) of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of the United States of America, UN Doc. CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1, 18 December 2006, § 6.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “The pronouncement of the death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of eighteen years at the time the offence was committed.” 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 204.
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards
The Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights of Åbo Akademi University in Turku/Åbo, Finland in 1990, states: “Sentences of death shall not be carried out on … children under 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the offence.”  
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, 30 November–2 December 1990, Article 8 (3), IRRC, No. 282, p. 333.
Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts
The Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts provides:
Article 6:
3. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons within their jurisdiction recruited or used in hostilities contrary to the present Protocol are demobilized or otherwise released from service. States Parties shall, when necessary, accord to such persons all appropriate assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and their social reintegration …
Article 7:
1. States Parties shall cooperate in the implementation of the present Protocol, including in the prevention of any activity contrary thereto and in the rehabilitation and social reintegration of persons who are victims of acts contrary thereto, including through technical cooperation and financial assistance. Such assistance and cooperation will be undertaken in consultation with the States Parties concerned and the relevant international organizations. 
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 54/263, 25 May 2000, Annex I, Articles 6(3) and 7(1).
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire
The 2007 Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire provides:
Preamble
At the invitation of His Excellency Mister Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, in his capacity as incumbent Chairman of the Authority of Heads of State and Government of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), acting upon the latter’s express mandate, two delegations of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, one representing the President of the Republic and the other the Forces Nouvelles, met in Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007 …
After identifying the problems encountered in the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements, as well as of the UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, the Parties, with a view to taking decisions, reaffirmed:
- their commitment to the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements;
- their commitment to all UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, in particular to UN Security Council resolutions 1633 (2005) and 1721 (2006).
In order to facilitate the implementation of the Agreements and the resolutions addressed above, notably resolution 1721 (2006), the Parties have taken the following decisions:
III. On the defence and security forces of Côte d’Ivoire
3.3. Civic service
3.3.1. The two (2) Parties agree that the civic service, intended to supervise all the young people and to train them with a view to employment, shall equally welcome all the young people who have familiarized themselves with the handling of weapons for the needs of the war, with the aim to supervise and train them for future civilian or military employment. 
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire, having met at Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007, Ouagadougou, 4 March 2007, preamble and Section III., § 3.3.1.
N’Djamena Declaration on Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups
In June 2010, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Sudan adopted the N’Djamena Declaration and agreed as follows:
Reiterating our concern regarding the precarious situation of children affected by conflict and the consistent presence of children within armed forces and groups in our region;
Recalling the 1997 Cape Town Principles and Best Practices on the Recruitment of Children into Armed Forces and on Demobilization and Social Reintegration of Children in Africa;
Recalling the 2007 Paris Commitments to Protect Children Unlawfully Recruited or Used by Armed Forces or Armed Groups and the Paris Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups; and subsequent annual forums to assess the implementation of the Paris Commitments and Paris Principles and exchange information on lessons learnt and next steps;
Recognizing that States have the primary responsibility of ensuring, without discrimination, the security and protection of all children living on their national territory, …
We pledge:
3. To ensure that children formerly associated with armed forces and groups are treated as victims not as perpetrators, and are supported with appropriate rehabilitation and reintegration packages;
6. To establish programs of psychological rehabilitation, socio-educational and economic reintegration consistent with international standards, and promote the culture of peace, tolerance, dialogue and national unity. 
N’Djamena Declaration adopted at the Regional Conference on Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups: Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development, signed by Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Sudan, N’Djamena, 7–9 June 2010, Preamble and §§ 3 and 6.
Chad
Chad’s Instructor’s Manual (2006) states with regard to the protection of children: “If they … take part in the fighting and fall into enemy hands, they shall be entitled to [special protection].” 
Chad, Droit international humanitaire, Manuel de l’instructeur en vigueur dans les forces armées et de sécurité, Ministère de la Défense, Présidence de la République, Etat-major des Armées, 2006, p. 53.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Decree on the National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, CONADER, (2003), provides:
First Article:
A National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, CONADER, is created.
Article 3:
The CONADER comprises five Directorates, namely:
- the Directorate for Disarmament and Demobilization;
- the Directorate for the Reintegration of Ex-combatants;
- the Directorate for Finances and Personnel;
- the Directorate for Children Associated with the Armed Forces;
- the Directorate for Information and Sensibilization.
Article 7:
The Directorate for Children Associated with the Armed Forces is charged with:
- planification and identification;
- psychosocial support;
- conception and implementation of mechanisms of rehabilitation and/or family reintegration;
- identification of national and international partners in the sector. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Decree on the National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, 2003, Articles 1, 3 and 7.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Law on Child Protection (2009) states:
Article 71
The State ensures the demobilization of children enlisted or used in armed forces and groups, as well as in the police, and their reintegration into their families or communities.
Article 73
The State shall ensure the rehabilitation and reintegration of children in a difficult and/or exceptional situation. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Articles 71 and 73.
The Law also states:
Article 2
For the purpose of the present law, it is understood as:
1. child: every person under the age of 18;
5. child in an exceptional situation: a child in a situation of armed conflict[.] 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection , 2009, Article 2(1) and (5).
Kenya
Kenya’s Children Act (2001) states: “It shall be the responsibility of the Government to provide protection, rehabilitation care, recovery and re-integration into normal social life for any child who may become a victim of armed conflict or natural disaster.” 
Kenya, Children Act, 2001, § 10(3).
Liberia
Liberia’s Act to Establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2005) states:
Preamble
Considering that the civil conflict was generally characterized by gross violations of human rights and the widespread commission of gruesome and heinous crimes against humanity in further violation of international humanitarian laws and standards.
Article IV. Mandate of the Commission
Section 4. The objectives/purpose of the Commission shall be to promote national peace, security, unity and reconciliation by:
(e) Adopting specific mechanisms and procedures to address the experiences of … children … , paying particular attention to … the issue of child soldiers, providing opportunities for them to relate their experiences, addressing concerns and recommending measures to be taken for the rehabilitation of victims of human rights violations in the spirit of national reconciliation and healing. 
Liberia, Act to Establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2005, Preamble and Article IV, Section 4.
The Act also states:
The TRC [Truth and Reconciliation Commission] … functions and powers shall include … :
(f) Helping restore the human dignity of victims and promote reconciliation by providing an opportunity for victims, witnesses, and others to give an account of the violations and abuses suffered and for perpetrators to relate their experiences, in an environment conducive to constructive interchange between victims and perpetrators, giving special attention to the … experiences of children … during armed conflicts in Liberia. 
Liberia, Act to Establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2005, Article VII, Section 26.
United States of America
The US Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (2004), in Title VII—Implementation of 9/11 Commission Recommendations; Subtitle A—Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, and the Military in the War on Terrorism, states:
Sec. 7104. Assistance for Afghanistan.
(h) UNITED STATES POLICY TO SUPPORT DISARMAMENT OF PRIVATE MILITIAS AND EXPANSION OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING AND SECURITY OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN.—
(1) UNITED STATES POLICY RELATING TO DISARMAMENT OF PRIVATE MILITIAS.—
(A) IN GENERAL.—It shall be the policy of the United States to take immediate steps to provide active support for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of armed soldiers, particularly child soldiers, in Afghanistan, in close consultation with the President of Afghanistan. 
United States, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, 2004, Public Law 108-458, 17 December 2004, Title V, Subtitle E, § 7104(h)(1)(A).
Colombia
In 2005, in the Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, the Plenary Chamber of Colombia’s Constitutional Court stated:
The legal and institutional response to the problem of demobilising underage combatants should be geared towards resocialization, rehabilitation, education and protection. This conclusion is based both on international and constitutional sources: (i) On one hand, it is a State obligation to promote the best interests of the child as well as the special protection and fundamental rights of minors, in their capacity as particularly vulnerable victims of the armed conflict and a war crime [of recruiting children into the armed forces or armed groups]. (ii) On the other hand, both Article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol as well as the various provisions in Article 3 common to the [1949] Geneva Conventions and in their [1977] Additional Protocol II bind the State to implement programmes aimed at resocializing, rehabilitating, educating and protecting minors that have been affected by the armed conflict, thus promoting the eventual reincorporation of such minors into an ordinary civilian life in their communities of origin. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, Judgment of 8 March 2005, § 6.2.
The Court also held:
The mere participation of a child or adolescent in acts of violence committed by underage combatants will necessarily have grave psychological and social effects that demand an especially strong response from the State in terms of protection and rehabilitation, an objective to which determining the criminal responsibility of each minor and confronting the minor with the facts can contribute as well as the full implementation of the different steps of the process of reconciliation with the community, the society and the State. 
Colombia, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Case No. C-203/05, Judgment of 8 March 2005, § 6.4.3; see also § 8.1.
Australia
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Australia stated:
[C]hildren who arrive in Australia from countries where they may have been engaged in armed conflict, such as all refugee and humanitarian entrants, are eligible for Short-term Torture and Trauma counselling during their time in the Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy (usually for six to twelve months after their arrival in Australia). 
Australia, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 September 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/AUS/1, submitted October 2008. § 62.
Bangladesh
In 2007, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Bangladesh stated:
Children who were involved in [the] Chittagong Hill Tracts [CHT] conflict long ago are all adults by now. Since the CHT Peace Accord was adopted, there is no more insurgency in the area and all arms and ammunitions were confiscated. The Government is still working to maintain peace in the area. There is no more … fighting in the area and though some arms are still found in some small … [areas, they] are believed to [have been] procured more recently and [to be] used for other purposes. [Bangladesh] … does not believe that there is any point around disarmament, demobilization and social reintegration of victims in CHT. 
Bangladesh, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 29 October 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/BGD/4, submitted 4 September 2007, § 448.
Belgium
In 2004, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Belgium stated:
Priority will be given to the rapid reintegration of demobilized children in civilian life so that they can readjust to daily life. Social components of reintegration programmes should cover the child’s education, vocational training and psychosocial care. Emphasis should be placed on the psychological dimension in view of the trauma experienced by most children who have taken part in hostilities. 
Belgium, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/BEL/1, 15 August 2005, submitted 30 March 2004, § 73(c).
Burundi
In 2008, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Burundi stated:
7. In 2003, … the Government had already begun with the demobilization of child soldiers, initiating a plan to that effect in conjunction with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank. The objectives of the plan are to demobilize all child soldiers [and] reintegrate them into society …
64. … [A] programme to demobilize child soldiers ha[s] been under way since 2003. The demobilization programme began in 2001 with a number of studies, followed in 2002 by consultations among the various stakeholders, the administration and the communities concerned. A national demobilization structure for these children has been in place since March 2003.
302. As noted in the introduction, in 2002 the Government launched a programme for the demobilization of children who had taken part in the armed conflicts. The target groups are:
- Child soldiers recruited by the government army
- Police officers
- Children who fought on the side of the armed movements which signed ceasefire agreements
303. Objectives of the programme:
- Demobilize 90 per cent of all child soldiers (estimated at 3,000) in military formations of the government army and in the targeted rebel factions over a period of 12 months
- Reintegrate all demobilized child soldiers into their communities over a period of eight months
304. The programme has attained its objectives because more than 3,000 children have been demobilized. It is pursuing the reintegration and prevention process, providing material aid to children who are still able to go to school or wish to earn a living. The children receive psychological counselling from organizations which have concluded agreements under the programme.
305. The Government has devised a plan for the demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers with the financial support of the World Bank. The objective is to achieve the social reintegration of 1,440 demobilized child soldiers old enough to work through a subsidy to help them find a decent job and regular income. 
Burundi, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 7 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/BDI/2, submitted 17 July 2008, §§ 7, 64 and 302–305.
Canada
In 2009, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Canada stated under the heading “Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict”:
Between 2000 and 2005, Canada invested $171 million in new programming related to children’s rights and protection in support of the Canadian International Development Agency’s Action Plan on Child Protection. As of 2007, the Government of Canada had supported over 120 projects addressing a range of issues related to children and armed conflict, including basic education, demobilization and reintegration of former child soldiers. 
Canada, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 4 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/CAN/3-4, submitted 20 November 2009, § 109; see also § 22.
Chad
In 1997, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Chad stated:
189. At the national level, a memorandum of understanding signed between the Republic of Chad and France on 30 July 1991 provided for a reduction in the armed forces, the discharge of minors and their resettlement in civilian life. Article 2 of decree No. 398/PR/MDNACVG/92 of 24 July 1992 concerning the discharge of army personnel stipulates specifically that the provisions concern minors. In accordance with this decree a census of minors was organized by the Ministry for the Armed Forces. Of the 500 minors listed, 467 were discharged with an end-of-service grant. The other 33, having reached the age of majority, preferred to continue their army career.
190. As part of a medium term plan, the Ministry for Women, Children and Social Affairs, in collaboration with UNICEF, is drawing up a programme for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children in especially difficult circumstances, who from 1996 onwards include combatant minors. 
Chad, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 July 1997, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.50, submitted 14 January 1997, §§ 189–190.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to Chad’s second periodic report, Chad stated:
The children whom the State party considers as having priority and urgently requiring attention with a view to the implementation of the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] are those in need of special protection measures [including] … children involved in the armed forces or armed groups …
On 9 May 2007, the UNICEF office in Chad and the Government of Chad signed a protocol of agreement on protecting children who are victims of armed conflict and on their sustainable reintegration into communities and families, with a view to enforcing international instruments concerning the protection of children affected by armed conflict. Under the agreement, UNICEF is helping the Government of Chad … to ensure that they are absolutely free and reintegrated into their communities.
This agreement came after the Government had signed the Paris Commitments to protect children unlawfully recruited or used by armed forces or armed groups in Chad.
A national programme to … remove and take temporary custody of children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups in Chad has been in place since 2007, following the signing of the Paris Commitments and the protocol of agreement. A national coordinating body has been entrusted to ensure the proper implementation, monitoring and overall harmonization of ongoing or proposed activities of the programme, take strategic decisions and make sure that the process is consistent with the Paris Principles. It is composed of eight ministries, five United Nations agencies, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Human Rights Commission, two human rights organizations, the Red Cross in Chad and four international non governmental organizations.
Provision has been made to implement a communication strategy and integrated communication plan for this programme in 2008.
(a) Information concerning children deprived of a family environment and separated from their parents is available only for the following years:
2007: 658, including … 451 children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups and separated from their parents
2008: 59 children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups and separated from their parents
Disaggregated data are available for children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups, as follows:
9–11 years old: 25 children, or 90 per cent
12–14 years old: 143 children, or 28.03 per cent
15–17 years old: 318 children, or 62.35 per cent
18 years or older: 24, or 4.7 per cent
(b) In 2006, 326 children were placed in 12 institutions throughout the country, while in 2007, 566 children were placed in 19 institutions throughout the country;
(c) Eight children placed with foster families;
(d) Five children have been fully adopted since January 2008, two girls and three boys, including one child adopted abroad. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the second periodic report of Chad, 8 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/TCD/Q/2/Add.1, submitted 7 January 2009, pp. 4–5.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated:
The Government has signed an agreement with UNICEF on the reintegration of child soldiers into the working population. Chad has also undertaken to implement the Paris Commitments adopted at the “Free Children from War” conference held in Paris on 5 and 6 February 2007. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, § 47.
Chad
In 2011, in the Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, the Government of Chad stated:
The government undertakes to implement the Action Plan to … release all children associated with its [armed] forces and paramilitary groups and to ensure that the children benefit from programmes of reintegration into their communities. … This Action Plan applies to the Chadian National Army (ANT) and to associated major formations, in particular to the Directorate-General of the Security of State’s Structures and Institutions (DGSSIE), Directorate-General of the National Gendarmerie (DGGN) and the Chadian National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT). 
Chad, Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, 15 June 2011, Article 1.1.
The Government of Chad also stated:
2.1 The Government of Chad specifically undertakes to fully and effectively implement the following provisions:
a) Prevent and end the association of children under the age of 18 with armed forces and armed groups and guarantee their immediate release and reintegration …
d) Appoint focal points with clear terms of reference and responsibilities for the implementation of the Action Plan at the highest level of the government and the associated military and paramilitary structures. This should be done in cooperation with the United Nations and [other] partners to ensure oversight, monitoring and control of the plan’s implementation …
e) Immediately and unconditionally release the identified children to UNICEF’s partner organisations for the protection of children and to other UN agencies. Facilitate return and reintegration of all children associated with armed forces or armed groups to their communities, while paying special attention to their gender and age, as well as to the specific needs of girls and children born to the girls released from armed forces and armed groups.
k) Ensure that no child previously associated with the ANT or any armed group will be prosecuted for the desertion and/or any other violation of the military order. 
Chad, Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, 15 June 2011, Article 2.1(a), (d), (e) and (k).
The Government of Chad further stated:
Article 3 – Procedure
3.1 The following framework defines the activities and the timeline for the implementation of the Action Plan.
Release and support for the reintegration of children
a) Issue a clear and enforceable policy directive to non-military personnel associated with the ANT and to the major associated formations and a clear military order to all members of the armed and/or paramilitary forces to stop the recruitment and use of children and to ensure their rapid and orderly release. The directive must indicate sanctions in the event of non-compliance and demand reporting of the breaches to the competent authorities, so they can immediately act upon them. The order should be widely and effectively disseminated, in writing and orally.
b) Identify, control, register and plan the release of all children associated with armed forces and/or with paramilitary groups at all sites, such as military bases, training camps, detention centres, medical facilities and recruitment centres.
d) Support arrangements for temporary care and assistance to children, taking into account their gender, age and an initial assessment of their well-being for psycho-social support, health care and documentation services to help to restore family links and for setting up social reintegration programmes.
e) In cooperation with the relevant government departments and civil society organisations, support the reintegration of released children through sharing a monthly list of demobilised children for confirmation and verification.
Recruitment prevention, awareness raising and capacity building
c) Identify gaps and take concrete measures to comply with the national and international legal obligations, including … (3) set up and provide training for children protection units within the ANT and the security forces at the national and regional level; authorize these units to monitor ANT’s compliance with the military guidelines and national legislation. 
Chad, Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, 15 June 2011, Article 3.1.
The Government of Chad also stated:
Article 4 – Applicable principles
In the implementation of their work for children affected by armed conflict, the signatories shall be guided by the following general principles:
4.5 Children associated with armed forces or armed groups are first of all victims of violation of their basic rights – All children who had been recruited by armed forces or armed groups and are accused of international crimes should be primarily considered as victims of the violations [of their basic rights]. They should be treated in conformity with international standards for juvenile justice and offered rehabilitation and social reintegration. Independent international observers should have access to all judicial proceedings where children are victims, survivors, witnesses or alleged perpetrators.
4.7. Respect for the right of the child to be released from the armed forces – … prevention activities should be carried out on an ongoing basis, the release, protection and reintegration of children should be consistently researched and shall not be conditional upon the existence of an armed conflict or upon the demobilisation of adults. 
Chad, Action Plan on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups in Chad, signed by the Government of Chad and the United Nations Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Task Force on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict, 15 June 2011, Articles 4.5 and 4.7.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
215. Chad took an active part in the Paris international conference on child soldiers. This enabled it to draw up a national programme for the withdrawal and temporary care of child soldiers and their reintegration into their families. This programme is being carried out under an agreement concluded in May 2007 between the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Government of Chad. In this highly important agreement, the State undertook to hand over to UNICEF all children recovered upon the incorporation of the various armed groups into the regular armed forces of the Republic of Chad.
217. In effectively withdrawing the children, the Government benefited from the support of Care International and UNICEF, which opened transit centres in N’Djamena where, to begin with, children were housed and fed and given medical and psychological care. The children were then returned to their parents. Some 90 per cent are estimated to have effectively rejoined their families, as against 10 per cent who remained in the centres.
218. Within the framework of the peacebuilding process initiated under the auspices of the President of the Republic, Chad intends to strengthen the institutional mechanisms of the national programme for the withdrawal, temporary care and family reintegration of children. …
Implementation of the child soldier rehabilitation support programme
219. In the past few decades, Chad has experienced a succession of wars and intercommunity conflicts whose consequences have included the enlistment of children (girls and boys) in armed groups and forces.
220. The Government has mobilized substantial resources for the withdrawal and care of juveniles and their reintegration into their communities, in partnership with international institutions such as UNICEF, Care International, etc.
221. The Government’s commitment has been illustrated in the following ways:
– Signing of a statement of principle and commitment, Paris, 6 February 2007;
– Signing of a memorandum of understanding on 9 May 2007 between the Government and the Chad UNICEF office for the withdrawal of all child victims of armed conflicts and their lasting reintegration;
– Training of military officers in the protection of children in situations of armed conflict;
– Awareness-raising campaign in camps, garrisons and instruction centres (more than 3,000 members of the military);
– Production of leaflets and integrated communication plans. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 215 and 217–221.
Colombia
In 2004, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Colombia stated:
586. In dealing with the armed conflict situation, the Government conducts, since 1999, intersectoral programmes for the disengagement of minors from the conflict and their social reintegration. The main goal is to provide disengaged minors with support for reorganizing their lives.
587. The Assistance programme for armed-conflict victims is mainly implemented through specialized centres, where the young people in question receive assistance and advice for social rehabilitation. The following modules are used:
588. Transition homes: This programme’s current first phase consists in providing assistance to boys and girls by court decision or Family Ombudsman decision; and conducting psychological and social assessments to determine host conditions in view of socialization.
589. Specialized assistance centres: The goal of this initiative is the restoration of infringed human rights through comprehensive (vocational, sport, academic, cultural and employment-related areas) assistance for minors. Minors undergo medical and psychological assessments in view of arrangements for embarking on the life plan to lead and facilitating their social inclusion.
590. Houses of the adolescent: This initiative aims at facilitating the socialization process, thereby contributing to social integration.
591. Social and family-related assistance measures can be classified under two headings: Home mentoring, a phase in which disengaged minors and other young people – after receiving assistance in transition homes, specialized assistance centres or houses of the adolescent – live in a foster family environment when it is impossible to return to their own families; and Family reintegration, a phase in which the children or young people concerned – subject to a diagnostic assessment by the establishment – return to their home of origin or stay with relatives.
592. Assistance programmes focus on family, social, cultural and economic integration. Generally speaking, priority is given to the safety of the disengaged person and his or her family. Family integration requires identifying a suitable family for the child or adolescent to facilitate basic contact in view of further reintegration. Conceptually and methodologically, orientation aims to respond appropriately to the phenomenon by strengthening family and community networks in order to ensure support that meets the particular needs of the given population group. 
Colombia, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/Add.129, submitted 28 June 2004, §§ 586–592.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2010, in its combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Côte d’Ivoire stated: “There are several resettlement programmes for young combatants”. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, § 271.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated:
52 The resources of the Government are supplemented by financial support from bilateral or multilateral cooperation[s] directed towards the implementation of specific projects. … Funding of US$ 1,047,489 was provided [by the World Bank] during the period 2002–2005 for the project “Support for abused children and children leaving armed forces and armed groups.”
56. Through Act No. 004/2001 of 20 July 2001 containing general provisions applying to non-profit entities and entit[i]es serving the public interest, the Government strengthened its cooperation with organizations of civil society involved in the development of policies and programmes. Their implementation requires public and private entit[i]es to work together with synergy. By way of illustration, in the domain of social and economic reintegration of children involved with armed forces and armed groups, the executing entit[i]es that are working as partners with the National Commission for Disarmament and Reintegration (Commission nationale de désarmement et réinsertion (CONADER)) belong exclusively to civil society.
68. [O]ther legal enactments that provide specific protection for persons under age 18 are:
(a) Decree-Law No. 066 of 9 June 2000, providing for demobilization and reintegration of vulnerable groups present within fighting forces, whose article 2 provides: “Vulnerable groups shall mean: child soldiers, girls or boys under age 18 (…)”;
96. The war, which had a very adverse effect on children’s rights, has ended through the conclusion and implementation of the Global and Comprehensive Agreement signed in Pretoria on 17 December 2002, although there remain to this day some isolated pockets of armed conflict in the East of the country.
97. … Among the positive measures taken by the Government to maintain a lasting peace, the following should be noted:
- The demobilization of children in armed forces and armed groups;
201. The extreme poverty faced by families accounts for the massive enlistment of children in armed groups since the war of 1996. Having thus been prematurely put through the traumatizing experience of war, these children have been denied the enjoyment of their fundamental rights to education, health and integrated development. In order to extricate these children from that harmful environment in the future, the Government, with significant support from international cooperation, has exerted considerable efforts to remove from armed groups and forces all children involved in them in one way or another (soldiers, bearers, pages, household aides, etc.), whose number has been reckoned at over 30,000, including about 15 per cent girls.
203. The application of Decree-Law No. 066/2000 had been entrusted to the National Office for Demobilization and Reintegration (Bureau national pour la démobilisation et la réinsertion (BUNADER)), which was replaced by the National Commission for the Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers (Commission nationale pour la démobilisation et la réinsertion (CONADER)), created under Decree No. 03/042 of 18 December 2003 [on the National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration)]. Accountable to the Ministries of National Defence, Demobilization and Veterans’ Affairs, Social Affairs and Solidarity and Humanitarian Affairs (article 39), CONADER is entrusted with coordination and follow-up of all actions pursued for the benefit of children involved in armed forces and groups. This activity is carried out in parallel with the reorganization of adults from the regular armed forces and from armed groups who are fit to continue in military service. The DDR [disarmament, demobilization and reintegration] Programme is supported by a trust fund managed by the World Bank.
204. On 30 April, 2006, 29,291 children certified in orientation centres were withdrawn from armed forces and groups; 15,220 are beneficiaries of a programme of social and economic reintegration being carried out on the ground by about 9 international NGOs and 35 national NGOs, which are also receiving support from UNICEF. Thus, the presence of children in some largely un-integrated military units is dwindling.
205. However, surveying the number of girls and ensuring their removal remains a fairly delicate issue. Many girls who were conscripted or who voluntarily enlisted now consider themselves the “wives” of soldiers and thus place themselves outside the DDR programme. Moreover, those who are completely free to leave the armed groups are reluctant to come forward and to seek aid from the DDR programme. Fear of social ostracism if they reveal their association with the armed forces, and a concern to preserve their dignity, lead them to prefer a discreet return to civilian life.
206. Also noteworthy is the implementation of the inter-regional programme to prevent involvement of children in armed conflicts and to provide for their reintegration, as part of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).
207. With a view to facilitating their reception, a Community Programme to foster family reunification and socio-economic reintegration of children from armed forces and groups has been implemented in all of the country’s provinces. In summary, the national programme for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of children comprises the following stages:
(a) A campaign for the release of children involved in armed forces and groups;
(b) Training functional partners in temporary reception and reintegration activities;
(c) National and local awareness-raising on the issue of children involved in armed forces and groups;
(d) Identification of children in the hands of armed forces and groups;
(e) Reception of children in transitional centres;
(f) Seeking out families and arranging family reunification;
(g) Social and economic reintegration activities.
208. However, the programme of economic reintegration of children is currently hampered by the lack of opportunities for children to improve their economic situation in general and by financial difficulties due to the lack of a long-term source of support. As a result, children run the risk of falling into delinquency and some are even tempted to enlist again in the regular armed forces or in armed groups that are still active in some parts of the country, such as the North (Equateur Province) or the East (Eastern, North-Kivu and South-Kivu Provinces). The Government intends to resolve this financial problem with the support it anticipates from its partners in order to give renewed impetus to the programme of social, vocational and economic reintegration of these children.
209. With regard to measures for psychological readjustment of children involved in armed forces, it should be noted that temporary resettlement in “peace villages” (structures d’encadrement transitoire (SET)) through which children transit before reunification with their families does not completely satisfy that need because the programme for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration provides for only a short stay (30 days at most) in those facilities, and the facilities in any event lack qualified psychologists. The consequences of this state of affairs are such that some children have difficulty in adjusting to family life and show behavioural problems that translate into acts of violence against those close to them.
210. The solution envisaged consists of giving international and national NGOs providing for the re-education of children in temporary centres and for their reunification with their families the means to do systematic follow-up work with children withdrawn from armed forces and groups and to provide psychological counselling for those who need it.
214. Paradoxically, the progress that has been made in suppressing conscription of children has made it more difficult to take stock of the children still present in various groups involved in the process of reorganization of the army. Fearing that they may be prosecuted for conscripting children, most commanding officers who decide to take part in the reorganization simply abandon the children who were still present in their ranks. That in turn deprives those children of the benefit of social and economic reintegration activities. This has been noted especially in Katanga, South Kivu and Equateur Provinces. It must needs be acknowledged as well that the persistence of zones of fighting increases the risk that children will be conscripted. That is so in Ituri and the Kivu provinces, where there have recently been reports of abduction of some thirty children, including girls. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 July 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/COD/2, submitted 23 October 2007, §§ 52, 56, 68(a), 96–97, 201, 203–210 and 214.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2008, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to its second periodic report, the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated:
With regard to the budget for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes (DDR), it should be pointed out that in their phases I and II (under BUNADER (Bureau national de démobilisation et de réinsertion – National Demobilization and Reinsertion Office) and CONADER (Commission Nationale de la Demobilization et Reinsertion – National Commission for Demobilization and Reintegration)), which are now completed, budget appropriations for the DDR programme amounted to about US$ 208 million, including a US$ 108 million donation from the IDA/World Bank and US$ 100 million from the Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF). The funding was administered by the Committee for the administration of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration resources (CGFDR), established pursuant to Decree No. 03/043 of 18 December 2003. In its work on behalf of children, the DDR programme assisted 30,594 children released by the armed forces and armed groups through phases devoted to the search for families, family reunification and reintegration support.
Phase III, which is being carried out by the DDR implementation unit (UEPN-DDR), has received US$ 72 million in funding, including US$ 50 million from the World Bank and US$ 22 million from the African Development Bank (ADB).
Providing the necessary assistance for the physical and psychological rehabilitation as well as social reintegration of children who have left the armed forces or armed groups has been part of the DDR programme since its inception in 2001. Generally speaking, the process of psychological counselling and assistance in family and community reintegration is as follows:
(a) Children removed from the armed forces and armed groups whose families can be easily contacted are directly reunited with them as soon as they arrive at the “peace villages” (structures d’encadrement transitoire (SET));
(b) Children who must stay a little longer in the SETs receive a token “civilian life” kit containing clothing, shoes, bed linen and kitchen utensils. They are also given a medical examination. Counselling sessions are held with them throughout their stay at the centre … Other socio-cultural and sports activities are also organized.
At the same time, the search for families is started, followed, as appropriate, by mediation aimed at achieving reunification. If mediation fails or if the children are unable to find their biological family, they are placed with a “temporary foster family”, which is pre-selected by the DDR implementation unit in accordance with criteria set by the operating handbook on the prevention, withdrawal and care of children involved with armed forces and armed groups. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Written replies by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the second periodic report of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 30 December 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/COD/Q/2/Add.1, submitted 24 December 2008, pp. 11–12.
El Salvador
In 2002, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, El Salvador stated:
495. The Welfare Programme for FMLN [Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional] Children was adopted to facilitate the educational reintegration and technical training of minors demobilized from the FMLN, aged between 15 and 16 on 16 January 1992, who had not had access to the Land Programme under the Supplementary Agreement between the Government of El Salvador and the FMLN.
496. The National Secretariat for the Family conducted a national survey to identify child beneficiaries of the project and the reintegration option they wished to choose, either technical training or education at Ministry of Education establishments. Among the children identified, 152 opted to attend public educational establishments and 97 to enrol for technical training. The National Educational Supervision Directorate of the Ministry of Education took the requisite steps to have them enrolled, giving them priority access to baskets of basic educational materials and priority for exemption from the corresponding enrolment quota.
497. Only nine of the children who opted for enrolment in educational establishments were successfully incorporated in the system. The National Secretariat for the Family, with support from the World Food Programme, supplied them with a basic food basket for a period of six months. Only one of the nine children completed the course of studies.
498. The Vocational Training Programme funded by the European Economic Community, and the Programme for Integration and Promotion of Employment of Demobilized Persons financed by the German corporation for international cooperation GTZ and the National Secretariat for the Family, attended to the needs of the target group and to those of a further 25 children for whom no provision had been made in the Programme. 
El Salvador, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 22 October 2003, UN Doc. CRC/65/Add.25, submitted 10 July 2002, §§ 495–498.
El Salvador
In 2006, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to El Salvador’s initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, El Salvador stated:
Disarmament, demobilization and social reintegration of child victims of activities contrary to the [Optional] Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict]
The Welfare Programme for Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) Children was adopted to facilitate the educational reintegration and technical training of minors demobilized from FMLN, aged between 15 and 16 on 16 January 1992, who had not had access to the Land Programme under the Supplementary Agreement between the Government of El Salvador and FMLN.
The National Secretariat for the Family conducted a national survey to identify child beneficiaries of the project and the reintegration option they wished to choose, either technical training or education at Ministry of Education establishments. Among the children identified, 152 opted to attend public educational establishments and 97 to enrol for technical training. The National Educational Supervisory Office at the Ministry of Education took the requisite steps to have them enrolled, giving them priority access to baskets of basic educational materials and priority for exemption from the corresponding enrolment quota.
Only nine of the children who opted for enrolment in educational establishments were successfully incorporated in the system. The National Secretariat for the Family, with support from the World Food Programme, supplied them with a basic food basket for a period of six months. Only one of the nine children completed the course of studies.
The Vocational Training Programme funded by the European Economic Community, and the Programme for Integration and Promotion of Employment of Demobilized Persons financed by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and the National Secretariat for the Family, attended to the needs of the target group and to those of a further 25 children for whom no provision had been made in the Programme. 
El Salvador, Written replies by the Government of El Salvador to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues formulated by the Committee on the Rights of the Child in connection with its consideration of the initial report of El Salvador under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 12 May 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/SLV/Q/1/Add.1, pp. 2–3.
[emphasis in original]
Finland
In 2004, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Finland stated:
18. The Government of Finland’s report on human rights policy, released in March 2004, states that children in the midst of international conflicts and civil wars require special protection. Child soldiers, like other children affected by war, are victims.
19. The Government supports all United Nations activities through which boys and girls who have become victims of armed conflict are taken into account (so-called mainstreaming). It gives its full support to the United Nations mechanisms and organizations that strive to improve the position of all child victims of armed conflict and help their post-conflict recovery. It supports a comprehensive approach when child victims of armed conflict are helped. Children should be our special concern even before any conflict erupts and, during conflict, their rehabilitation and mental recovery should also be taken care of after the end of hostilities. 
Finland, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of Child under Article 8(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 10 March 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/FIN/1, submitted 1 June 2004, §§ 18–19.
France
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, France stated:
30. Compliance with the Protocol also results from close cooperation with UNICEF and other United Nations bodies.
31. In 2006 the French contribution to UNICEF was 13.8 million euros. France specifically supports the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, which works on best practices in the reintegration of children associated with armed conflict, in particular young girls, and is preparing a guide to the participation and protection of child victims or witnesses in international legal mechanisms in association with the International Criminal Court.
32. Along with UNICEF, our country is taking an active part in organizing a conference on the Cape Town Principles in Paris on 23 and 24 November 2006. These principles, adopted in 1997 by a group of experts, are still the standard in the field of child protection through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. However, they need to be brought up to date, and might be developed by broadening the scope of criteria governing planning and intervention, enhancing measures for preventing recruitment, improving activities for reintegration into the family and the community, reinforcing witness protection, as well as preventing and campaigning against gender-based violence. 
France, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 November 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/FRA/1, submitted 26 September 2006, §§ 30–32.
Germany
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
814. The Federal Government has given practical help for the reintegration of child soldiers in an exemplary fashion by supporting the reintegration fund in Mozambique. There, 2,000 former child soldiers have found employment and new perspectives. In Angola and Uganda, too, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development supports projects for the reintegration of ex-combatants, including many children and young people.
816. Furthermore, the psychosocial situation of former child soldiers also has to be considered. For example, in cooperation with Medico International the Federal Government is sponsoring a project for the psychological rehabilitation of children and young people traumatized by war, especially former child soldiers and militias, in conjunction with their families and village communities. 
Germany, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.7, 24 July 2003, submitted 23 July 2001, §§ 814 and 816.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
Apart from efforts in international fora and in the context of bilateral development cooperation, Germany financially and/or politically supports institutions and aid programmes for the demobilization and rehabilitation of former child soldiers as well as for the prevention of violations of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict …
On the basis of the 2003 EU Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflict and the relating 2004 Plan of Action, [the Federal Government] together with its EU partners will work towards better protection of children in armed conflict, and to this purpose
- will continue giving financial support to projects on the demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of former child soldiers. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 73 and 203.
Germany
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Germany stated:
7. At the national level, the Federal Government is promoting institutions and aid programmes for demobilization and rehabilitation of former child soldiers as well as to prevent contraventions of the Optional Protocol, inter alia through the regular voluntary German contribution and also through the funding of UNICEF projects, as well as through projects for the promotion of human rights. Germany is also making a contribution to rehabilitation and social reintegration of child soldiers, using the instrument of the Civil Peace Service with a number of peace specialists, e.g. those working in the field of trauma treatment.
Article 7
19. The Federal Republic of Germany is cooperating bilaterally and, within the framework of international organizations, with other State parties in order to achieve the objectives laid down in article 7. In doing so, Germany provides technical support and, to a considerable extent, financial assistance. Hence, within the framework of bilateral State development cooperation with Angola, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone, there were projects worth about 83 million euros in the first quarter of 2006 designed to reintegrate ex-combatants, especially child soldiers. Further resources amounting to about 1.4 million euros have been committed for the care of child soldiers through Civil Peace Service programmes in Uganda, Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
20. Furthermore, former child soldiers are profiting from the various bilateral development cooperation programmes generally dedicated to the prevention of violence and conflict relating to children and juveniles. 
Germany, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OPAC/DEU/1, 17 April 2007, submitted 5 January 2007, §§ 7 and 19–20.
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
8. Which procedures are envisaged for the treatment of child soldiers injured, apprehended or detained by the Bundeswehr?
In the completed operation EUFOR RD CONGO, the following framework was adopted regarding apprehended or detained children and included in the pocket card of June 2006 for the German contingent of the operation EUFOR RD CONGO:
e) As soon as possible they are to be transferred into the care of the competent individuals or institutions, if necessary to an organization or authority specialized in dealing with victims of armed conflict and their re-integration. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, pp. 4–5.
Germany
In 2010, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
38. As [regards] projects to support children involved in armed conflict, Germany is currently promoting roughly 20 projects with the target group “child soldiers”, especially in the African Great Lakes area. The projects in Africa receiving support from the Federal Government to reintegrate child soldiers are promoted by much more than €100 million, the following being named as examples:
- The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development is providing support via the GTZ [German Technical Cooperation] for instance with the project entitled “Promotion of Employment for Marginalized Youths” for the return and reintegration of young war refugees to their homes in Sierra Leone. The goal of the project, which is to run until 2013, is for disadvantaged juveniles and young adults to participate actively in their communities’ social, economic and political activities.
- With the project running until 2011 entitled “Integration of child soldiers (Phase I) and economic reintegration of disadvantaged juveniles and young adults in Maniema (Phase II)”, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting via the GTZ the social and economic reintegration of child soldiers in the Congo. The focus here is on catching up on primary schooling, training in preparation for taking up work, the creation of infrastructure, as well as support in establishing small businesses. The total German promotion of the project is €5.5 million.
39. Other projects of the Federal Government in the field of “Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration” (DDR), such as in Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, contain components of the reintegration of child soldiers or consciously contain support for children affected by conflicts – such as in Liberia or Nepal. Finally, the Federal Government promotes projects whose focus is not exclusively on child soldiers, but which at least also benefit them. 
Germany, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights the Child, 11 September 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/DEU/3-4, submitted 10 October 2010, §§ 38–39.
(footnote in original omitted)
Germany
In 2010, in reply to a Minor Interpellation in the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament) entitled “Treatment of child soldiers by the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) during operations abroad”, Germany’s Federal Government wrote:
20. Which measures has the Federal Government financed in the areas where the Bundeswehr has so far been deployed, in particular Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo, to demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers (please provide years and costs of the measures)?
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Federal Government has been implementing a project on the economic integration of disadvantaged adolescents and young adults in Maniema province. Participants in this project receive intensive assistance and basic, practical education and vocational training in very small and small companies. Since 2005 almost 3,500 adolescents, including more than 200 former child soldiers, have successfully participated in the vocational training courses. 70 per cent of them are still working in the professions in which they were trained. It is planned to expand this project, for which so far 10.6 million euros have been pledged, to the South Kivu province. Through the so-called peace fund, established by the Federal Government in 2008 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, particularly disadvantaged population groups such as former child soldiers are given new employment opportunities and thus new perspectives in life. The measures by the fund, for which up to 50 million euros were made available, take place in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the capital Kinshasa.
Moreover the Federal Government is participating in the regional and Congo-specific donor fund of the World Bank on demobilization and reintegration of combatants (“Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Programme” – MDRP) between 2002 and 2009 with approximately 12.5 million euros.
In Afghanistan, as part of the international division of labour [the Federal Government] has taken the lead concerning demobilization and reintegration measures for unlawful armed groups including their under-age members.
The Federal Government also finances a number of complementary measures in the area of basic education and enhancement of children’s rights with more than 1.6 million euros in the period 2004 to 2010. In 2003, it supported a UNICEF project for the reintegration of child soldiers in Afghanistan with 125,000 euros. 
Germany, Lower House of Federal Parliament (Bundestag), Reply by the Federal Government to the Minor Interpellation by Members Paul Schäfer, Jan van Aken, Sevim Dağdelen, further Members and the Parliamentary Group DIE LINKE, BT-Drs. 17/2998, 21 September 2010, pp. 7–8.
Greece
In 2005, during a debate in the UN Security Council on children in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Greece stated:
With regard to post conflict situations, special attention should be given to ensure that all children are included in all disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, [and that] their specific needs are being addressed such as medical support, education, and reunification with their families. 
Greece, Statement by the permanent representative of Greece before the UN Security Council, Open Debate on Children in Armed Conflict, 23 February 2005.
Guatemala
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
More than 3,000 guerrillas of the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca [Guatemaltecan National Revolutionary Unit] participated in reintegration programmes when the internal armed conflict ended. It is estimated that 214 of those guerrillas were minors. 
Guatemala, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/1, submitted 17 May 2006, § 7.
Guatemala
In 2007, in response to a list of issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child relating to its consideration of the initial report of Guatemala under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
Under the terms of the peace agreements relating to assistance to the victims of the internal armed conflict, however, since 1998, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare has been implementing a mental health programme as one of its official policies, under which psychological assistance must be available to the victims of the armed conflict in Guatemala. 
Guatemala, Written replies by the Government of Guatemala concerning a list of issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child relating to its consideration of the initial report of Guatemala under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/Q/1/Add.1, 23 April 2007, § 8.
Guinea
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guinea stated:
471. Guinea has been greatly affected by the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone that have raged since 24 December 1989. …
475. This situation has also given rise to child trafficking and separated children from their families. A study conducted in November 1999 by the International Rescue Committee (IRC) has helped to identify and document 252 separated children on the streets of Conakry. These children were separated from their families following rebel incursions into border areas, resulting in a sadly unknown number of Guinean and refugee children being abducted and forcibly recruited into the rebel forces and turned into child soldiers.
482. Action taken:
- Repatriation and reintegration of 25 to 40 former child soldiers demobilized in Liberia.
491. In addition, with assistance from ICRC, 23 former child combatants in Liberia were demobilized and returned to their homes in Guinée Forestière, involving 16 communities in four prefectures. These children were able to rejoin their families and benefit from a customized project monitored by the non-governmental organization Sabou Guinée with funding from UNICEF. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 471, 475, 482 and 491.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) stated:
2. Children in armed conflict (art. 38 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child]), including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration (art. 39 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child])
127. In the event of war, the Government will review the measures necessary for the physical and mental rehabilitation of children who are the victims of armed conflict and their social reintegration, according to the possibilities at the time.
128. Since the past 30 years have been a time of peace, children under 18 have never been the victims of war. As a result, the Government has no policy or plan to repair the physical and psychological effects of war on children and promote their social reintegration; similarly, no measure has been taken to demobilize child soldiers, as the Lao People’s Army contains no soldiers below the age of 18.
129. Given that the provisions of articles 38 and 39 of the Convention do not reflect the actual situation in the Lao PDR, the Government is unable to assess the progress made or difficulties encountered in implementing those articles. It is, however, in the process of looking into the possibility of signing the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict. 
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 10 August 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LAO/2, submitted 22 April 2009, §§ 127–129.
Liberia
In 2009, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Liberia stated:
173. Working with UNDP and UNICEF, the Government implemented the Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration Programme. The Programme commenced in December 2003 and had disarmed 103,912 persons by December 2004. The number of children demobilised was 11,780. Of these, 2,738 were girls while 9,042 were boys.
302. Much was accomplished through the Disarmament and Demobilisation for Children Associated with Fighting Forces in Liberia. The 9,042 and 2,738 together represented 11 per cent of individuals who were disarmed through the programme in the country. The programme, which was the first to pay a transitional safety allowance, had many partners including UNDP, UNICEF, and child protection agencies in the country. 
Liberia, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2009, §§ 173 and 302.
Liberia also stated:
196. The Government and its partners have accomplished much to reintegrate children that were demobilised after the war. Assisted by partners such as UNICEF, the Government implemented the Reintegration Programme for Children Associated with Fighting Forces. The Programme aimed at social and economic reintegration, community reintegration, and education through vocational skills and apprenticeships. In addition to helping establish 293 child welfare committees, the programme contributed towards the formation of 228 children’s clubs and 193 youth clubs to facilitate greater participation for the children.
197. As of April 2007, 217 of the child welfare committees, 163 of the children’s clubs, and 35 of the youth groups were still active. The results included 50 per cent of the children associated with the fighting forces being returned to school. In addition, many possess vocational and business skills and apprenticeship and work-related experiential knowledge. An evaluation of the programme certified that the children were well accepted and appreciated in their communities, following the programme.
198. A less successful result was with regard to the economic reintegration, largely because of the poor economic situation obtaining in the country. Currently, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and the Women and Children Protection Section of the Police do significant rehabilitation work. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission is required to:
[A]ddress the experiences of women, children and vulnerable groups, paying particular attention to gender based violation, as well as to the issues of child soldiers, providing opportunities for them to relate their experiences, addressing concerns and recommending measures to be taken for the rehabilitation of victims of human rights violations in the spirit of national reconciliation and healing. 
Liberia, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 9 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/LBR/2-4, submitted 5 August 2009, §§ 196–198.
[footnote in original omitted]
Liberia further stated:
Since the end of war, the Government has worked with its partners to strengthen the protection of children in the country. Starting with the economic, education, and social integration of children who were associated with fighting forces, the efforts have gradually extended to other child protection areas, such as juvenile justice and the institutionalisation of children.  
Liberia, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 9 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/LBR/2-4, submitted 5 August 2009, § 312.
Mexico
In 2009, during a debate in the UN Security Council on children and armed conflict, the permanent representative of Mexico stated:
Mexico calls on the international community to strengthen its efforts to protect children, in particular, … to cooperate with and assist States that suffer the consequences of armed conflict in order to strengthen or establish programmes for the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers into their communities and families. 
Mexico, Statement by the permanent representative of Mexico before the UN Security Council, 6114th meeting, UN Doc. S/PV.6114, 29 April 2009, p. 29.
Mexico
In 2010, during a debate in the UN Security Council on children in armed conflict, Mexico’s Secretary of Foreign Affairs stated:
Mexico will continue to guide the work of the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict inclusively and with determination and transparency until the end of its mandate as non-permanent member of the Security Council.
We would like to focus on five aspects … [including] supporting the establishment of comprehensive programmes to rehabilitate and reintegrate children in the ranks of armed groups into their families and communities, as well as preventing new violations and abuses against them. 
Mexico, Statement by the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico before the UN Security Council, 6341th meeting, UN Doc. S/PV.6341, 16 June 2010, p. 13.
Norway
In 2009, in a White Paper on “Norway’s Humanitarian Policy”, Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: “The Government supports the efforts to reintegrate child soldiers into their families and local communities, and it makes active endeavours to strengthen the protection of children.” 
Norway, Report to Parliament, White Paper on “Norway’s Humanitarian Policy”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 29 May 2009, p. 18.
Rwanda
In 2003, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Rwanda stated:
317. Some children under the age of 18 were enrolled in the armed forces during the war and genocide of 1994. Immediately after the war, all these children were demobilized and a programme of rehabilitation and school reintegration was implemented with the support of international sponsors, as suggested by the spirit of Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, which has been ratified by the Rwandan Government.
318. Other children serving with the armed bands of infiltrators from the Democratic Republic of the Congo are often captured by the Rwandan army and sent to solidarity camps for re-education and reintegration into society. As of 30 July 2001, the Mudende solidarity camp housed 273 ex-combatant minors, aged from 12 to 18. A programme of assistance to these minors has been drawn up and MINALOC [Ministry of Local Administration and Social Affairs], in cooperation with UNICEF, the World Food programme and Assoferwa, has, starting on 11 August 2001, transferred these children to the Gitagata centre so that they can be cared for, re-educated and taught a trade. 
Rwanda, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc CRC/C/70Add.22, 8 October 2003, §§ 317–318.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Rwanda stated:
I. Summary
4. … Rwanda ratified the [2000] Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict] following the liberation war that began in 1990 and culminated in the Tutsi Genocide in 1994. The war and the Tutsi Genocide have deeply affected Rwandan children. Some of them were involved or are still involved in armed conflicts. They were initially Genocide survivor children who joined RPF [Rwanda Patriotic Front] in search of security and then Rwandan children belonging to armed groups in DRC [Democratic Republic of the Congo].
5. At the time of the drafting of this report, Rwanda is in the demobilisation phase in which children have been given special attention. Their demobilisation began in 1997 with children who had taken refuge in RPA [Rwanda Patriotic Front] and it has currently been extended to children belonging to armed groups in DRC who are disarmed and repatriated to be reintegrated into the society.
6. The present report contains political and legislative measures that were taken by the Government of Rwanda in the framework of the implementation of the Protocol. However, since all these measures ensure that any person under eighteen years of age should not be in the army, the application of the Protocol concerns especially the demobilisation and social reintegration of children who were involved in armed conflicts.
7. Measures taken in this area include the creation of a Rwanda Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission, which has a child protection unit, as well as the establishment of a demobilisation camp specifically for children. The camp receives children repatriated from DRC but the remaining major handicap is that these children come in very small numbers since armed groups continue to keep them in their rank and file.
III. General information
B. General Measures of implementation of the Protocol
1. Policy measures
24. … Rwanda formulated a national policy on orphans and other vulnerable children since January 2003. This policy contains strategies and measures to respond to various situations of vulnerability of the child. Under the National Policy on Orphans and other Vulnerable Children, children affected by armed conflicts are displaced, kidnapped or refugee children who are forced by the war, genocide, poverty or armed groups to take part in armed conflicts. Children who take part in armed conflicts are not only those who fight on the frontline, but also informers, cooks, carriers and others.
25. Specific objectives of the Policy on these children are the following:
(c) To reintegrate children affected by conflicts into their communities.
26. To achieve these objectives, the following strategies are used:
(a) To demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers;
(b) To establish monitoring mechanisms for reintegrated children;
(c) To promote the culture of peace, reconciliation, tolerance and conflict resolution by negotiation.
C. Factors and difficulties that hinder the fulfilment of obligations provided for in the Protocol
41. The implementation of the Protocol is faced with constraints of which the major one is the low rate of the repatriation of Rwandan children enrolled in armed groups operating in RDC [Democratic Republic of the Congo]. This low rate of repatriation is due to the fact that the armed groups keep children in their ranks and prevent them from being disarmed, demobilized and repatriated and from eventually being reintegrated into the civilian life. Out of 2500 children that are estimated to belong to armed groups in DRC, only 702 have been repatriated. At the time of writing the present report, 661 children had been reintegrated in their families or in foster families while Muhazi Centre hosts 41 children.
IV. Specific measures of implementation of the Protocol
73. … Beyond the national territory, Rwandan children involved in armed conflicts in neighbouring countries, in particular in DRC, have been disarmed and demobilised and are hence repatriated to be reintegrated into the society. The Government uses intensive diplomatic measures both at the national level and international level so that children held hostages are identified and repatriated.
Article 5: Provisions of the national legislation or international instruments and international humanitarian law applicable to Rwanda that promote most the respect of the rights of the child; the state of ratification by Rwanda of major international instruments on the participation of children in armed conflicts and other commitments entered into by the country in this area
2. Paragraph 3: Measures adopted on disarmament, demobilization (or relieve from military obligations) and the provision of suitable assistance for physical and psychological re-adaptation and social reintegration of children, taking into account the specific situation of girls
(a) Measures adopted on disarmament, demobilization (or relieve from military obligations)
124. In this area, Rwanda established a Commission called Rwanda Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission, created by Presidential Decree N°37/01 of 09 April 2002.
125. In the framework of the World Bank’s Multi-Country Demobilization and reintegration Programme (MDRP), Rwanda Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (PRDR) was adopted in 2002 with the following objectives:
(a) To assemble ex-combatants identified and repatriated by UNMIC [United Nations Mission for the Democratic Republic of Congo], i.e. to verify their status, nationality and age as well as enable them to benefit [from] demobilisation and reintegration programmes;
(b) To monitor and coordinate reintegration activities in families and communities;
(c) To sensitize and prepare decentralized authorities to receive and care for ex-combatant children;
(d) To ensure monitoring after reintegration;
(e) To provide appropriate assistance to ensure physical [and] psychological re-adaptation and social reintegration of children.
126. After their arrival at the demobilization camp, children receive basic personal effects. Children also receive basic care, as some of them will have been wounded by bullets or suffer from various infections. The centre has a dispensary for this purpose.
127. Psychosocial support is also provided for. This is why in the programme called Post Traumatic Stressed Disorders (PTSD), each child meets a social worker once a week and their session last at least for three hours. The centre has two social workers, a man and a woman.
128. Still on health care, Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission has signed an agreement with Ruhengeri Hospital, Kigali Central Hospital and University hospital (CHUK), Kanombe Military hospital to provide health care to ex-soldier children during the process of demobilization and reintegration. The Commission meets the cost of medical care for children who have serious infections that require follow-up after reintegration, for a period of 12 months maximum.
129. In the demobilization centres, children receive a balanced diet. Children learn how to read, write and to count and this prepares the younger among them to resume normal education, once reintegrated into the society. They also receive other lessons among which civic education.
130. These school activities begin immediately on arrival at the camp where each child receives uniform identical to that of pupils of primary school. The centre has a permanent teacher, while others are external and are provided by decentralised authorities, depending on the lessons offered.
131. In addition, children are allowed to play, sing, dance, watch films, etc. the centre has football and volley ball grounds, game’s halls, a television with a video tape recorder. The centre is also open to the surrounding population who may equally benefit from these social activities and this provides an opportunity for children to socialise and familiarize themselves with the environment in which they are being prepared to live.
133. These activities in the demobilization camp are accompanied by Family Tracing, i.e. the research for families or families close to the children since the centre only serves as [a] transit place. The National policy on the matter is that every child should have a family.
Family Tracing is carried out in collaboration with ICRC which must each time obtain the opinion of the child.
134. The ex-soldier child who has just been demobilized may reintegrate the civil life through various options:
(a) Handing over the child to its parents (father and mother) or to the one of the two surviving parents (ideal option);
(b) Hand over the child to a foster family (Fostering);
(c) Group home that consists in grouping a limited number of children of (3, 4, or 5) in one family;
(d) Independent life (A child with its own household).
(e) Institutionalization, i.e. putting the child in an orphanage or in a centre for other vulnerable children.
135. Of all these options, ex-soldier children reintegrated until now were received by their families (nuclear or extended family). For children whose families were traced, there exists a reunification ceremony to which local authorities and the surrounding community are invited …
(i) Specific Situation of Girls
140. In connection with ex-girl soldiers and according to the data of RDRC [Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission], only 2 girls were officially demobilised …
141. If only two girls have been until now officially repatriated and have been reintegrated, it does not mean that armed groups do not use girls aged less than eighteen years in their activities. However, most [of] the ex-fighting girls prefer to clandestinely regain the civilian life as they prefer to keep this part of their worry to keep hidden this part of past “under military service” hidden as in most cases this traumatizing past is considered as a source of scorn and a shame by the society in which these children have to relive.
142. As for RDRP [Rwandan Demobilization and Reintegration Programme], it does not make any distinction of beneficiary children and despite that there are very few girls demobilized through the official process designed in the framework of this programme, facilities are especially put in place for them at demobilisation centres (separate dormitories and toilet facilities from those of boys, female social worker).
(ii) Children targeted by these measures [and] their participation in designed programmes …
143. Children targeted by this programme are Rwandan children recruited by armed militia operating in DRC. There is also a Burundian child who was repatriated in 2006 and who belonged to FNL [National Forces of Liberation]. The family of this child was traced and the child reunified.
(c) Various measures taken to ensure social rehabilitation of children, for example, temporary care, access to education, and to professional training, reintegration in the family and in the community and relevant legal measures, taking into account specific needs of the children concerned, depending particularly on their age and their sex
164. At the Demobilization Centre itself, the Commission, the child, his parents and local authorities discuss what the child will be able to do, once reintegrate[d] into the society, particularly depending on the age, sex, capacity of the child and the potentialities of the surrounding environment. The choices are particularly directed towards:
(a) Professional training (Trades): There exist a Convention between the Commission and GACULIRO Youth Professional Training Centre where children can learn various trades;
(b) Formal education for the youth;
(c) Income generating activities (IGA). This orientation is preferred by the oldest children. The main activities which they carry out are agriculture and animal keeping and informal trade. 
Rwanda, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 6 December 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/RWA/1, submitted 20 January 2010, §§ 4–7, 24–26, 41, 73, 124–131, 133–135, 140–143 and 164.
[footnotes in original omitted]
147. ICRC works … with Rwanda Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission in tracing the families of Rwandan children involved in armed conflicts in DRC returning to their country.
B. Strategies in respect of protection of the rights of the child
301. To implement the … policies and programmes for protection of the rights of the child, the following strategies have been applied:
Sierra Leone
In 2006, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sierra Leone stated:
267. Regarding the response of Government to the civil conflict, which was officially declared at an end in January 2002, the Government reiterates that it disarmed, demobilized and reintegrated into society a total of 6,845 children associated with the fighting forces out of a total of 72,490 combatants who were disarmed and demobilized from all factions. … After setting the age of majority for purposes of the DDR [Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration] programme at 18 years, the Government noted that 8 per cent of the total number of demobilized combatant children were girls. …
268. The Government, through the Ministry for Social Welfare, UNICEF-Sierra Leone and other CPN [Child Protection Network] partners, further reports that it has used a number of child-responsive programmes to react to the problems associated with demobilization and the attendant psychosocial trauma. Various ICCs [Interim Care Centres] equipped with welfare support workers and “camp followers” were set up in order to make demobilization of children associated with the fighting forces child-centred. Mediation with families, psychosocial healing, rapid response and education recovery methods, as well as skills training for older children were systematically applied. An exit strategy for children was also created through the Family Tracing and Reunification (FTR) programme to trace and reunite lost and found children with their families/guardians or relations. Fostering and responsible placement were also conducted for children who were orphaned by the conflict or whose parents/guardians could not be traced. Certain child protection groups/organizations, such as the Forum for African Women Educationalists, undertook medical treatment of children who were victims of sex-related diseases, early/forced pregnancies and drug abuse. These groups/organizations kept comprehensive data on the abuse of women and girls and the treatment they received for sex-related diseases and complications.
270. The Government also acknowledges that UNICEF-Sierra Leone, the focal partner of the Ministry for Social Welfare, has continued to provide reunification support in the form of education packages, including school items and fees, for a total of 3,086 children affected by the DDR programme. In particular, UNICEF-Sierra Leone reports that since 2002, a total of 957 teaching/learning/recreational packages were supplied to 550 schools where children associated with the fighting forces were enrolled; consequently, a total of 272,527 pupils and 7,644 teachers in the 550 schools benefited directly from the packages. Besides, the agency records that 1,414 girls who had not been included in the DDR programme due to various fears, including stigmatization, were reintegrated and provided with DDR services. To date, many children associated with the fighting forces have either graduated from school or are advancing their education in institutions of higher learning or skills centres.
271. The Government reports too that the current basic education programme is greatly complementing reintegration services available to war-affected children generally. The Ministry, UNICEF-Sierra Leone and other CPN partners continue to monitor the general reintegration patterns of affected children into peaceful society. 
Sierra Leone, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 8 September 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLE/2, §§ 267–268 and 270–271.
Sierra Leone
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sierra Leone stated:
28. With regard to the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of child ex-combatants, 6,845 children that were associated with the fighting forces, out of a total of 72,490 combatants, were disarmed and demobilized from the various factions. The Government of Sierra Leone set the age of majority at 18 years for the purposes of the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programme. It was noted that of the total number of 6,845 children associated with the fighting forces that went through the DDR programme, 8 per cent of them were girls.
29. In response to the reintegration needs of the children, the State Party established the National Commission for War Affected Children (NaCWAC) by Act of Parliament in January 2001. The Commission was officially inaugurated in January 2002. The main purpose of the Commission was to provide the requisite environment for psychosocial recovery, and capacity building of war affected and other disadvantaged children, for expeditious reintegration into their families and communities.
30. The line Ministry, NaCWAC and other child protection agencies, with support from UNICEF, established interim care centres, nationwide, as a stepping stone in the children’s reintegration process. Specialized care was provided for children who were victims of sexual abuse and sex-related diseases. 
Sierra Leone, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 5 April 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/SLE/1, submitted 31 March 2008, §§ 28–30.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
10. An Action Plan for Children Affected by War was signed by the Government, UNICEF and the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] in 2003 in the aftermath of the 2002 Cease-Fire Agreement (CFA). This included a clear commitment by the LTTE to stop child recruitment while collaborating with the Tamil Rehabilitation Organisation (TRO) and UNICEF to provide rehabilitation services for such children. Three transit centres for child soldiers were planned to be established in Killinochchi, Trincomalee and Batticaloa costing US$ 1 million for children due to be released by the LTTE. However, though resources were made available to the TRO by UNICEF, the three centres did not function and children were not released as promised to UNICEF by the LTTE.
19. The Government is encouraged that the TMVP [Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal] facilitated the release in April 2008 of 39 children held by the paramilitary group known as the Karuna faction. These children now have access to rehabilitation, … and reintegration which the Government working in close cooperation with international partners – notably UNICEF – stands ready to provide. …
21. In annex II of the [UN] Secretary-General’s report reference has been made to the Karuna faction, which is a breakaway group of the LTTE and its refusal to release children. However, subsequent to TMVP entering the political process in the East, 11 children were released (out of an original number of 40 who have expressed a desire for release) to the Rehabilitation Centre in Ambepussa. The Government is confident that the TMVP will eventually release all children who are with them. There are current negotiations with the TMVP to get all the children released.
24. In April 2007, the Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment established a Task Force in relation to children affected by the armed conflict. It focused on issues raised in United Nations Security Council resolution 1612 and the Security Council Committee set up under it. Subject areas of focus in the Task Force include conformity of Sri Lankan legislation with the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] to provide protection for children affected by the armed conflict, [and the] protection and rehabilitation of child soldiers …
25. A Steering Committee on the release, providing protective care, rehabilitation and reintegration of children used by armed groups was set up under the Commissioner-General of Rehabilitation (CGR), and the Ministry of Justice. Key Government agencies involved include the MCDWE [Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment], NCPA [National Child Protection Authority], Ministries of Vocational Training and Education. Academics as well as UNICEF are members of this committee. A policy has been developed and approved. This includes guiding principles, vision, mission, goal and policy objectives, which are now being implemented. UNICEF has provided support and more resources are being sought for effective implementation of these policies.
49. The Government in 2003 decided to collaborate with UNICEF to draw up a plan to prevent child recruitment. Thus an Action Plan for Children Affected by War (the Action Plan) was signed between the Government, the LTTE and UNICEF in April 2003. The Action Plan focuses on child recruitment both in terms of preventative strategies as well as activities designed to promote demobilisation, immediate release, reintegration, rehabilitation and enable access to psychosocial therapy.
55. The Women and Children’s Division of the Department of Labour is the focal point for implementing ILO-IPEC [International Labour Organization-International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour] [a]ctivities in Sri Lanka. The IPEC activities are monitored by a Steering Committee of Stakeholders chaired by the Secretary to the Ministry of Labour Relations and Manpower.
56. Among other things, with regard to Children in armed conflict, the IPEC programme implements a number of activities in the districts of Amparai, Mullaitivu, Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mannar, Trincomalee, and Vavuniya which are in the North and the East of Sri Lanka. The specific IPEC responses are delivered within two inter-UN agency projects: The Action Plan for Children affected by War and the project on Repatriation, Reintegration, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (4Rs) in North East of Sri Lanka. The target group of beneficiaries are vulnerable children, including child soldiers from female-headed households and internally displaced families and adult family members. … The development objective of IPEC’s North-East programme is to contribute to the withdrawal of child labour, specifically child soldiers from the worst forms of child labour through reintegration … programmes …
58. The Government is … committed to the prevention of recruitment as well as the protection, care, rehabilitation and reintegration of all children under the age of eighteen years who have been recruited as combatants by the LTTE and its break-away Karuna faction. … However, in the context of the ongoing fight against LTTE, the Government seeks the support of relevant international organizations to strengthen the capacity of institutions such as the NCPA, the HRCSL and the Office of the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation to … provide protection, rehabilitate and re-integrate the children who had been used in armed conflict.
62. Sri Lanka … is committed to ensure not only the unconditional release of all children recruited but to protect, rehabilitate and to reintegrate such children into society.
80. A separate Ministry of Child Development and Women’s Empowerment was established in 2005 by the present Government. This Ministry supports and assists the Government in its efforts to prevent child abuse and in the protection, rehabilitation and reintegration of children who have been subjected to abuse … and recruitment.
91. Pursuant to a decision taken by the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Human Rights (IMCHR) in November 2007, the Minister of Disaster Management and Human Rights established a multidisciplinary Committee to inquire into allegations of abduction and recruitment of children for use in armed conflict. The Committee is mandated to:
(c) Monitor and recommend steps to assure that released children have access to facilities and procedures aimed at their protection, rehabilitation and reintegration in accordance with Sri Lankan written law and, in doing so, pay special attention to the needs of female children.
93. The Committee decided that supervision and rehabilitation of children was a crucial issue, which would be undertaken by the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation (CGR) appointed by the Government in September 2006. Security forces, including the police, provide the necessary support. Relevant line Ministries and agencies such as the NCPA, UNICEF and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have also been requested to provide support. The Committee agreed to request the IGP [Inspector General of Police] to assign special police officers to investigate children in “custody” who have been recruited or abducted for use in armed conflict.
94. A sub-committee with a multi-disciplinary membership has been established under the supervision of the Chairman/NCPA to assess former child combatants in depth, and also to provide psychosocial support. This sub-committee is coordinating with UNICEF in the establishment of a “child friendly” support system.
95. It is proposed to set up Village-level Committees for the purpose of surveillance and prevention of recruitment of children for armed conflict, which would also support family reintegration of former child combatants.
96. Guidelines on Protective care, Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Child Combatants have been developed in collaboration with the office of the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation.
97. The Guidelines include the following:
(d) To establish an interim protective care centre/s of a multi-sectoral nature which provides opportunities for child combatants who “surrender” or who are “demobilized” which will enable them to be re-united with their families, facilitate reintegration with their families and communities, provide access to health and nutrition and any other services relevant to their special needs including any war injuries and disabilities they may have suffered;
(e) Creating a balanced and unified “release” mechanism which incorporates both an interim centre based protective care system as well as an effective process and mechanism for family reunification and community integration;
(g) To respond effectively to the psychosocial needs of the children. These can commence with the introduction of diverse activities and interventions such as health and nutrition, … [and] family reunification. Such interventions have [the] potential to mitigate psychosocial needs and problems particularly if it is possible to build interventions as components connected with the emotions and feelings of children which they are generally expected to endure. However, in-depth training for caregivers working at the care centre is essential as they have to play an important role;
(h) Preventing reinforcement of negative identities and developing new ones to prevent stigmatization and the creation of resentment during the provision of interim protective care;
(i) Plan and develop community based interventions which take into account family realities of such children such as poverty, health and nutrition needs, … skill development, protection, and security concerns;
(j) To improve financing and resource allocation.
98. As part of the Action Plan for Children Affected by War, formulated in 2003, UNICEF collaborated with the Government in planning a mass media awareness campaign on child rights … The mass media awareness campaign … included messages and commitments to ensure the care and reintegration of returning underage recruits, promote child rights in the context of peace and reconciliation.
99. According to reports by UNICEF, the mass media campaign was indefinitely postponed to January 2004 as the LTTE did not approve of the key messages. It was subsequently never implemented.
106. Due to the total lack of commitment showed by LTTE as stated above, the Government established the Office of the Commissioner-General of Rehabilitation in September 2006, which was designated to handle all aspects of rehabilitation including children. A special gazette pertaining to “child friendly procedures” is being finalised at present.
107. All children in war affected areas[,] including those who have managed to escape from the LTTE as well as those vulnerable to recruitment[,] are provided [with] free preventive and curative health care by the Government. This has continued during the entire period of the conflict without discrimination, even in uncleared areas. …
108. Children vulnerable to recruitment and those who have escaped have access to a wide network of Government primary health care services and free curative health care services. This includes an emphasis on maternal and child care services. This has continued throughout the conflict from 1983 and is sustained by the Government. The package of services for children in the North-East is the same as those provided in the rest of the country.
Protective accommodation and rehabilitation centres
114. In its effort towards the realization of the objective mentioned above, the President, by regulation dated 12th September 2006, appointed the Commissioner-General of Rehabilitation (CGR) who is entrusted with specific responsibilities in relation to all “surrendees” of the conflict, including children. A new regulation incorporating child friendly procedures for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of child surrendees has been drafted.
115. The current procedure which applies to “surrendees” is as follows:
(a) When a person (including a child) surrenders, the authorized officer or person to whom he surrenders is required to hand over such surrendee to the CGR within ten days of the surrender. A surrendee is required to give a written statement to the authorized officer to the effect that he is surrendering voluntarily;
(b) In terms of this regulation the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence is authorized to approve centres called “Protective Accommodation and Rehabilitation Centres” for the purpose of receiving and keeping surrendees;
(c) The CGR is entrusted with the task of assigning a surrendee to a centre … The CGR is authorized to keep a surrendee for twelve months in the first instance at such centre and has to forward a report to the Secretary, Ministry of Defence within two months indicating the nature of the rehabilitation being carried out in respect of the surrendee. Surrendees are entitled to meet their parents, relations or guardians once in every two weeks;
(d) The CGR is required to forward, before the expiration of the period of twelve months, a report stating whether in his opinion, it is appropriate to release the surrendee or extend the period of rehabilitation of such surrendee. The Secretary to the Ministry of Defence may after perusing the report, either order the release of such surrendee or extend the period of rehabilitation for periods of three months at a time … however … the aggregate period of such extensions shall not exceed a further twelve months. Each such extension has to be made on the recommendation of the CGR and of an Advisory Committee appointed by the President;
(e) The “surrendee” may be investigated after three months of his being assigned to a centre, with the prior written approval of the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence for his involvement in the commission of an offence set out in paragraph 2 of the Regulation and where necessary, tried for such offence. Where a surrendee is found guilty of such offence the court may take into consideration the fact of his surrender in determining the sentence to be imposed on him. The court may[,] where appropriate, order that such surrendee be subject to a further period of rehabilitation at a centre;
(f) Where a surrendee who is over sixteen years of age and is so subjected to a further period of rehabilitation acts in a manner detrimental to the rehabilitation programme the court may after summary inquiry sentence him to imprisonment in lieu of rehabilitation. However action is being taken to finalise a separate Gazette notification where Children are concerned. This will incorporate the objectives of the policy on Child Rehabilitation.
116. The Government has completed construction work in the centre at Ambepussa, which is scheduled to be opened soon. Resources are required to develop the Ambepussa centre as well as the Office of the CGR.
117. As a temporary measure child surrendees are presently housed at Pallekelle in Kandy, until the permanent centre at Ambepussa is opened. Already the officers manning the centre have rendered assistance to children who did not have a passport or identity card. They also assisted such children to contact their parents. Those who wished to return to their homes were assisted to do so and 10 children were reintegrated. There are 11 at present, many of whom also want to return to their families. A community based system to protect such children from re-recruitment is being put in to place.
118. Once the surrendees are accommodated at the permanent [rehabilitation] centre at Ambepussa, … the Government has developed a programme which includes skills development, … training in aesthetics, … and sports. Psychosocial support will also be provided. All surrendees will be provided with such services as are necessary for their physical and mental wellbeing. The determination of which services children will have access to will be done with the guidance and consent of the parents and the children concerned. The overall objective is to equip children to be reintegrated with their parents and the community to which they belong. This interim protective care will include health services, nutrition, … psychosocial support, … and rehabilitation support. The NCPA will collaborate with the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation on many of these aspects including the Ministries of Vocational Training, Child Development and Women’s Empowerment as well as UNICEF.
119. The assessment of health and nutrition status will be prioritized and will include a response to the psychological and emotional needs of the surrendee. The special needs of girls will be taken into account of and appropriate measures will be developed to provide psychosocial counselling and care based on individual need.
120. Details of surrendees will be treated with confidence in order to ensure their protection. The aim will be to equip these children to earn a livelihood on their own while re-integrating with society and thus avoiding the risk of re-recruitment.
121. A balanced and unified system of release which incorporates both interim care centers and services of a multi[-]sectoral nature which provide a protective mechanism for immediate family re-unification and community re-integration is aimed at.
122. An interim care protective environment will be established and created for those children who need to remain. … During the period of protective interim care, care will be taken to prevent re-enforcement of negative identities. The establishment and operation of interim care centres (Protective Accommodation and Rehabilitation Centers) will be undertaken on a basis of transparency and accountability.
123. These interim care centres will provide opportunities for child combatants who surrender or who are demobilized to be reunited with their families, facilitate reintegration with their families and communities, provide access to health, nutrition and medical care and other services based on the particular needs of the children including any war injuries and disabilities which they may have suffered. This will be undertaken through centre and community based interventions and programmes based on the individual needs of the children.
124. The Government considers it important that an effective follow-up at community level once the child leaves the centre is provided. A home visiting system through trained care givers will be provided. The support of local organizations will be mobilized in the reintegration process. Community based interventions would be planned and developed. A district referral system will be formulated on existing reintegration services, which will strengthen psycho-social counselling and support from Government and non-governmental organizations and will be used to address community based integration …
125. Since Sri Lankan children living in the North and East have been recruited as child combatants since 1983, a comprehensive plan to undertake wide scale rehabilitation and family reunification … which will cover all those affected is essential.
126. The NCPA is committed to prevent children being used as combatants. This involves advocacy against recruitment as well as the promotion of viable options for rehabilitation.
128. The Government has now taken over the task of providing rehabilitation and protective care for child combatants under the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation. A policy has been developed and the first permanent centre is being set up in Ambepussa.
Rehabilitation and psychosocial support
129. The UNICEF-supported transit centre established in Kilinochchi in 2003 only functioned for a short period and the release programme was not effective. … Thus more community based options for rehabilitation will need to be determined.
130. … The Government in collaboration with organizations such as UNICEF and German Economic Cooperation (GTZ) has … provided support for psychosocial counselling in communities and schools. There are also programmes conducted by the Ministry of Health staff through the Baticaloa General Hospital as well as Vavuniya and Jaffna. The impact of such programmes needs to be determined. Since the conflict is ongoing, the numbers affected are high and difficult to reach in a comprehensive manner.
133. The Ministry of Health under its programme on mental health has appointed mental health officers island-wide including the North and East. Such officers provide clinic services related to psychosocial therapy[,] provide outreach care and conduct education programmes. Efforts to involve them more effectively, for the benefit of former child combatants[,] are important.
Financial assistance
137. The Government seeks financial support to implement its programme on the rehabilitation of child combatants. There is also need for … the reintegration of combatants who return to their families. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 10, 19, 21, 24–25, 49, 55–56, 58, 62, 80, 91(c), 93–96, 97(d)–(e) and (g)–(j), 98–99, 106–108, 114–126, 128–130, 133 and 137.
[footnote in original omitted]
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka stated:
336. The Action Plan for Children Affected by War was a multi-sectoral programme drawn up in 2003 during the period following the Ceasefire Agreement. It involved the participation of the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam], with the … focus being … rehabilitating former child combatants. The Action Plan included provision for psychosocial care, … health and nutrition, [and] income generation. …
341. … The limitations and negative experiences with past rehabilitation measures led the present Government to take a fresh look at the need for a new approach to the rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers. …
342. … In September 2006, a Commissioner General of Rehabilitation (CGR) was appointed under the Office of the President. The CGR now takes the lead in the rehabilitation of “child surrendees”, who give themselves up in to government authorities.
343. The Government has established a dedicated centre for “child surrendees”, the Ambepussa Rehabilitation Centre. Around 90 children have been through the centre, with 25 currently in residence. The CGR has developed a policy framework for the rehabilitation of “child surrendees” in collaboration with the NCPA [National Child Protection Authority]. Accordingly they are provided with … language and literacy skills in addition to protection. They are provided with psycho social support including regular access to their parents. Some child surrendees in the east decided to be reintegrated with their parents in their own communities.
344. Local NGOs and designated government authorities are involved in monitoring such children. Efforts are being made to involve the Probation and Child care staff in such monitoring including the NCPA coordinators. Action is also being taken to identify transit homes in each district for such children to get protection in case this is preferred to being at the main centre.
345. The Government is finalizing an amendment to Emergency Regulations to deal with the situation of child surrendees – Emergency (Miscellaneous Provisions and Powers) Regulation No. 1 of 2005. The amendment will provide for the establishment of Protective Child Accommodation Centres and Protective Child Rehabilitation Centres, the latter to extend psychosocial support, … and other services which would facilitate the successful reintegration of a child surrendee[] into his or her family, community and eventually society. The regulation will contain the procedure to be followed when a person under “18 surrenders” such as informing the child’s parents of guardian, Probation Officer and the NCPA area coordinator; investigation regarding the child’s circumstances; appearance before a Magistrate; preparation of reports; and accommodation.
348. As a follow up to Security-Council resolution 1612 and the United Nations Secretary-General’s report on children affected by the conflict, a task force meets regularly under the Secretary [of the] Ministry of Child [D]evelopment to discuss and follow up outstanding issues, particularly in relation to action needed. These include issues such as child recruitment and rehabilitation.
349. Psychosocial support and assistance for children affected by the armed conflict have been given attention by both government and NGOs at community level. Such programmes cover child combatants released to homes as well as other children affected by the conflict living in communities. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 20 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 24 October 2008, §§ 336, 341–345 and 348–349.
Sri Lanka
In 2009, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, Sri Lanka stated:
Child soldiers
62. … [T]he Government of Sri Lanka has undertaken … and continues to undertake, progressive action towards … facilitating rehabilitation of former child combatants. …
64. Recently, Sri Lanka introduced new regulations under the Public Security Ordinance, which specifies procedures for the rehabilitation of children leaving armed groups. …
65. Sri Lanka respects its obligations in the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child, the [2000] Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and Sri Lanka’s commitments to the international community.
67. The end of the conflict in Sri Lanka in May 2009, and the end of the terrorist activities of the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam], marks a significant starting point for the Government and for the children affected by the armed conflict. Today, with the end of [LTTE] terrorism, most child combatants have been identified.
69. The Government is now tasked with ensuring the protection and promotion of the rights of former “child soldiers” and their successful reintegration into society. …
End of war and rehabilitation of former child soldiers
70. His Excellency the President, by Regulation dated 12 September 2006, appointed a Commissioner General of Rehabilitation (CGR) who is entrusted with specific responsibilities in relation to all “surrendees” of the ongoing conflict which include … children. The CGR now takes the lead in the rehabilitation of “Child Surrendees” and functions under the President’s Office.
71. In terms of this Regulation, the CGR in consultation with the district secretary, Provincial Commissioner of Probation and Child Care and Services and the NCPA [National Child Protection Authority] will identify protective accommodation and rehabilitation centres for the purpose of receiving Child surrendees. Policies on protective care, rehabilitation and reintegration of child combatants have been developed by a multisectoral committee headed by the NCPA.
72. The CGR is entrusted with the task of providing surrendees with [inter alia] protective care, [and] psychosocial support. There are at present three such centres. The centre in Ambepussa, is for children … Facilities at the centres include the provision of food, clothing and basic necessaries. An immediate step at the centre is to reunite such surrendees particularly the children with their parents.
73. The centre at Ambepussa receives surrendees under the age of eighteen years and women. This Centre has been set up by the Government exclusively to care for and reintegrate children leaving armed groups. This rehabilitation process involves psychosocial counseling, spiritual guidance and social rehabilitation. … In addition 239 child soldiers verified by UNICEF and currently in the IDP camps are due to be admitted to a new rehabilitation centre … [for] former child soldiers being opened in Vavuniya in 2 weeks where they could be close to their families. UNICEF is working closely with the Gov[ernment] to support this new Centre as well.
74. The centres at Welikanda and Jaffna, accommodate surrendees over eighteen years. Arrangements have already been made to impart training in plumbing, tailoring and bread making. The officers manning the centres assist surrendees to obtain necessary documentation including passports, birth certificates and identity cards, if they do not possess such.
75. … Plans are also … to open a [g]ym for their leisure. Religious and cultural activities in keeping with their own socio[-]ethnic background take place and surrendees are allowed access to their families regularly during their period of stay at the centres.
76. Accordingly, “Child Surrendees” are provided with psychosocial support, including regular access to their parents, local NGO’s and designated government authorities who are involved in monitoring such children. Efforts are being made to involve the staff of the Department of Probation and Child Care, as well as the NCPA coordinators in such monitoring. Action is also being taken to identify transit homes in each district, for such children to get protection, in case this is preferred over the main centre.
77. There are two other centres at Welikanda and Jaffna, to which former combatants (adults) are admitted. The Commissioner for Rehabilitation is engaged in an ongoing programme of providing training to such ex-combatants in partnership with the Ministries of Vocational Training, Education and also the Cadet Core. The Government plans to open another Centre at Vavuniya. Plans are also underway to set up transit centres in the Eastern Province. Depending on the need, the Government plans to open more centres.
Legal and institutional initiatives undertaken to facilitate rehabilitation and reintegration of former child soldiers
78. New regulations have been framed under section 5 of the Public Security Ordinance by the President in order to introduce “Child Friendly” procedures and processes related to the surrender and release of children recruited as combatants.
79. Under these regulations the Commissioner General of Rehabilitation in consultation with the District Secretary of any district, the relevant Provincial Commissioner of Probation of Child Care Services and the Chairman, National Child Protection Authority identifies suitable locations for the establishment of the following:
(a) Protective Child Accommodation Centres for the purpose of providing accommodation and support for person under 18 years of age who surrender or who are arrested in terms of the provisions of these regulations; and
(b) Protective Child Rehabilitation Centres for the purpose of providing care, [and] psychosocial support for the facilitation of the process of reintegration of such child into his family, community and into society.
80. It is to be noted that the centres are not only for children who surrender but also for those who are arrested. The person to whom the child surrenders or by whom the child is arrested shall produce a child within 24 hours of such surrender or arrest at the nearest police station. He has to record the statement of such child and the circumstances in which such child surrendered or was arrested and ensure the custody of such child in a place which is apart from adult surrendee or detainees if any.
82. The officer in charge of the police station has to forthwith take all measures to inform the parents or guardians of such child the Probation Officer and the Co-ordinator of the National Child Protection Authority of such area and produce a child within 24 hours before the Magistrate.
83. Such Magistrate interviews the child in camera assisted by the Probation Officer, the police, the Child Rights Promotion Officer or the co-ordinator of the National Child Protection Authority and where possible the parents of the child surrendee. The Magistrate has to take all necessary measures to ensure that the mother tongue of the child is used for such interview and where that is not possible that an instantaneous translation of such interview is provided.
84. The Magistrate also orders a medical examination of such child and orders a social inquiry report wherein the immediate and long term needs of the child are clearly set out and either returns such child to his parent or guardian or makes order that such child be placed in a Protective Child Accommodation centre for a period of one month supported and monitored by the provincial commissioner of probation and child care services.
85. At the end of the period of one month the Magistrate having regard to the results of the medical examination and interview and social inquiry report, with the assistance of the police determines:
(a) Whether … [a surrendered or arrested] child [soldier] should be returned to the charge, care and custody of his parents or guardian;
(b) Whether such child should be accommodated for a period not exceeding one year in a protective child accommodation centre under the care and supervision of the Provincial Commissioner of Probation and Child Care Services; or
(c) Whether such child should be placed in a protective child rehabilitation centre for a period not exceeding one year.
86. In arriving at his determination the Magistrate has to have regard to:
(a) The necessity to ensure the protection and best interest of such child;
(b) The need to effect family reunification or placement within the extended family taking into consideration the necessity to ensure at all times the safety of such child and his family.
87. At all stages of the process, child friendly procedures have to be adopted and the child would be treated with courtesy, consideration and kindness.
88. The officer in charge of a Protective Child [soldier] Accommodation Centre or protective child [soldier] rehabilitation centre in which … [a surrendered or arrested] child [soldier] is placed shall:
(a) Cause such child to be examined by a medical Officer and give him the necessary health care;
(b) Provide him with psychosocial counselling;
(c) Facilitate and encourage visits by and contact with his family at least once a month;
(d) Provide the necessary sustenance and physical care for the child;
(e) Assist the child to obtain the necessary identification and other documents which he is lawfully entitled to obtain. …
89. The Magistrate receives reports on the progress of such child and shall review his decision to place such child at a Protective Child Accommodation Centre once a month and at a Protective Child Rehabilitation Centre once in three months.
90. The Regulation enables children to be reunited with their families, facilitates family reintegration and provides access to … health care and efforts are ongoing to respond to their psychosocial needs.
92. Subsequently His Excellency the President by regulation dated 2008 has established procedures in relation to child [soldier] surrendees which take into account the special vulnerability of children identified as all those under the age of 18 years.
Other steps taken to rehabilitate and reintegrate former child soldiers
94. Several other measures [were] taken by the Government … concerning inter alia, psychosocial support and assistance for children affected by armed conflict …
95. Attention was given to psychosocial support and assistance for children affected by the armed conflict by … the Government … at community level. Such programmes cover child combatants released to homes as well as other children affected by the conflict living in communities.
97. The Psychosocial Coordination Forum operating at district level in the conflict-affected areas is one mechanism to cater to the psychological needs of all children. This mechanism evolved over 2003–2004 but became functional from 2005 with the input of new funds from tsunami aid. The Psychosocial Forum is linked to the mental health units of government hospitals in the relevant areas. The NCPA has appointed Psychosocial Coordinators who act as focal points within DCDCs [District Child Development Committees], thereby allowing for coordination and linkages among government, NGOs and the community in providing psychosocial assistance and support to children. …
98. As a reflection of the government’s commitment at the highest executive level to combat child recruitment, His Excellency President Mahinda Rajapaksa launched on 26th February 2009 the joint Government of Sri Lanka and UNICEF Public Awareness Campaign on Child Recruitment … [The] campaign targets armed groups, vulnerable communities and children affected by the armed conflict; and communicates the government’s commitment to responding to child recruitment. The message of the campaign is three fold:
(c) Children leaving armed groups will receive rehabilitation and reintegration support from the Government.
99. “Bring back the Child” is a multimedia campaign that calls … for those children currently … [associated with the LTTE] to be released, so that they can return to their families and have access to services, including healthcare, [and] psychosocial support. 
Sri Lanka, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee against Torture, 23 September 2010, UN Doc. CAT/C/LKA/3-4, submitted 17 August 2009, §§ 62, 64–65, 67, 69–80, 82–90, 92, 94–95, 97, 98(c) and 99.
Switzerland
Switzerland’s ABC of International Humanitarian Law (2009) states:
Child soldiers
The Optional Protocol of 2000 to the [1989] UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for measures to ensure the reintegration in society of children who have served as combatants. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, ABC of International Humanitarian Law, 2009, p. 10.
Switzerland
In 2011, in a statement during an interactive dialogue with the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict at the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly, the permanent representative of Switzerland stated: “It is necessary to further examine the question of cross-border cooperation in order to improve the coordination and implementation of the monitoring and reporting mechanisms to reintegrate former child soldiers in the society in their country of origin.” 
Switzerland, Statement by the permanent representative of Switzerland during an interactive dialogue with the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict at the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly, 12 October 2011.
Switzerland
In 2012, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Switzerland stated: “Switzerland attaches particular importance to … demobilizing and reintegrating child soldiers.” 
Switzerland, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 30 October 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/CHE/2-4, submitted 19 July 2012, p. 117.
Switzerland
In 2013, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued the “Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts”, which states that Switzerland “supports projects pertaining to prevention of recruitment of children by parties to a conflict and reintegration of those who have been demobilized”. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Strategy on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, 2013, p. 17.
Uganda
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uganda stated:
58. … [C]hildren rescued from the LRA [Lord’s Resistance Army] have been handled by a specialized unit within the national armed forces the UPDF [Uganda People’s Defence Forces], called the Child Protection Unit (CPU), before being handed over to the rehabilitation centers run by civil society organizations …
74. … The UPDF and Save the Children has been working together in ensuring that children rescued from the LRA were taken to reception centers, counseled and reintegrated into the community instead of recruitment into the armed forces. …
115. Over the last 18 years the LRA has abducted over 30,000 children. Of this [number], about 25,000 have returned and over 8,000 remain unaccounted for. Those children who returned have become known as formerly abducted children (FAC). In response to their needs for psychosocial rehabilitation and reintegration, many [civil-society] organizations … have provided psychosocial rehabilitation, vocational training and reintegration services to formerly abducted children.
119. The government of Uganda together with the support of the World Bank’s Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programme is supporting the Amnesty Commission to resettle formerly abducted children.
120. … The Amnesty Commission also screens children who have suffered violence as a result of armed conflict and refers them to trauma counseling centers where they undergo rehabilitation before they are reintegrated into their communities.
121. The government has provided an enabling environment that has allowed NGOs to operate freely. Many of the rehabilitation centers for children involved in armed conflict are run by NGOs, with the support of the District Probation and Social Welfare Officers (DPSWOs). Those children who are rescued from the battle front are kept under the care of the child protection unit in the army until they are handed over to the rehabilitation centers. On arrival to the centers, formerly abducted children are offered food, medical care and resettlement kits, consisting of clothes, bedding and washing items. In some cases, during the welcome ceremony for the children all the old clothes and military attires are burned symbolically to mark the end of bush life and the start of a new life in freedom from terror.
122. To encourage quick recovery, children are encouraged to talk about their experiences in captivity and express their feelings through drawings, drama and music. Their psychological process works on their mind sets to make them realize that they are still children and they can still reclaim their childhood and lives of dignity. They are taught all over again to play, dance and have a good time like other children.
123. Catch-up classes are conducted to prepare children for going home. They are taught to read, write, and given lessons in mathematics, health education, debates and news analysis as well as vocational skills.
125. The Child Protection Unit (CPU) in the UPDF is responsible for receiving children rescued from LRA and other forces. It is also charged with the responsibility of ensuring that these children are not abused or further traumatized by irresponsible journalism. Where it is necessary that their photos appear in the press for the sake of evidence, children’[s] faces are blurred to prevent identification. 
Uganda, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UGA/1, submitted 16 August 2007, §§ 58, 74, 115, 119–123 and 125.
Uganda
In 2008, in its written reply to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning Uganda’s initial report under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Uganda stated:
24. The process of disarmament, demobilization and re-integration is done by the Amnesty Commission. However, the majority of children leaving the LRA [Lord’s Resistance Army] do so either by escaping or by being captured [by] government forces. Under the military procedures … [of] the UPDF [Uganda People’s Defence Force] child protection units … [they are] released into the custody of civilian organization[s] within 48 hours. …
25. While in the custody of civilian organizations, children receive the following services:
- Medical assistance
- Family tracing and resettlement
- Recreational activities
- Counseling and psychosocial support
- Educational programmes: these include life skill[s] as well as basic training skills to resettle children back into normal life.
At the Centers, social workers hold counseling sessions with the children to help them heal the traumas experienced during captivity. They also carry out home visits to areas where children came from to prepare the homes and the communities for the resettlement of their children.
28. Through the government programme of Peace Recovery and Development Program (PRDP), the strategy for demobilization and reintegration focuses on provision of resettlement packages to all ex-combatants, facilitating reunion with their families and providing opportunities to access existing service providers. LRA have fair access to this program, however, there being no cases of demobilized children from LDU [paramilitary local defence units], none has had access.
31. Under the African Union Commission Project, about 400 LRA ex-child soldiers have been provided with skills training in tailoring, bicycle repair, brick laying and concrete practice, carpentry and joinery. Provision of sanitary materials, maternity kits, supplementary foods for children have also been provided to child mothers in the war affected areas in Kitgum District. 
Uganda, Written replies of the Government of Uganda to the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the initial report of Uganda under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 8 September 2008, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/UGA/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 5 September 2008, §§ 24–25, 28 and 31.
Ukraine
In 2008, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Ukraine stated:
Protection of children in armed conflict (article 38 [of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child]), including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration (article 39)
140. There are no armed conflicts in the territory of Ukraine. Accordingly, issues related to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of children in armed conflict areas are not relevant to the country. I[n] the event that refugee children in Ukraine have participated in armed conflicts in the territory of their country of permanent residence, such children, if necessary, are provided with appropriate psychological and social assistance in family support centres or centres for social and psychological rehabilitation. 
Ukraine, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 3 March 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/UKR/3-4, submitted 26 September 2008, § 140.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a written reply to a question in the House of Commons, the UK Secretary of State for International Development stated:
The most effective way of tackling the use of child soldiers is to prevent, reduce and resolve armed conflicts. This is part of the wider issue of the impact of armed conflict on children generally, their families and communities. In addressing this, my Department is working with other UK Government Departments and other governments through appropriate regional mechanisms, the non-governmental community and the multilateral system to this end. UNICEF, with the support of my Department and other governments, works to effect the disarmament, demobilisation and rehabilitation of child soldiers, particularly back into the community and prevent their re-recruitment. Through a multi-year capacity building programme supported by my Department, UNICEF are collecting data on the situation of children affected by armed conflict globally, to better inform policy, guidance and programming on the wide range of issues involved. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Secretary of State for International Development, Hansard, 30 January 2003, Vol. 398, Written Answers, col. 966W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the United Kingdom stated:
Article 7
Prevention, rehabilitation and social integration
62. The United Kingdom supports humanitarian programmes and projects run by UNICEF, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and NGOs that include providing support to child soldiers. For example, we support UNHCR to work with and provide protection and humanitarian assistance to displaced children. The United Kingdom’s new institutional strategy (IS) with UNHCR for the years 2007–09 includes priority objectives about age, gender and diversity mainstreaming throughout UNHCR’s programmes. We expect this to improve efforts to address the needs of the most vulnerable, including displaced children. In 2005, the United Kingdom provided £30 million to UNHCR, of which £20 million was core IS funding. In 2006, in addition to our contributions to UNHCR through country-based offices, we also provided £20 million core IS funding. United Kingdom funding for UNICEF has also included a focus on children affected by armed conflict. Our current support for UNICEF aims to improve the capacity of the organization for evidence-based advocacy in relation to violations against children. In relation to the NGO sector, the United Kingdom has funded Save the Children to train a number of child protection officers over a period of five years with the intention of addressing the issue of insufficient capacity in the protection sector of the humanitarian system. We also provide support for the Women’s Commission for refugee women and children and we help to fund the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict to raise international awareness about these issues. 
United Kingdom, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OPAC/GBR/1, 3 September 2007, submitted 16 July 2007, § 62.
United States of America
In 2007, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, the United States stated:
The United States has contributed substantial resources to international programs aimed at preventing the recruitment of children and reintegrating child ex-combatants into society and is committed to continue to develop rehabilitation approaches that are effective in addressing this serious and difficult problem. The United States applies a definition of child ex-combatants in keeping with the Cape Town Principles of 1997, which cover any child associated with fighting forces in any capacity, whether or not he or she ever bore arms. In this regard, United States programming adopts a broad approach by seeking to include all children affected by armed conflict rather than singling out for separate services former child combatants. It also espouses the principle that family reunification and community reintegration are both goals and processes of recovery for former child combatants. United States programming aimed at assisting children affected by war addresses the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and integration into civilian society of former child combatants; the prevention of recruitment of children; and the recovery and rehabilitation of children affected by armed conflict, including activities to identify separated children, protect them from harm, provide appropriate interim care, carry out tracing for family reunification, arrange alternate care for children who cannot be reunited, reform their legal protections and facilitate community reintegration. The Protocol serves as a means for encouraging such programs and constitutes an important tool for increasing assistance to children who are affected by armed conflict. 
United States, Initial Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/USA/1 (2007), 22 June 2007, submitted on 8 May 2007, § 34.
Venezuela
In 2011, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Venezuela stated:
Implementation of the [2000] Optional Protocol [on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict]. Case of the Hacienda Daktary paramilitary forces
110. Article 6, paragraph 3 of the Optional Protocol provides that “States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons within their jurisdiction recruited or used in hostilities contrary to this Protocol are demobilized or otherwise released from service. States Parties shall, when necessary, accord to these persons all appropriate assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and their social reintegration.”
111. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela was the first State party to implement the Optional Protocol, thus fulfilling its obligation to comply with international human rights instruments. It has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for its efforts to protect children and adolescents. It has implemented its comprehensive protection systems to safeguard the human rights of children and adolescents, providing them appropriate treatment as victims at all times. This was the case in 2004, when paramilitary forces that included adolescents were discovered at a property near Caracas.
112. On 9 May 2004, Colombian paramilitary forces were found between the municipalities of El Hatillo and Baruta, in the Bolivarian state of Miranda, near Caracas, on an estate known as Daktary. The incident triggered the intervention of the authorities concerned.
113. The Directorate-General for Human Rights of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Justice, the Ombudsman’s Office and the Autonomous Institute and National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents (formerly the National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents), among others, intervened to protect the rights of the adolescents who were detained in the municipality of El Hatillo due to their participation in the armed group.
114. In May 2004, representatives of the Directorate-General for Human Rights asked the Directorate-General for Intelligence and Prevention to assess the situation of the adolescents who had been detained. Medical examinations were conducted to evaluate their health at the time of their detention and rule out possible injuries or trauma. The results were satisfactory.
115. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela contacted the appropriate parties in order to inform UNICEF of the purpose of its actions, which was to protect the rights of all children and adolescents on Venezuelan soil and comply with international conventions on the matter.
116. On 24 May 2004, the Child and Adolescent Protection Board of the Libertador municipal government decided, in Resolution No. 0905-2004:
117. That the adolescents should be repatriated, and the protective order for institutional custody should be revoked.
118. The Military Attorney General, Colonel Eladio Ramón Aponte, was instructed to formally hand the adolescents over to their country of origin, in the presence of national and international organizations such as UNICEF, the Family Welfare Institute of Colombia, the National Council on the Rights of Children and Adolescents, the Public Prosecution Service, the Executive Branch and the Child and Adolescent Protection Board of the Libertador municipal government.
119. The assistance of UNICEF was requested, to help the Government of Colombia enrol the adolescents and their families in rehabilitation and social reintegration programmes.
120. The adolescents were granted permission to travel to Bogotá, Colombia, in the company of an appointed delegation, as well as of the Military Attorney General, who served as their guardian.
121. On 27 May 2004, the adolescents were formally handed over to the Colombian authorities. Throughout the process, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela displayed the utmost respect for their human rights. The handover was witnessed by representatives of the Ombudsman’s Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Embassy of Colombia and the adolescents’ families. All of these actions were carried out in observance of both the Optional Protocol — specifically, articles 6 and 7 — and the [1989] Convention on the Rights of the Child. 
Venezuela, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 12 September 2013, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/VEN/1, submitted 5 July 2011, §§ 110–121.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the protection of children in armed conflicts, the UN Security Council:
Requests parties to armed conflict to include, where appropriate, provisions for the protection of children, including the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of child combatants, in peace negotiations and in peace agreements and the involvement of children, where possible, in these processes. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1314, 11 August 2000, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
2. Decides that MONUC will have the mandate, within the limits of its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, to assist the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in establishing a stable security environment in the country, and, to that end, to:
(l) Support operations led by the FARDC integrated brigades deployed in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo … in accordance with internationally recognized standards and norms on human rights and international humanitarian law, with a view to:
– Disarming the recalcitrant local armed groups in order to ensure their participation in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process and the release of children associated with those armed groups;
– Disarming the foreign armed groups in order to ensure their participation in the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, resettlement and reintegration process and the release of children associated with those armed groups;
(n) Contribute to the implementation of the national programme of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of Congolese combatants and their dependants, with particular attention to children, by monitoring the disarmament process and providing as appropriate security in some sensitive locations, as well as supporting reintegration efforts pursued by the Congolese authorities in cooperation with the United Nations Country Team and bilateral and multilateral partners. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1756, 15 May 2007, § 2(l) and (n), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President regarding cross-border issues in West Africa, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council stresses the importance of a regional approach in the preparation and implementation of demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) programmes. To this end it invites the United Nations missions in West Africa, the Governments concerned, the appropriate financial institutions, international development agencies and donor countries to work together to harmonize individual country DDR programmes within an overarching regional strategy to design community development programmes to be implemented alongside DDR programmes, and to pay special attention to the specific needs of children in armed conflict. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/7, 25 March 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2005, in a statement by its President regarding children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council noted:
… [The Security Council] has started work on a new resolution with the aim of its early adoption and with due consideration of views expressed by the United Nations Member States during the open debate held on 23 February 2005, in order to take forward the implementation of its previous resolutions with a view to ending the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and other violations and abuses committed against children affected by armed conflict situations, and promoting their reintegration and rehabilitation. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/8, 23 February 2005, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
… The Security Council urges parties to armed conflict to cooperate with the SRSG [Special Representative of the Secretary-General], as well as with UNICEF and other relevant United Nations entities, with a view to ending recruitment and use of child soldiers in violation of applicable international law and all other violations and abuses committed against children by parties to armed conflict.
The Security Council underlines the importance of a sustained investment in development, especially in health, education and skills training, to secure the successful reintegration of children in their communities and prevent re-recruitment. The specific situation of girls exploited by armed forces and groups must be recognised and adequately addressed. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/33, 24 July 2006, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President regarding peace consolidation in West Africa, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council underlines the crucial importance of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants, taking into account the special needs of child soldiers and women, and encourages the international community to work in close partnership with the countries concerned. It further affirms the need to find lasting solutions to the problem of youth unemployment in order to prevent the recruitment of such youth by illegal armed groups. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/38, 9 August 2006, p. 2.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN General Assembly welcomed the commitments undertaken by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) “not to recruit into its armed forces children under the age of eighteen and to demobilize all child soldiers still remaining in the military and hand them over to the competent civil authorities for reintegration. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 55/116, 4 December 2000, § 1(m), voting record: 85-32-49-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
welcomes … the accession of the Transitional Administration on 24 September 2003 to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and urges Afghan groups to refrain from the recruitment or use of children contrary to international standards, while stressing the importance of demobilizing and reintegrating child soldiers and other war-affected children. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, § 14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on special assistance for the economic recovery and reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all parties concerned in the region to cease any recruitment, training and use of child soldiers, which are contrary to international law, welcomes the initial steps taken by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers, in particular through education, and urges the Government and all parties to continue their efforts in this context, and to take into account the particular needs of girl ex-combatants. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/123, 17 December 2003, § 9, voting record: 169-1-0-21.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
45. Urges all States and all other parties to armed conflicts to end the recruitment and use of children in situations of armed conflict contrary to international law and to ensure their demobilization, effective disarmament and rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society;
46. Urges all States:
(b) To protect children affected by armed conflict, in particular to protect them from acts that constitute violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and to ensure that they receive timely, effective and unhindered humanitarian assistance as well as support for physical and psychological recovery. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/157, 22 December 2003, §§ 45 and 46(b), voting record: 179-1-0-11.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly:
6. Once again urges the Government of Myanmar, as stated in its resolution 57/231 and in Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/12:
(c) To put an immediate end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers, inter alia, by some armed ethnic groups, and ensure their disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/247, 23 December 2003, § 6(c), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the progress of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process for ex-combatants, including child soldiers, by the Government of Afghanistan and the efforts of the international community to assist in this process, and urges all Afghan parties to continue their efforts in this regard; recognizing the efforts of the Government of Afghanistan, reiterates the importance of ending the use of children contrary to international law, while welcoming the recent accession by Afghanistan to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocol thereto on the involvement of children in armed conflict; and stresses the importance of the demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers and care for other war-affected children, and notes in this regard the value of preparing an action plan to address this issue. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/112 B, 8 December 2004, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon States:
To take all feasible measures to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/261, 23 December 2004, § 48(b), voting record: 166-2-1-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly called upon the Government of Myanmar to end the “use of child soldiers and to extend full cooperation to relevant international organizations in order to ensure the demobilization of child soldiers, their return home and their rehabilitation”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/263, 23 December 2004, § 3(i), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the completion of the disarmament and demobilization of child soldiers in the Afghan Military Forces, stresses the importance of the reintegration of child soldiers and of care for other war-affected children, commends the Government of Afghanistan for its efforts in this regard, and encourages continued efforts in cooperation with the United Nations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/32 B, 30 November 2005, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly called upon States:
To take all feasible measures to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, in particular through educational measures, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/231, 23 December 2005, § 33(b), voting record: 130-1-0-60.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly strongly called upon the Government of Myanmar:
To put an immediate end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers and to extend full cooperation to relevant international organizations in order to ensure the demobilization of child soldiers, their return home and their rehabilitation in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) of 22 April 2004 and 1612 (2005). 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/233, 23 December 2005, § 3(e), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Also welcomes the completion of the disarmament and demobilization of child soldiers in the Afghan Military Forces, stresses the importance of the reintegration of child soldiers and of care for other children affected by war, commends the Government of Afghanistan for its efforts in this regard, and encourages it to continue efforts in cooperation with the United Nations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/18, 28 November 2006, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
condemns the abduction of children, in particular extortive abduction and abduction of children in situations of armed conflict, including for the recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts, and urges States to take all appropriate measures to secure their unconditional release, rehabilitation, reintegration and reunification with their families. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/146, 19 December 2006, § 16, voting record: 185-1-0-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the completion of the disarmament and demobilization of child soldiers in the Afghan Military Forces, stresses the importance of the reintegration of child soldiers and of care for other children affected by war, commends the Government of Afghanistan for its efforts in this regard, and encourages it to continue efforts in cooperation with the United Nations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 entitled “Policies and programmes involving youth: youth in the global economy – promoting youth participation in social and economic development”, the UN General Assembly adopted the “Supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, § 2, adopted without a vote.
According to the Supplement:
51. Governments should provide opportunities for all youth who have been engaged in active combat, whether voluntarily or by force, to demobilize and contribute to society’s development if they seek to do so. In this regard, Governments should establish programmes to provide opportunities for youth ex-combatants to retool and retrain so as to facilitate their employment in economic activity and their reintegration into society, including family reunification.
52. Governments should take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of children and young victims of armed conflicts, in particular by restoring access of those children and youth to health care and education, including through Education for All programmes, as well as to put in place effective youth employment strategies to help provide a decent living for young people and to facilitate their reintegration into society. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, annex: §§ 51–52, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
41. Calls upon States:
(b) To take all feasible measures to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, in particular through educational measures, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls;
53. Also condemns all kinds of abduction of children, in particular extortive abduction and abduction of children in situations of armed conflict, including for the recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts, and urges States to take all appropriate measures to secure their unconditional release, rehabilitation, reintegration and reunification with their families. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/141, 18 December 2007, §§ 41(b) and 53, voting record: 183-1-0-8.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of women and girls in Afghanistan, ECOSOC urged the Afghan Transitional Authority to:
Initiate rapid demobilization and disarmament, and facilitate the reintegration of those, in particular women and girls, who have participated in or have otherwise been affected by war into society and work. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2003/43, 22 July 2003, § 3(n), adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation of women and girls in Afghanistan, ECOSOC urged the Afghan Transitional Administration and future Government to “continue demobilization and disarmament and facilitate the reintegration into society and work of women and girls who have been affected by war”.  
ECOSOC, Res. 2004/10, 21 July 2004, § 3(o), adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 entitled “Supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond”, ECOSOC recommended to the UN General Assembly that it adopt a resolution stating:
Governments should provide opportunities for all youth who have been engaged in active combat, whether voluntarily or by force, to demobilize and contribute to society’s development if they seek to do so. In this regard, Governments should establish programmes to provide opportunities for youth ex-combatants to retool and retrain so as to facilitate their employment in economic activity and their reintegration into society, including family reunification. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2007/27, 27 July 2007, § 51, voting record: 49-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights strongly urged the Government of Myanmar:
To put an immediate end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers and to extend full cooperation to relevant international organizations in order to ensure the demobilization of child soldiers, their return home and their rehabilitation in accordance with Security Council resolution 1460 (2003) of 30 January 2003. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/12, 16 April 2003, § 5(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
To extend full cooperation to the United Nations system, humanitarian organizations and the World Bank in order to ensure the rapid demobilization and reintegration of armed groups and of child soldiers in particular. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/15, 17 April 2003, §4(k), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Sierra Leone, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged the Government of Sierra Leone:
To continue working to reintegrate the remainder of the ex-combatants in all areas and to give special attention to former child combatants and female former combatants in the reintegration process, bearing in mind the special needs and particular vulnerabilities of girls. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/80, 25 April 2003, § 4(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families and communities;
5. Calls upon African States:
(d) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed groups, as distinct from armed forces of States, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the special needs of abducted girl children. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/85, 25 April 2003, §§ 4, 5(d) and 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
41. Calls upon States:
(e) To take all feasible measures to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, taking into account the rights, and the specific needs and capacities of girls;
44. Encourages States to cooperate, including through bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation and financial assistance, in the implementation of their obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including in the prevention of any activity contrary to the rights of the child and in the rehabilitation and social integration of the victims, such assistance and cooperation to be undertaken in consultation among concerned States and relevant international organizations as well as other relevant actors. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/86, 25 April 2003, §§ 41(e) and 44, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families and communities;
5. Calls upon African States:
(c) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the special needs of abducted girl children;
10. Requests States, relevant United Nations bodies and donors to provide African States and African regional mechanisms with the necessary assistance, including technical assistance, in order, first, to devise appropriate programmes to combat crossborder abduction of children and protect refugee children, especially unaccompanied minors and internally displaced children in African countries, who are exposed to the risk of being abducted, and, secondly, to develop and implement programmes for the reintegration of children in the peace process and in the postconflict recovery and reconstruction phase. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/47, 20 April 2004, §§ 4, 5(c) and 9–10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
42. Calls upon States:
(d) To take all feasible measures to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, taking into account the rights and the specific needs and capacities of girls;
43. Recognizes that education is an integral part of the process of demobilization, effective disarmament, rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society of children involved in armed conflicts, and that it is a means of facilitating a return to normality for such children and is a key protection measure against re-recruitment by parties to armed conflict as well as against sexual abuse and exploitation and other rights violations;
46. Encourages States to cooperate, including through bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation and financial assistance, in the implementation of their obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including in the prevention of any activity contrary to the rights of the child and in the rehabilitation and social integration of the victims, such assistance and cooperation to be undertaken in consultation among concerned States and relevant international organizations as well as other relevant actors;
47. Also encourages States to promote actions for the social reintegration of children in difficult situations, considering, inter alia, views, skills and capacities that these children have developed in the conditions in which they lived and, where appropriate, with their meaningful participation. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, §§ 42(d), 43 and 46–47, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights strongly urged the Government of Myanmar:
To put an immediate end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers and to extend full cooperation to relevant international organizations in order to ensure the demobilization of child soldiers, their return home and their rehabilitation in accordance with Security Council resolution 1460 (2003) of 30 January 2003. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/61, 21 April 2004, § 5(h), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Applauds the establishment by the Transitional Government of a “child soldier” project to deal with disarmament, demobilization and return to life in society and normal occupations, and of the general demobilization programme under the Office of the President of the Republic, while urging those parties which have not yet done so to stop using children as soldiers. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/82, 21 April 2004, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of National Unity and Transition to take specific measures:
To continue to cooperate with the United Nations system, humanitarian organizations and the World Bank in order to ensure the rapid demobilization and reintegration of armed groups and of child soldiers in particular. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/84, 21 April 2004, § 5(j), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of Myanmar:
To put an immediate end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers and to extend full cooperation to relevant international organizations in order to ensure the demobilization of child soldiers, their return home and their rehabilitation in accordance with Security Council resolutions 1460 (2003) of 30 January 2003 and 1539 (2004) of 14 April 2004 by the Army, but stresses the need for full implementation of the plan and the need to maintain close dialogue with the United Nations Children’s Fund, as well as to cooperate with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/10, 14 April 2005, § 5(c), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Recalling further the Optional Protocol […] to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict … ,
3. Demands the immediate demobilization and disarmament, reintegration and, where applicable, repatriation of all child soldiers, particularly girls, who have been recruited or used in armed conflicts in contravention of international law;
4. Calls for the immediate and unconditional release and safe return of all abducted children to their families, extended families and communities;
6. Encourages all African States to integrate the rights of the child into all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction phases;
9. Requests African States, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations agencies, to provide the victims and their families with the necessary assistance and to support sustainable rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for abducted children, including the provision of psychological assistance, basic education and vocational training, taking into account the rights and special needs of abducted girl children;
10. Requests the international community, including donor countries and relevant United Nations bodies, to complement and supplement the efforts of African States and African regional mechanisms in providing the necessary assistance, including technical assistance, in order, first, to devise with the participation of children, their families and communities appropriate programmes to combat abduction of children and to protect them, including refugee and internally displaced children, especially unaccompanied and separated children, who are exposed to the risk of being abducted, and, second, to develop and implement programmes for the reintegration, including rehabilitation, of children in the peace process and in the postconflict recovery and reconstruction phase. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/43, 19 April 2005, preamble and §§ 3–4, 6 and 9–10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Emphasizing the importance of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and that its provisions and other relevant human rights instruments must constitute the standard in the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, and bearing in mind … the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the involvement of children in armed conflict,
38. Calls upon States:
(b) To take all feasible measures to prevent recruitment and use of children by armed groups, as distinct from the armed forces of a State, including the adoption of legal measures necessary to prohibit and criminalize such practice, and the adoption of measures to prevent rerecruitment, in particular education;
(c) To take all feasible measures, in particular educational measures, to ensure the demobilization and effective disarmament of children used in armed conflicts and to implement effective measures for their rehabilitation, physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society, taking into account the rights and the specific needs of the girl child. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/44, 19 April 2005, preamble and § 38(b)–(c), voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights requested the Transitional Government to take specific measures to “continue with its programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/85, 21 April 2005, § 6(j), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 2001, in a report on violence against women perpetrated and/or condoned by the State during times of armed conflict, the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences stated:
Despite the specific needs and experiences of girls in armed conflict, girls are often the last priority when it comes to the distribution of humanitarian aid and their needs are often neglected in the formulation of demobilization and reintegration programmes. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Report on violence against women perpetrated and/or condoned by the State during times of armed conflict (1997–2000), UN Doc. E/CN.4/2001/73, 23 January 2001, § 52.
No data.
No data.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the consolidated second and third periodic reports of the Philippines in 2003, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee is concerned that the measures of protection of children are inadequate and the situation of large numbers of children, particularly the most vulnerable, is deplorable. While recognizing that certain legislation has been adopted in this respect, many problems remain in practice, such as:
d) Children as young as 13 allegedly being used by armed groups without adequate measures of protection by the State (art. 24 [of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]);
The State party should:
c) Take all appropriate measures to ensure protection of children who have been involved in armed conflict and provide them with adequate assistance and counseling for their rehabilitation and reintegration into society (art. 24). 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the consolidated second and third periodic reports of the Philippines, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/79/PHL, 1 December 2003, § 17.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the initial report of Uganda in 2004, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee is concerned about the magnitude of the problem of abduction of children, in particular in northern Uganda … It is also concerned about the fate of former child soldiers …
The State party should take the necessary steps, as a matter of extreme urgency and in a comprehensive manner, to face the abduction of children, and to reintegrate former child soldiers into society. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Uganda, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/80/UGA, 4 May 2004, § 15.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2006, the Human Rights Committee stated:
While noting the delegation’s comments on the subject, the Committee remains concerned at … the forced recruitment of many children into armed militias and, although to a lesser extent, into the regular army (article 8 of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]).
The State party should pursue its efforts to eradicate these phenomena. Information on steps taken by the authorities to eliminate the forced recruitment of minors into the armed forces and rehabilitate and protect the victims, among other things by reinforcing the activities of the National Commission for the Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers (CONADER), should be provided in the next periodic report. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. CCPR/C/COD/CO/3, 26 April 2006, § 18.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan in 2007, the Human Rights Committee stated:
While noting efforts by the State party to eradicate the practice of forced recruitment of child soldiers, including the establishment of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration commissions, and the reference made by the State party to the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration commission website, the Committee remains concerned at the small number of children who have actually been demobilized. It also notes the statement by the State party that in the absence of a comprehensive civil register it is difficult to determine the exact ages of the people serving in its armed forces. (arts. 8 and 24 of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights])
The State party should put an end to all recruitment and use of child soldiers, and provide disarmament, demobilization and reintegration commissions with the human and financial resources they need to fulfil their mandates, in order to ensure the expertise required to demobilize child soldiers. The State party should also speed up its programme for the establishment of a civil register, and ensure that all births are registered throughout the country. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3, 29 August 2007, § 17.
No data.
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