Practice Relating to Rule 132. Return of Displaced Persons

Geneva Convention IV
Article 45 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which is not party to the Convention. This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the repatriation of protected persons, or to their return to their country of residence after the cessation of hostilities. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 45.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 49, second paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: “Persons … evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.” 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 49, second para.
Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article III(59)(a) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement provides:
All civilians who, at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under the military control of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, and who, on 24 June 1950, resided north of the Military Demarcation Line established in this Armistice Agreement shall, if they desire to return home, be permitted and assisted by the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, to return to the area north of the Military Demarcation Line; and all civilians who, at the time this Armistice Agreement becomes effective, are in territory under military control of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, and who, on 24 June 1950, resided south of the Military Demarcation Line established in this Armistice Agreement shall, if they desire to return home, be permitted and assisted by the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers to return to the area south of the Military Demarcation Line. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article III(59)(a).
Article III(59)(b) contains similar provisions for civilians of foreign nationality. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article III(59)(b).
Protocol 4 to the European Convention on Human Rights
Article 3(2) of the 1963 Protocol 4 to the European Convention on Human Rights provides: “No one shall be deprived of the right to enter the territory of the State of which he is a national.” 
Protocol No. 4 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Strasbourg, 16 September 1963, Article 3(2).
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Article 12(4) of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides: “No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.” 
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 2200 A (XXI), 16 December 1966, Article 12(4).
Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa
Article 5(1) of the 1969 Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa (which expressly applies in situations of armed conflict) provides: “The essentially voluntary character of repatriation shall be respected in all cases and no refugee shall be repatriated against his will.” 
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, adopted by the Sixth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa, 10 September 1969, Article 5(1).
American Convention on Human Rights
Article 22(5) of the 1969 American Convention on Human Rights provides: “No one shall be deprived of the right to enter the territory of the State of which he is a national.” 
American Convention on Human Rights, adopted by the OAS Inter-American Specialized Conference on Human Rights, San José, 22 November 1969, also known as Pact of San José, Article 22(5).
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
Article 12(2) of the 1981 African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights provides: “Every individual shall have the right … to return to his country. This right may only be subject to restrictions, provided for by law for the protection of national security, law and order, public health or morality.” 
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted by the Eighteenth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Nairobi, 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev.5, Article 12(2).
Convention against Torture
Article 3 of the 1984 Convention against Torture provides: “No State Party shall expel or return … a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.” 
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 39/46, 10 December 1984, Article 3.
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention
Article 16 of the 1989 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention states: “Whenever possible, [displaced] peoples shall have the right to return to their traditional lands, as soon as the grounds for relocation cease to exist.” 
Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, ILO Convention No. 169, adopted by the ILO General Conference, Geneva, 27 June 1989, Article 16.
Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords
Article 1 of the 1995 Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords provides:
All refugees and displaced persons have the right to freely return to their homes of origin … The early return of refugees and displaced persons is an important objective of the settlement of the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina … Choice of destination shall be up to the individual or family … The parties shall not interfere with the returnees’ choice of destination nor shall they compel them to remain in or move to situations of serious danger or insecurity, or to areas lacking the basic infrastructure necessary to resume a normal life. 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 7, Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995, Article 1.
Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur
The 2004 Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur provides:
1. The government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration:
1.3 Recognize the importance of adhering to international humanitarian law and international human rights law in all activities related to the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
2. In order to pursue these common goals, the Government of the Republic of Sudan:
2.1 Confirms its policy of no involuntary return and that the primary responsibility for displaced persons in Sudan is that of the Government of the Republic of the Sudan,
2.2 Commits itself to spare no efforts in establishing the necessary security and humanitarian conditions for the phased return to their homes or elsewhere of all displaced persons in the most safe, dignified and efficient manner,
2.3 Agrees to grant to IOM and programme implementing partners full access to internally displaced persons and to the communities to which they are returning in accordance with the provision of the Joint Communique of 3 July 2004,
2.4 Agrees to provide to IOM adequate advance notice of any internally displaced persons who have indicated to the Government of the Sudan willingness to return to their area of origin and to facilitate IOM’s direct assessment and verification of the voluntariness and appropriateness of such returns.
2.5 Agrees to accept IOM determination on the voluntariness and appropriateness of returns, before returns take place,
2.6 Undertakes to protect the security of IOM staff and of the internally displaced persons, and
2.7 Appoints the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) of the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs as the government’s counterpart to IOM for the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
3. For its part, the International Organization for Migration undertakes, subject to the available of adequate resources, to:
3.1 Determine voluntariness and appropriateness of the return of the internally displaced persons to their area of origin in accordance with international humanitarian law, international human rights law and international principles which identify the rights and guarantees relevant to the protection of displaced persons in all phases of displacement, return or resettlement and reintegration. 
Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration, Khartoum, 21 August 2004, §§ 1, 1.3 and 2–3.1.
Kampala Convention
Article 11(2) of the 2009 Kampala Convention provides:
States Parties shall enable internally displaced persons to make a free and informed choice on whether to return, integrate locally or relocate by consulting them on these and other options and ensuring their participation in finding sustainable solutions. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 11(2).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 13(2) of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everybody has the right … to return to his country.” 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 217 A (III), 10 December 1948, Article 13(2).
Tripoli Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front
Paragraph 12 of 1976 Tripoli Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front provides:
Cease-fire shall be declared immediately after the signature of this agreement, provided that its coming into effect should not exceed the 20th January 1977. A Joint Committee shall be composed of the two parties with the help of the Organization of the Islamic Conference represented by the Quadripartite Ministerial Commission to supervise the implementation of the cease-fire.
The said Joint Committee shall also be charged with supervising the following:
c. The return of all refugees who have abandoned their areas in the South of the Philippines. 
Tripoli Agreement, Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front with the Participation of the Quadripartite Ministerial Commission Members of the Islamic Conference and the Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Conference, Tripoli, 23 December 1976, § 12.
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons
The 1992 Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons affirmed that “voluntary return with full guarantees of security and non-discrimination is the basic right of the displaced and the best means to achieve a lasting solution to their plight”. 
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons, signed by the parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sarajevo, 11 April 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General pursuant to UN Security Council resolution 749, UN Doc. S/23836, 24 April 1992, Annex III, pp. 12–13.
Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 4(b) of the 1992 Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides: “Each party to the conflict guarantees to those who leave temporarily the territory it controls … that they have the right to return home at a later stage if they wish so.” 
Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina, adopted at the invitation of the International Committee of the Red Cross and signed by Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Mate Boban (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 1 October 1992, § 4(b).
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing
The 1992 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing provides:
Article 23
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
E. Repatriation and Reintegration of Refugees
Repatriate and reintegrate all Rwandese refugees who may wish to go back home, following the modalities specified in the Peace Agreement. 
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing within the Framework of a Broad-Based Transitional Government, signed at Arusha respectively on 30 October 1992 and on 9 January 1993, Article 23(E), as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement
Article 2 of the 1993 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement provides: “The return is an act of free will on the part of each refugee. Any Rwandese refugee who wants to go back to his country will do so without any precondition whatsoever.” 
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Repatriation of Refugees and the Resettlement of Displaced Persons, signed at Arusha on 9 June 1993, Article 2, as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Protocol on Tajik Refugees
In paragraph 1 of the 1997 Protocol on Tajik Refugees, it was agreed “to step up mutual efforts to ensure the voluntary return, in safety and dignity, of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. The parties also called upon:
the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to provide assistance in order to ensure the safety of returning refugees and displaced persons and to establish and expand their presence at places where such persons are living. 
Protocol on Refugees between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, the United Tajik Opposition and the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Tajikistan, Tehran, 13 January 1997, annexed to UN Doc. S/1997/56, Progress Report of the UN Secretary-General on the situation in Tajikistan, 21 January 1997, Annex III, § 1.
Sudan Peace Agreement
Paragraph 3(a) of Chapter 4 of the 1997 Sudan Peace Agreement created several administrative structures designed, inter alia, “to assist, repatriate, resettle and rehabilitate the displaced and the returnees”. Under Paragraph 2 of Chapter 5 of the agreement, one of the functions of the proposed Coordinating Council for the Southern States was the “voluntary repatriation of the returnees and the displaced”. 
Sudan Peace Agreement between the Government of Sudan; the South Sudan United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF), comprised of the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) and the Union of Sudan African Parties (USAP); the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), the Equatoria Defence Force (EDF); and the South Sudan Independents Group (SSIG), Khartoum, 21 April 1997, also known as the Khartoum Peace Agreement, Chapter 4, § 3(a), and Chapter 4, § 2.
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 6(3) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement states: “Displacement shall last no longer than required by the circumstances.” 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 6(3).
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 15(d) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement states that IDPs have “the right to be protected against forcible return to or resettlement in any place where their life, safety, liberty and/or health would be at risk”. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 15(d).
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.008.
Croatia
Croatia’s LOAC Compendium (1991) provides that the evacuation of civilian persons should be “limited in time”, i.e. the return should be rapid. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 62.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) provides that the evacuation of civilian persons should be “limited in time”, i.e. the return should be rapid. 
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 98.
Kenya
Kenya’s LOAC Manual (1997) provides that “temporarily removed persons … must be allowed to return or be brought back to their previous location”. 
Kenya, Law of Armed Conflict, Military Basic Course (ORS), 4 Précis, The School of Military Police, 1997, Précis No. 3, p. 13.
Madagascar
Madagascar’s Military Manual (1994) provides: “Temporarily displaced persons … should be allowed to return to their previous location.” 
Madagascar, Le Droit des Conflits Armés, Ministère des Forces Armées, August 1994, Fiche No. 8-SO, § A.
Philippines
The Military Directive to Commanders (1988) of the Philippines provides: “Displaced persons and evacuees shall be allowed and/or persuaded to return to their homes as quickly as tactical considerations permit.” 
Philippines, Protection and Rehabilitation of Innocent Civilians Affected by AFP Counterinsurgency Operations, Directive to Commanders of Major Services and Area Commands, Office of the Chief of Staff, General Headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Ministry of National Defense, 15 July 1988, § 3(e).
Philippines
The Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (2006) provides:
After an engagement:
11. Allow the evacuees to return to their homes. As soon as tactical considerations permit, the evacuees should be allowed to return to their homes. 
Philippines, Philippine Army Soldier’s Handbook on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, A Practical Guide for Internal Security Operations, 2006, p. 62, § 11.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 5.5.c.(5).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 5.5.c.(5).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) provides that if the occupant does transfer protected persons outside the limits of occupied territories, then “as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased, they must be transferred back to their homes”. 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 560.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Articles 45 and 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, §§ 284 and 382.
Angola
Angola’s Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001) provides:
It is the responsibility of the Provincial Governments, through the Sub-Groups on Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Provincial Humanitarian Coordination Groups, to carry out the following:
f) To verify the voluntary nature of resettlement and return and the presence of the State Administration;
h) To take appropriate measures to ensure … the safety and dignity of populations during movements to return and resettlement sites. 
Angola, Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations, 2001, Article 2(f) and (h); see also Article 4 (security of site) and Article 5 (voluntary resettlement and return).
Armenia
Armenia’s Law on Refugees and Asylum (2008) states:
The principle of voluntariness must be respected by all competent bodies dealing with asylum and refugee issues, and this means that an asylum seeker or refugee:
(1) is informed of the situation of the country of his/her nationality or former habitual residence and is able to make a conscious decision on his/her return;
(2) has made a free choice to return to the country of his/her nationality or former habitual residence or to stay in the territory of the Republic of Armenia, before a final decision on his/her asylum claim is made or before cessation of recognition … [as] a refugee. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 4(2).
The Law defines a refugee as:
a foreign national who is compelled to leave the country of his/her nationality, or, in case of a stateless person, the country of his/her former habitual residence due to generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violations of human rights, or other serious events disrupting public order. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 6(1)(2).
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Criminal Code (2003) states:
Whoever, by use of force, serious threat or in some other illegal way, on a larger scale or with a larger impact, prevents refugees and displaced persons from returning to their homes of origin, or to use their property of which they were deprived in the course of hostilities since 1991,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between one and ten years. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Criminal Code, 2003, Article 146(1).
Colombia
According to Colombia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (1997), forcibly displaced persons have the right to return to their places of origin. 
Colombia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 1997, Articles 2(6) and 10(6).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (2014) states:
Article 5. Protection of the Population from Displacement
2. The Government shall:
d) ensure that the displacement does not last longer than required in the given situation.
Article 6. Definition of an IDP [internationally displaced person]
1. A citizen of Georgia or a stateless person with a status residing in Georgia shall be considered as an IDP, if he/she was forced to leave his/her permanent place of residence because of threat to his/her or his/her family member’s life, health or freedom caused by the occupation of the territory by a foreign state, aggression, armed conflict, mass violence and/or massive human rights violations and/or he/she cannot return to his/her permanent place of residence due to the above mentioned reasons.
Article 16. Social Protection of an IDP
1. The Ministry [of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia], within its mandate, together with other state bodies shall support an IDP to exercise his/her rights. In particular, they shall
g) help IDPs to return to their places of permanent residence after elimination of circumstances as referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6. 
Georgia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 2014, Articles 5(2)(d), 6(1) and 16(1)(g).
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Transitional Period Charter (1991) provided that priority should be given to the rehabilitation of those sections of the population who had been forcibly uprooted by the previous regime’s policy of villagization and resettlement and that the rehabilitation would be carried out in accordance with their wishes. 
Ethiopia, Transitional Period Charter, 1991, Article 14, p. 4.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Articles 45 and 49 of the Geneva Convention IV, is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Lithuania
Lithuania’s Criminal Code (1961), as amended in 1998, punishes anyone who, in situations of armed conflict, prevents civilians from returning to the territory of the State if they so wish after the termination of hostilities. 
Lithuania, Criminal Code, 1961, as amended in 1998, Article 343.
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Peru
Peru’s Law on Internal Displacement (2004) states:
The competent authorities have the primary duty and responsibility to establish the conditions and to provide the means to allow internally displaced persons to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to their homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country. 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 14(1).
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) define “reintegration or integration” as:
the process by which a lasting solution to the problem that caused the displacement is sought by taking medium- and long-term actions and measures with a view to creating the [necessary] conditions for the social and economic sustainability of the returned or resettled displaced population and for achieving reconciliation and a culture of peace. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 4(4).
The Regulations also states:
Internally displaced persons who return to their places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country have a right to:
m) Be protected against forced return to or resettlement in a place where their lives, security, freedom or health may be at risk. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 6(m).
Philippines
The Philippines’ Executive Order No. 2 (2001), Creating an Interagency Committee for Relief, Rehabilitation and Development of Areas Affected by Armed Conflicts in Mindanao, states:
[T]he government [of the Philippines] is committed to ensure the safe return of families and individuals affected by armed conflicts to their communities of origin and assist them in rebuilding their shattered lives by addressing their basic needs. 
Philippines, Executive Order No. 2, 2001, preamble.
No data.
Angola
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights in relation to Cyprus, Angola stated: “All restrictions preventing refugees and displaced persons from returning home should be lifted.” 
Angola, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/ SR.46, 22 May 1996, § 6.
Australia
In 2009, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council, the ambassador and permanent representative of Australia stated:
Four months have passed since the conclusion of military hostilities in northern Sri Lanka. Australia remains concerned that over 250,000 civilians remain displaced in camps in northern Sri Lanka. It is vital now to move quickly, more quickly than has been the case to this point, to create the conditions for civilians to move to their lands and rebuild their lives. Freedom of movement for the civilians in the north is essential. The voluntary resettlement process requires full access by international humanitarian agencies to areas of return and to information to ensure effective coordination. 
Australia, Statement by the ambassador and permanent representative before the UN Human Rights Council, 12th Session, Item 4, 22 September 2009.
Australia
In 2010, in a statement before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, the representative of Australia stated:
We continue to be concerned about the insufficient protection of, and assistance to, internally displaced persons and urge the Kenyan Government to address the underlying causes of displacement in order to facilitate their resettlement and reintegration. 
Australia, Statement by its representative before the UN Human Rights Council Periodic Review on Kenya, 6 May 2010.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 2005, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Bosnia and Herzegovina referred to the work of the Commission for Refugees and Displaced Persons in preparing conditions for the return of displaced persons. In this regard, matters of “safety, education, health, social and pension protection [and] mine disposal” are “permanent and very significant points of sessions of agenda of the Commission”. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 24 November 2005, UN Doc. CCPR/C/BIH/1, § 148.
Brazil
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, Brazil stated: “The displaced persons and refugees have a right to return to their homes in conditions of safety.” 
Brazil, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3354, 25 March 1994, p. 5.
Croatia
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, Croatia welcomed “the pilot projects for the return of displaced persons to their homes in the occupied areas”. 
Croatia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3434, 30 September 1994, p. 3.
Cuba
In 2009, in a statement before the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the representative of Cuba stated:
Cuba considers it unjustifiable that the Palestinian people continue to suffer under the long and brutal Israeli military occupation of their land since 1967 and continue to be denied fundamental human rights like … the right of the Palestinian refugees to return to their land. 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly on Item 31: United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, 2 November 2009, p. 1.
Cuba
In 2010, in a statement before the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly on the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, the representative of Cuba stated:
Cuba considers it unjustifiable that the Palestinian people continue to suffer under the long and brutal Israeli military occupation of their land since 1967 and continue to be denied fundamental human rights like the right … of the Palestinian refugees to return to their land in accordance with [UN] General Assembly resolution 194. 
Cuba, Statement by the representative of Cuba before the Fourth Committee of the UN General Assembly on Item 51: United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, 2 November 2010, p. 1.
Cuba
In 2010, in a statement before the UN General Assembly on the situation in the Middle East, the deputy permanent representative of Cuba stated:
Cuba reiterates its profound regret for the ongoing suffering of the Palestinian people for more than 40 years under the brutal military occupation of its land by Israel and for the fact that they continue to be denied their fundamental rights, including the right … of Palestinian refugees to return to their land. 
Cuba, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Cuba before the UN General Assembly on Item 36: The Situation in the Middle East, 30 November 2010, p. 1.
Czech Republic
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, the Czech Republic stated: “The right of refugees to return to their homes is a crucial right.” 
Czech Republic, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3354, 25 March 1994, p. 4.
Egypt
In 1996, during a debate in to the UN Commission on Human Rights in relation to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Egypt stated: “Refugees and displaced persons must be allowed to return to their homes.” 
Egypt, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.47, 17 April 1996, § 35.
France
In 1993 and 1995, during debates in the UN Security Council on the situation in Georgia and in the former Yugoslavia respectively, France supported the right to return of refugees and displaced persons. 
France, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3295, 19 October 1993, p. 4; Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3591, 9 November 1995, p. 10.
France
According to the Report on the Practice of France, the free return of refugees is a frequent preoccupation of French diplomacy. France often asks for this right to be guaranteed and considers a contrary attitude to be “unacceptable”. 
Report on the Practice of France, 1999, Chapter 5.5.
Georgia
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia supported the right of refugees and displaced persons to return in safety and emphasized that “nothing can change [its] resolve to achieve the unconditional and timely return of the refugees to their homes”. 
Georgia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3535, 12 May 1995, p. 3.
Georgia
In 2014, in its fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Georgia stated:
Due to Russia’s occupation of Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia and Abkhazia[,] Georgia has been prevented from the opportunity to ensure protection of human rights, including children’s rights in th[ose] parts of the country. … As a result of ethnic cleansing[,] hundreds of thousands of IDPs [internally displaced persons], predominantly of Georgian origin, are unable to return to their homes due to their ethnic belonging. 
Georgia, Fourth periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 28 June 2016, UN Doc. CRC/C/GEO/4, submitted 11 December 2014, § 47.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Honduras
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Tajikistan, the representative of Honduras stated that his government was “pleased to see that the Government of Tajikistan has committed itself to assisting the return and reintegration of refugees and displaced persons in dignity and safety”. 
Honduras, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3544, 16 June 1995, pp. 4–5.
Indonesia
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Tajikistan, Indonesia called upon the parties to intensify their efforts “to ensure the voluntary return, in dignity and safety, of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
Indonesia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3544, 16 June 1995, pp. 4–5.
Iraq
In 2012, in a speech at the ministerial meeting of the member States of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iraq stated:
The first issue is the Palestinian cause and the Arab Israeli conflict … [O]n this occasion I would like to reconfirm Iraq’s fixed stance towards … seeking a fair and agreeable solution to the problem of Palestinian refugees[,] including the right to return. 
Iraq, Speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iraq at the ministerial meeting of the member States of the Non-Aligned Movement, Tehran, 28–29 August 2012, p. 3.
Italy
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, Italy stressed “the need to guarantee the safe return of refugees”. 
Italy, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3535, 12 May 1995, p. 5.
Mexico
In 2009, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Mexico stated: “With regard to the issue of housing, land and … property, we should strengthen the [UN Security] Council’s commitment to ensure that refugees and internally displaced persons are able to freely return to their homes in safety.” 
Mexico, Statement by the permanent representative of Mexico before the UN Security Council, 6151th meeting, UN Doc. S/PV.6151, 26 June 2009, p. 10.
Nepal
In 2004, in a declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, the Prime Minister of Nepal stated: “The right of the displaced persons to return to their homes or to the places of their choice shall be ensured.” 
Nepal, Declaration of commitment on the implementation of human rights and international humanitarian law, 26 March 2004, § 12.
Nepal
In its National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons adopted in 2007, Nepal stated:
1. Background
Due to natural disasters, human-made circumstances and disasters, armed conflict and situations of violence and fears having [been] created therefrom, persons and families are forcefully displaced from their homes or places of their habitual residence and thus they are time and again required to face such situations that force them to reside in other parts of the country. …
Therefore, the State is required to make appropriate provisions for their return to their place of habitual residence or for settling them voluntarily in other places in the country. …
3. Definition[s]:
For the purpose of these Policies:
(a) “Internally Displaced Person” means a person who is living somewhere else in the country after having [been] forced to flee or leave their home or place of habitual residence due to armed conflict or situation of violence or gross violations of human rights or natural disasters or human-made disasters … or with an intention of avoiding the effects of such situations.
6. Objectives
6.3 To create an environment conducive for the safe, voluntary and dignified return of displaced persons or the construction and rehabilitation of social [and] economic infrastructures for their settlement in other locations.
8. Policies
In relation to internal displacement, the following policies will be adopted:
8.3 Regarding Rehabilitation
8.3.1 Displaced persons or families will have the freedom of returning voluntarily to the places of their permanent … [residence] from where they were … [originally] displaced or of residing in the place of current … [residence] or … [of rehabilitation] in other places of their choice within the country. Each of the displaced persons will be provided with opportunities to return to his/her place of habitual residence, … [rehabilitation] and also … integrating with their disintegrated family.
9. Programmes
For the implementation of abovementioned strategies and policies, the following programmes will be undertaken:-
9.7 Programmes for returning displaced persons safely to their respective [places of] permanent … [residence]. 
Nepal, National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, 22 February 2007, §§ 1, 3, 6.3, 8, 8.3.1, 9 and 9.7.
New Zealand
In 1994, in a statement before the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, New Zealand stated that it understood “the concern of the Government of Georgia for the problems associated with the return of … refugees to their homes. Displaced persons must be able to resume their ordinary lives without fear of violence or intimidation.” 
New Zealand, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3332, 31 January 1994, p. 13.
Nigeria
In 1994 and 1995, in statements before the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, Nigeria stated:
The issue of the return of the refugees and displaced persons is crucial to the settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. The current situation, in which both the Government of Georgia and the Abkhaz authorities are unable to guarantee the safety of the displaced persons and protection of the repatriated … is unfortunate and should be reversed. 
Nigeria, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3535, 12 May 1995, p. 8.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Evacuations adopted by the Presidential Human Rights Committee of the Philippines in 1991 provides: “Evacuees shall be returned to their houses at government expense as soon as the reason for evacuation ceases.” 
Philippines, Presidential Human Rights Committee, Res. No. 91-001 Providing for Guidelines on Evacuations, Manila, 26 March 1991, § 8.
Russian Federation
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Croatia, the Russian Federation stated: “The Serbian inhabitants of Krajina must have the right to return in conditions of safety.” 
Russian Federation, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3591, 9 November 1995, p. 8.
Switzerland
In 2009, in response to a question by a member of the National Council, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
Humanitarian aid
The Federal Council considers that what is most urgent is to ensure the protection of the civilian population, in particular of evacuated victims of war and internally displaced [persons]. This is why Switzerland is actively engaged on the ground in ensuring that international aid organizations have access, without restriction, to these persons, that these persons have adequate support through the supply of food, medication and emergency shelter, and that they can return as quickly as possible to their region of origin, in safety and dignity. 
Switzerland, National Council, Response by the Federal Council to Question No. 09.1059, 19 August 2009, p. 2.
Switzerland
In 2010, in response to a question by a member of the National Council on Sri Lanka, Switzerland’s Federal Council wrote:
[T]he Federal Council considers that the priority today is to resolve the humanitarian problems of the victims of the conflict. The Federal Council appreciates the effort made to ensure the return of internally displaced persons, whose numbers were approaching 300,000 a year ago. However, it remains concerned by the situation of some 45,000 persons (UN figure as of mid-July 2010) still finding themselves in camps and continues to intervene with the Sri Lankan Government so that these people can return to their homes as quickly as possible, and that their return takes place in a safe and voluntary manner. 
Switzerland, National Council, Response by the Federal Council to Interpellation No. 10.3457, 8 September 2010, pp. 2–3.
Tunisia
In 1992, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, Tunisia stated that it was essential to “enable all the displaced and deported persons to return to their homes”. 
Tunisia, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3137, 16 November 1992, p. 66.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, the United Kingdom stated that the “safe return [of displaced persons] will be a vital ingredient in restoring peace and stability in Georgia”. 
United Kingdom, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3332, 31 January 1994, p. 9.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a reply to a written question in the House of Commons on the “forced repatriation of Chechen internally displaced persons from their displacement camps in Ingushetia”, the UK Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, wrote:
The UK has played a prominent role in international efforts to press the Russian Government to halt the closure of internally displaced persons camps in the North Caucasus. Bilaterally, we have informed the Russian Government that the suspension of food, water and energy supplies to the camps constituted, in our view, a forced closure and reminded Russia of her obligations under the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees. The UK has also initiated and helped draft a number of EU demarches, calling for the closure of the camps to be stopped. We were therefore encouraged by President Putin’s statement last month that the closures should be halted. However, we will continue to monitor the situation closely and take further action if necessary. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 21 January 2003, Vol. 398, Written Answers, col. 224W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in a letter to the President of the UN Security Council, the permanent representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States stated:
The United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners, working through the Coalition Provisional Authority, shall inter alia, provide for security in and for the provisional administration of Iraq, including by: … facilitating the orderly and voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons. 
United Kingdom, Letter by the permanent representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States to the United Nations to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/2003/538, 8 May 2003.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the UK representative stated:
The right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes must be accepted in theory and in practice. Political norms and human rights must be developed in Kosovo on a par with the best European standards. In the view of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, only then can Kosovo move forward in a stable, peaceful manner, developing coexistence on its territory and better relations with its neighbours. 
United Kingdom, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4809, 18 August 2003, p. 9.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning, inter alia, discussions with the Government of the Sudan relating to the situation in Darfur, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, stated:
We are gravely concerned by the forced relocations of people in camps in Darfur. This appears to be a breach of international humanitarian law, as well as the established mechanisms on relocations. We have repeatedly made clear to the Government of Sudan that all returns must be voluntary and appropriate and carried out with full and prior consultation with the international community, as agreed in the Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Sudan and the International Organisation for Migration. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 16 November 2004, Vol. 426, Written Answers, col. 1343W.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning representations made to the Government of Sudan, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, stated:
We … regularly raise the need for it to ensure the protection of all civilians – including displaced persons – in Darfur, and to adhere to the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, including on the need for all returns to be voluntary and appropriate. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 13 December 2004, Vol. 428, Written Answers, col. 901W.
United States of America
In 1995, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Abkhazia, the United States supported the extension of UNOMIG’s mandate, which included the contribution “to conditions conducive to the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
United States, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3535, 12 May 1995, p. 13.
United States of America
In 2003, the permanent representatives of the United States and the United Kingdom to the United Nations wrote in a letter to the President of the UN Security Council:
The United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners, working through the Coalition Provisional Authority, shall inter alia, provide for security in and for the provisional administration of Iraq, including by … facilitating the orderly and voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons. 
United States, Letter by the permanent representatives of the United States and the United Kingdom to the United Nations to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/2003/538, 8 May 2003.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1974 on emergency UN humanitarian assistance to Cyprus, the UN Security Council urged the parties concerned to take measures “to permit persons who wish to do so to return to their homes in safety”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 361, 30 August 1974, § 4, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992, the UN Security Council, strongly condemning the deportation of 12 Palestinian civilians from the occupied territories, requested that Israel refrain from deporting any more Palestinian civilians from the occupied territories and that it “ensure the safe and immediate return to the occupied territories of all those deported”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 726, 6 January 1992, §§ 1, 3 and 4, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1992 in the context of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the UN Security Council endorsed the principles agreed by the Presidents of Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 30 September 1992 that “all displaced persons have the right to return in peace to their former homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 779, 6 October 1992, § 5, voting record: 15-0-0.
These principles were reaffirmed in a resolution adopted in 1993. 
UN Security Council, Res. 820 A, 17 April 1993, § 7, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council affirmed the continuing relevance of “the recognition and the right of all displaced persons to return to their homes in safety and honour”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 859, 24 August 1993, § 6(d), voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the settlement of the conflict in and around Nagorno-Karabakh, the UN Security Council requested the Secretary-General and the relevant international agencies “to assist refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in security and dignity”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 874, 14 October 1993, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In numerous resolutions adopted between 1994 and 1999 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council affirmed “the right of all refugees and displaced persons affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure conditions”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 896, 31 January 1994, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 906, 25 March 1994, § 3 voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 993, 12 May 1995, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.; Res. 1036, 12 January 1996, preamble voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 1096, 30 January 1997, § 8, voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 1124, 31 July 1997, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0; Res. 1225, 28 January 1999, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on the former Yugoslavia adopted in 1994, the UN Security Council affirmed “the right of all displaced persons to return voluntarily to their homes of origin in safety and dignity with the assistance of the international community”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 947, 30 September 1994, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN Security Council welcomed
the obligation assumed by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan to assist the return and the reintegration of refugees as well as the obligations by the parties to cooperate in ensuring the voluntary return, in dignity and safety, of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes. 
UN Security Council, Res. 999, 16 June 1995, §§ 8 and 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council underlined “the urgent need for the orderly and voluntary repatriation and resettlement of refugees, and the return of internally displaced persons, which are crucial elements for the stability of the region”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1078, 9 November 1996, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Security Council demanded in particular that the Abkhaz authorities “allow the unconditional and immediate return of all persons displaced since the resumption of hostilities in May 1998”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1187, 30 July 1998, § 3, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In several resolutions adopted in 1998 and 1999 on Kosovo, the UN Security Council reaffirmed the right of all refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in safety. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1199, 23 September 1998, preamble, voting record: 14-0-1; Res. 1203, 24 October 1998, § 12, voting record: 13-0-2; Res. 1239, 14 May 1999, § 4, voting record: 13-0-0-2; Res. 1244, 10 June 1999, preamble, voting record: 14-0-1.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council stressed that it was the responsibility of the Indonesian authorities “to take immediate and effective measures to ensure the safe return of refugees to East Timor”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1272, 25 October 1999, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Stresses the urgent need for progress on the question of the refugees and internally displaced persons, calls on both sides to display a genuine commitment to make returns the focus of special attention and to undertake this task in close coordination with UNOMIG, reaffirms the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict, reaffirms also the inalienable right of all refugees and internally displaced persons affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1462, 30 January 2003, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Sierra Leone, the UN Security Council:
Encourages the continued support of UNAMSIL, within its capabilities and areas of deployment, for the voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons, and urges all stakeholders to continue to cooperate to this end to fulfil their commitments under the Abuja Ceasefire Agreement of 10 November 2000 (S/2000/1091).  
UN Security Council, Res. 1470, 28 March 2003, § 16, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms also the inalienable right of all refugees and IDPs affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1494, 30 July 2003, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
14. Stresses the urgent need for progress on the question of the refugees and internally displaced persons, calls on both sides to display a genuine commitment to make returns the focus of special attention and to undertake this task in close coordination with UNOMIG and consultations with UNHCR and the Group of Friends and recalls the understanding in the Sochi summit that the reopening of the Sochi-Tbilisi railway will be undertaken in parallel with the return of refugees and displaced persons, starting in the Gali district;
15. Reaffirms the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict, reaffirms also the inalienable right of all refugees and IDPs affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1524, 30 January 2004, §§ 14–15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict, reaffirms also the inalienable right of all refugees and internally displaced persons affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res.1554, 29 July 2004, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council stressed “that any return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes must take place voluntarily with adequate assistance and with sufficient security”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1556, 30 July 2004, preamble, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Emphasizing that the ultimate resolution of the crisis in Darfur must include the safe and voluntary return of internally displaced persons and refugees to their original homes, and noting in this regard the 21 August 2004 Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Sudan and the International Organization for Migration (IOM),
6. Affirms that internally displaced persons, refugees and other vulnerable peoples should be allowed to return to their homes voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, and only when adequate assistance and security are in place. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1564, 18 September 2004, preamble and § 6, voting record: 11-0-4.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict, [and] reaffirms also the inalienable right of all refugees and internally displaced persons affected by the conflict to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1582, 28 January 2005, § 17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
16. Stresses the urgent need for progress on the question of the refugees and internally displaced persons, calls on both sides to display a genuine commitment to make returns the focus of special attention and to undertake this task in close coordination with UNOMIG and consultations with UNHCR and the Group of Friends;
17. Calls for the rapid finalization and signature of the letter of intent on returns proposed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and welcomes the meetings with the participation of the SRSG and UNHCR of the Sochi working group on refugees and internally displaced persons;
18. Reaffirms the unacceptability of the demographic changes resulting from the conflict, reaffirms also the inalienable rights of all refugees and internally displaced persons affected by the conflict, and stresses that they have the right to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions, in accordance with international law and as set out in the Quadripartite Agreement of 4 April 1994 (S/1994/397, annex II) and the Yalta Declaration. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1615, 29 July 2005, §§ 16–18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in the Great Lakes region, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon the countries of the region to continue in their efforts to create conducive conditions for voluntary repatriation, safe and durable integration of refugees and former combatants in their respective countries of origin. In this regard, calls for commensurate international support for refugees and reintegration and reinsertion of returnees, internally displaced persons and former combatants. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1653, 27 January 2006, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Calls upon all parties concerned to ensure that all peace processes, peace agreements and post-conflict recovery and reconstruction planning have regard for the special needs of women and children and include specific measures for the protection of civilians including … (iii) the creation of conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, § 11, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council affirmed that “all parties are responsible for ensuring that no action is taken … that might adversely affect … the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1701, 11 August 2006, § 7, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
14. Stresses anew the urgent need to alleviate the plight of refugees and internally displaced persons and the need for a perspective of life in security and dignity in particular for a new generation growing up outside Abkhazia, Georgia;
15. Reiterates and reaffirms as fundamentally important the right of return for all the refugees and the internally displaced persons to Abkhazia, Georgia, reaffirms the importance of such people’s return to their homes and property and that individual property rights have not been affected by the fact that owners had to flee during the conflict and that the residency rights and the identity of those owners will be respected, and calls on both sides to implement the UNHCR’s Strategic Directions for their return in the first instance to the Gali region. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1716, 15 October 2007, §§ 14–15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on the situation in Georgia adopted in 2007, the UN Security Council:
Stresses the urgent need to alleviate the plight of refugees and internally displaced persons and the need for a perspective of life in security and dignity in particular for a new generation growing up outside Abkhazia, Georgia, and recalling the right of return for all internally displaced persons to Abkhazia, Georgia, calls on both sides to implement the UNHCR’s Strategic Directions for the return in the first instance to the Gali region. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1752, 13 April 2007, § 9, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council welcomed “the first organized returns of internally displaced persons from Khartoum to Southern Kordofan and Southern Sudan”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1755, 30 April 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council:
2. Decides that MONUC will have the mandate, within the limits of its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, to assist the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in establishing a stable security environment in the country, and, to that end, to:
(b) Contribute to the improvement of the security conditions in which humanitarian assistance is provided, and assist in the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1756, 15 May 2007, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN Security Council:
Also invites the signatories of the Ouagadougou political Agreement to take the necessary steps to protect vulnerable civilian populations, including by guaranteeing the voluntary return, reinstallation, reintegration and security of displaced persons, with the support of the United Nations system, and to fulfil in this regard their commitments in accordance with the Ouagadougou political Agreement and their obligations under international humanitarian law.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1765, 16 July 2007, § 4, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation concerning Iraq, the UN Security Council reaffirmed that all parties “should take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of affected civilians, and should create conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified, and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1770, 10 August 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President on Rwanda, the UN Security Council stated that “the rapid return of the refugees and displaced persons to their homes is essential for the normalization of the situation in Rwanda” and strongly condemned “attempts to intimidate refugees carried out by those who are seeking to prevent them from returning to Rwanda”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/42, 10 August 1994, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In several statements by its President on the situation in Georgia between 1994 and 1996, the UN Security Council expressed its great concerns “at the continued obstruction to the return of the refugees and displaced persons by the Abkhaz authorities” and reiterated its call to the Abkhaz authorities “to guarantee the safety of all returnees and to regularize the status of spontaneous returnees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/78, 2 December 1994; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/39, 18 August 1995; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/43, 22 October 1996, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council urged the Government of Croatia “to expand its programme to accelerate the return of [the displaced] persons without preconditions or delay”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/39, 20 September 1996.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by is President on the Great Lakes region/Zaire, the UN Security Council underlined “the urgent need for the orderly voluntary repatriation and resettlement of refugees, and the return of displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/44, 1 November 1996.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon “the Government of Burundi to allow the people to return to their homes without any hindrance”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/32, 30 May 1997.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on Kosovo, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council reiterates its full support for the “Standards before Status” policy with postulated targets in the eight key areas: … the return of refugees and IDPs …
… and supports the Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s continued efforts including in such priority areas as revitalizing the economy through investment, combating crime and illegal trafficking, and building a multi-ethnic society, while ensuring conditions for the sustainable return of refugees and IDPs. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/1, 6 February 2003, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on cross-border issues in West Africa, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council reiterates the importance of finding durable solutions to the problem of refugees and displaced persons in the sub-region and urges the States in the region to promote necessary conditions for their voluntary and safe return with the support of relevant international organizations and donor countries. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/7, 25 March 2004, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in Chad and the Sudan, the UN Security Council reaffirmed “the right of all displaced persons who wish to do so to return to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/19, 25 April 2006, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2006, in a statement by its President regarding peace consolidation in West Africa, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council reiterates the importance of finding effective solutions to the problem of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the region and urges the States in the region, in collaboration with relevant international organizations and donor countries, to create the necessary conditions for their voluntary and safe return. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2006/38, 9 August 2006, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2007, in a statement by its President regarding the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council welcomed “recent developments regarding the long-term prevention of conflict, including best practice and policy work on: … safe and voluntary return of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2007/31, 28 August 2007, p. 2.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States and relevant organizations to support the High Commissioner’s search for durable solutions to refugee problems, including voluntary repatriation, integration in the country of asylum and resettlement in a third country, as appropriate, and welcomes in particular the ongoing efforts of her Office to pursue wherever possible opportunities to promote conditions conducive to the preferred solution of voluntary repatriation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/116, 20 December 1993, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In resolutions adopted in 1994 and 1995, the UN General Assembly reaffirmed the right of refugees and displaced persons from the areas of conflict in the territory of the former Yugoslavia “to return voluntarily to their homes in safety and dignity”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/10, 3 November 1994, § 9, voting record: 97-0-61-26; Res. 50/193, 22 December 1995, § 12, voting record: 144-1-20-20.
UN General Assembly
In two resolutions adopted in 1998 and 1999 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly called upon the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and ethnic Albanian leaders “to allow for and facilitate the free and unhindered return to their homes, in safety and with dignity, of all internally displaced persons and refugees”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 9 December 1998, § 23, voting record: 122-3-34--26; Res. 54/183, 17 December 1999, § 11, voting record: 108-4-45-31.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon the Transitional Administration, acting with the support of the international community, to create the conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons, welcomes in this respect the initiation of the National Area-Based Development Programme and the National Solidarity Programme, and calls upon the international community to provide adequate funding to these programmes which, inter alia, assist in the resettlement of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities, the UN General Assembly reaffirmed “the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/92, 9 December 2003, § 1, voting record: 168-5-3-15.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on special assistance for the economic recovery and reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly:
expresses its deep concern over the dire humanitarian situation throughout the country and the very high number of internally displaced persons in the eastern part and, in particular, in the Ituri region, and urges all parties to avoid further population displacement and to facilitate the safe and voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/123, 17 December 2003, § 17, voting record: 169-1-0-21.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
23. Reaffirms the right of return and the principle of voluntary repatriation, appeals to countries of origin and countries of asylum to create conditions that are conducive to voluntary repatriation, and recognizes that, while voluntary repatriation remains the pre-eminent solution, local integration and third-country resettlement, where appropriate and feasible, are also viable options for dealing with the situation of African refugees who, owing to prevailing circumstances in their respective countries of origin, are unable to return home;
24. Notes with satisfaction the voluntary return of millions of refugees to their homelands following the successful repatriation and reintegration operations carried out by the Office of the High Commissioner with the cooperation and collaboration of countries hosting refugees and countries of origin, and welcomes the efforts under way, in cooperation with other United Nations agencies and development actors, to promote a framework for durable solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations, including the “4Rs” approach (repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction) to sustainable return;
25. Appeals to the international community to respond positively, in the spirit of solidarity and burden-sharing, to the third-country resettlement requests of African refugees, and notes with appreciation that some African countries have offered resettlement places for refugees. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, §§ 23–25, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
10. Strongly reaffirms the fundamental importance and the purely humanitarian and non-political character of the function of the Office of the High Commissioner of providing international protection to refugees and seeking permanent solutions to refugee problems, and recalls that these solutions include voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement in a third country, while reaffirming that voluntary repatriation, supported by necessary rehabilitation and development assistance to facilitate sustainable reintegration, remains the preferred solution;
11. Emphasizes the obligation of all States to accept the return of their nationals, calls upon States to facilitate the return of their nationals who have been determined not to be in need of international protection, and affirms the need for the return of persons to be undertaken in a safe and humane manner and with full respect for their human rights and dignity, irrespective of the status of the persons concerned. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/151, 22 December 2003, §§ 10–11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly:
3. Expresses once again its grave concern at:
(b) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
6. Once again urges the Government of Myanmar, as stated in its resolution 57/231 and in Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/12:
(c) … to end systematic enforced displacement and provide protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, to allow the safe and dignified voluntary return of refugees. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/247, 23 December 2003, §§ 3(b) and 6(c), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities, the UN General Assembly:
1. Reaffirms the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967”;
2. Expresses deep concern that the mechanism agreed upon by the parties in article XII of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements of 1993 on the return of displaced persons has not been complied with, and stresses the necessity for an accelerated return of displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/118, 10 December 2004, §§ 1–2, voting record: 162-6-9-14.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 concerning the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
11. Strongly reaffirms the fundamental importance and the purely humanitarian and non-political character of the function of the Office of the High Commissioner of providing international protection to refugees and seeking permanent solutions to refugee problems, and recalls that these solutions include voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement in a third country, while reaffirming that voluntary repatriation, supported by necessary rehabilitation and development assistance to facilitate sustainable reintegration, remains the preferred solution;
12. Recognizes the desirability of countries of origin, in cooperation with the Office of the High Commissioner, other States and other concerned actors, as necessary and appropriate, addressing, at an early stage, issues of a legal and administrative nature which are likely to hinder voluntary repatriation in safety and dignity, bearing in mind that some legal safety or administrative issues may be addressed only over time and that voluntary repatriation can and does take place without all legal and administrative issues having first been resolved;
13. Emphasizes the obligation of all States to accept the return of their nationals, calls upon States to facilitate the return of their nationals who have been determined not to be in need of international protection, and affirms the need for the return of persons to be undertaken in a safe and humane manner and with full respect for their human rights and dignity, irrespective of the status of the persons concerned. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/170, 20 December 2004, §§ 11–13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
17. Reaffirms the right of return and the principle of voluntary repatriation, appeals to countries of origin and countries of asylum to create conditions that are conducive to voluntary repatriation, and recognizes that, while voluntary repatriation remains the pre-eminent solution, local integration and third-country resettlement, where appropriate and feasible, are also viable options for dealing with the situation of African refugees who, owing to prevailing circumstances in their respective countries of origin, are unable to return home;
18. Notes with satisfaction the voluntary return of thousands of refugees to their countries of origin, and welcomes in this regard the conclusion on legal safety issues in the context of voluntary repatriation of refugees adopted by the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at its fifty-fifth session;
19. Reaffirms that voluntary repatriation should not necessarily be conditioned on the accomplishment of political solutions in the country of origin in order not to impede the exercise of the refugees’ right to return, and recognizes that the voluntary repatriation and reintegration process is normally guided by the conditions in the country of origin, in particular that voluntary repatriation can be accomplished in conditions of safety and dignity. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/172, 20 December 2004, §§ 17–19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly called upon the Government of Myanmar to “respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/263, 23 December 2004, § 3(j), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the 2005 World Summit Outcome, the UN General Assembly stated:
We commit ourselves to safeguarding the principle of refugee protection and to upholding our responsibility in resolving the plight of refugees, including through the support of efforts aimed at addressing the causes of refugee movement, bringing about the safe and sustainable return of those populations, finding durable solutions for refugees in protracted situations and preventing refugee movement from becoming a source of tension among States. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/1, 16 September 2005, § 133, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
18. Urges the Government of Afghanistan, acting with the support of the international community, to continue and strengthen its efforts to create the conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return and reintegration of the remaining Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons;
19. Calls for the provision of continued international assistance to the large numbers of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons to facilitate their voluntary, safe and orderly return. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/32B, 30 November 2005, §§ 18–19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities, the UN General Assembly:
1. Reaffirms the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967;
2. Expresses deep concern that the mechanism agreed upon by the parties in article XII of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements of 1993 on the return of displaced persons has not been complied with, and stresses the necessity for an accelerated return of displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/101, 8 December 2005, §§ 1–2, voting record: 161-6-5-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
18. Reaffirms the right of return and the principle of voluntary repatriation, appeals to countries of origin and countries of asylum to create conditions that are conducive to voluntary repatriation, recognizes that, while voluntary repatriation remains the pre-eminent solution, local integration and third-country resettlement, where appropriate and feasible, are also viable options for dealing with the situation of African refugees who, owing to prevailing circumstances in their respective countries of origin, are unable to return home, and welcomes in this regard the conclusion on local integration adopted by the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at its fifty-sixth session;
19. Also reaffirms that voluntary repatriation should not necessarily be conditioned on the accomplishment of political solutions in the country of origin in order not to impede the exercise of the refugees’ right to return, and recognizes that the voluntary repatriation and reintegration process is normally guided by the conditions in the country of origin, in particular that voluntary repatriation can be accomplished in conditions of safety and dignity. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/128, 16 December 2005, §§ 18–19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
13. Strongly reaffirms the fundamental importance and the purely humanitarian and non-political character of the function of the Office of the High Commissioner of providing international protection to refugees and seeking permanent solutions to refugee problems, and recalls that these solutions include voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement in a third country, while reaffirming that voluntary repatriation, supported by necessary rehabilitation and development assistance to facilitate sustainable reintegration, remains the preferred solution;
17. Emphasizes the obligation of all States to accept the return of their nationals, calls upon States to facilitate the return of their nationals who have been determined not to be in need of international protection, and affirms the need for the return of persons to be undertaken in a safe and humane manner and with full respect for their human rights and dignity, irrespective of the status of the persons concerned. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/129, 16 December 2005, §§ 13 and 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, the UN General Assembly deplored “the plight of millions of refugees and displaced persons who have been uprooted as a result of the aforementioned acts, and reaffirms their right to return to their homes voluntarily in safety and honour”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/145, 16 December 2005, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN General Assembly called upon the governments of countries in the region, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to “ensure the rights and well-being of returnees and refugee populations”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/170, 16 December 2005, § 7 (d), voting record: 102-3-67-19.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, the UN General Assembly called upon “the United Nations system and invites Member States to assist African countries emerging from conflict in their efforts to … provide for the safe return of internally displaced persons and refugees”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/223, 23 December 2005, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly:
2. Expresses grave concern at:
(g) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
3. Strongly calls upon the Government of Myanmar:
(g) To end the systematic forced displacement of persons and other causes of refugee flows to neighbouring countries, to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community, and to respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies in accordance with international law, including applicable international humanitarian law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/233, 23 December 2005, §§ 2(g) and 3(g), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Recognizing the urgent need to tackle the challenges in Afghanistan, including … the safe and orderly return of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons, …
Welcoming the continuous return of refugees and internally displaced persons, while noting with concern that conditions in parts of Afghanistan are not yet conducive to safe and sustainable returns to some places of origin and that high concentration of returns to major urban areas have placed an extreme burden on limited urban resources,
31. Expresses its appreciation to those Governments that continue to host Afghan refugees, acknowledging the huge burden they have so far shouldered in this regard, and reminds them of their obligations under international refugee law with respect to the protection of refugees, the principle of voluntary return and the right to seek asylum and to allow international access for their protection and care;
32. Urges the Government of Afghanistan, acting with the support of the international community, to continue and strengthen its efforts to create the conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return and reintegration of the remaining Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons;
33. Calls for the provision of continued international assistance to the large numbers of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons to facilitate their voluntary, safe and orderly return and sustainable reintegration into society so as to contribute to the stability of the entire country. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/18, 28 November 2006, preamble and §§ 31–33, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities, the UN General Assembly:
1. Reaffirms the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967;
2. Expresses deep concern that the mechanism agreed upon by the parties in article XII of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements of 13 September 1993 on the return of displaced persons has not been complied with, and stresses the necessity for an accelerated return of displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/113, 14 December 2006, §§ 1–2, voting record: 170-6-8-8.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
15. Strongly reaffirms the fundamental importance and the purely humanitarian and non-political character of the function of the Office of the High Commissioner of providing international protection to refugees and seeking permanent solutions to refugee problems, and recalls that those solutions include voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement in a third country, while reaffirming that voluntary repatriation, supported by necessary rehabilitation and development assistance to facilitate sustainable reintegration, remains the preferred solution;
22. Emphasizes the obligation of all States to accept the return of their nationals, calls upon States to facilitate the return of their nationals who have been determined not to be in need of international protection, and affirms the need for the return of persons to be undertaken in a safe and humane manner and with full respect for their human rights and dignity, irrespective of the status of the persons concerned. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, §§ 15 and 22, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
19. Reaffirms the right of return and the principle of voluntary repatriation, appeals to countries of origin and countries of asylum to create conditions that are conducive to voluntary repatriation, recognizes that, while voluntary repatriation remains the pre-eminent solution, local integration and third-country resettlement, where appropriate and feasible, are also viable options for dealing with the situation of African refugees who, owing to prevailing circumstances in their respective countries of origin, are unable to return home;
20. Also reaffirms that voluntary repatriation should not necessarily be conditioned on the accomplishment of political solutions in the country of origin in order not to impede the exercise of the refugees’ right to return, recognizes that the voluntary repatriation and reintegration process is normally guided by the conditions in the country of origin, in particular that voluntary repatriation can be accomplished in conditions of safety and dignity, and urges the High Commissioner to promote sustainable return through the development of durable and lasting solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, §§ 19–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, the UN General Assembly deplored “the plight of millions of refugees and displaced persons who have been uprooted as a result of the aforementioned acts, and reaffirms their right to return to their homes voluntarily in safety and honour”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/150, 19 December 2006, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly strongly called upon the Government of Myanmar:
To end the systematic forced displacement of large numbers of persons and other causes of refugee flows to neighbouring countries, to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community, and to respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies in accordance with international law, including international humanitarian law.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/232, 22 December 2006, § 3(d), voting record: 82-25-45-40.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation in Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Reiterating the urgent need to tackle the challenges in Afghanistan, in particular … the safe and voluntary return of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons in an orderly and dignified manner, …
Welcoming the continuous return of refugees and internally displaced persons, in a voluntary and sustainable manner, while noting with concern that conditions in parts of Afghanistan are not yet conducive to safe and sustainable returns to some places of origin,
41. Expresses its appreciation to those Governments that continue to host Afghan refugees, acknowledging the huge burden they have so far shouldered in this regard, and reminds them of their obligations under international refugee law with respect to the protection of refugees, the principle of voluntary return and the right to seek asylum and to allow international access for their protection and care;
42. Urges the Government of Afghanistan, acting with the support of the international community, to continue and strengthen its efforts to create the conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return and reintegration of the remaining Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons;
44. Calls for the provision of continued international assistance to the large numbers of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons to facilitate their voluntary, safe, dignified and orderly return and sustainable reintegration into society so as to contribute to the stability of the entire country. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/6, 11 November 2007, preamble and §§ 41–42 and 44, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities, the UN General Assembly:
1. Reaffirms the right of all persons displaced as a result of the June 1967 and subsequent hostilities to return to their homes or former places of residence in the territories occupied by Israel since 1967;
2. Expresses deep concern that the mechanism agreed upon by the parties in article XII of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements of 13 September 1993 on the return of displaced persons has not been complied with, and stresses the necessity for an accelerated return of displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/103, 17 December 2007, §§ 1–2, voting record: 171-6-2-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
16. Strongly reaffirms the fundamental importance and the purely humanitarian and non-political character of the function of the Office of the High Commissioner of providing international protection to refugees and seeking permanent solutions to refugee problems, and recalls that those solutions include voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement in a third country, while reaffirming that voluntary repatriation, supported, as necessary, by rehabilitation and development assistance to facilitate sustainable reintegration, remains the preferred solution;
25. Emphasizes the obligation of all States to accept the return of their nationals, calls upon States to facilitate the return of their nationals who have been determined not to be in need of international protection, and affirms the need for the return of persons to be undertaken in a safe and humane manner and with full respect for their human rights and dignity, irrespective of the status of the persons concerned. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, §§ 16 and 25, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
21. Reaffirms the right of return and the principle of voluntary repatriation, appeals to countries of origin and countries of asylum to create conditions that are conducive to voluntary repatriation, and recognizes that, while voluntary repatriation remains the pre-eminent solution, local integration and third-country resettlement, where appropriate and feasible, are also viable options for dealing with the situation of African refugees who, owing to prevailing circumstances in their respective countries of origin, are unable to return home;
22. Also reaffirms that voluntary repatriation should not necessarily be conditioned on the accomplishment of political solutions in the country of origin in order not to impede the exercise of the refugees’ right to return, recognizes that the voluntary repatriation and reintegration process is normally guided by the conditions in the country of origin, in particular that voluntary repatriation can be accomplished in conditions of safety and dignity, and urges the High Commissioner to promote sustainable return through the development of durable and lasting solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, §§ 21–22, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, the UN General Assembly:
Deplores the plight of millions of refugees and displaced persons who have been uprooted as a result of the aforementioned acts, and reaffirms their right to return to their homes voluntarily in safety and honour. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/144, 18 December 2007, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
Noting the growing awareness of the international community of the issue of internally displaced persons worldwide and the urgency of addressing the root causes of their displacement and finding durable solutions, including voluntary return in safety and with dignity, or local integration,
8. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes, and emphasizes that durable solutions for internally displaced persons, including through voluntary return, sustainable reintegration and rehabilitation processes and their active participation, as appropriate, in the peacebuilding process, are necessary elements of effective peacebuilding. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/153, 18 December 2007, preamble and § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on assistance to Georgia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights appealed to those in control of the territory of Abkhazia “to implement and ensure law and order, to … ensure the right of displaced persons to return to Abkhazia”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/59, 4 March 1994, § 5, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1997 on human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan, the UN Commission on Human Rights emphasized that “the displaced persons of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan must be allowed to return to their homes”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1997/2, 26 March 1997, § 2, voting record: 26-1-23.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of Croatia to facilitate “the expeditious return, in safety and dignity, of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. It also insisted that the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia “allow the return in safety and dignity of ethnic Albanian refugees to Kosovo”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/79, 22 April 1998, §§ 14(a) and 25(c), voting record: 41-0-12.
In a number of other resolutions adopted in the context of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, the UN Commission on Human Rights stressed the right of IDPs to return to their homes. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1992/S-2/1, 1 December 1992, § 4, voting record: 45-1-1. UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1994/75, 9 March 1994, § 5, voting record: 41-1-10. UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/89, 8 March 1995, § 8, voting record: 44-0-7; UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/71, 23 April 1996, § 21, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in East Timor, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of Indonesia “to guarantee the voluntary return of all refugees and displaced persons, including those who have been forcibly displaced to camps in West Timor”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1999/S-4/1, 27 September 1999, § 5(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan, the UN Commission on Human Rights emphasized that “the displaced persons of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan must be allowed to return to their homes and to recover their properties”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/5, 15 April 2003, § 2, voting record: 31-1-21.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Expresses its grave concern at:
(e) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
5. S trongly urges the Government of Myanmar:
(g) To end the systematic enforced displacement of persons and other causes of refugee flows to neighbouring countries, to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons and to respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/12, 16 April 2003, §§ 3(e) and 5(g), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
To prevent conditions that might lead to flows of refugees and displaced persons in the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and across its borders, and to take and apply all necessary measures to establish conditions conducive to the voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/15, 17 April 2003, § 4(i), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Notes the continuing voluntary repatriation of refugees hosted in the United Republic of Tanzania, pursuant to the tripartite agreements between the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Governments of Tanzania and Burundi, and calls on the parties concerned to establish conditions for voluntary and permanent return in full security. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/16, 17 April 2003, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Noting the resolve of the international community to find durable solutions for all internally displaced persons and to strengthen international cooperation in order to help them return voluntarily to their homes in safety and with dignity or, based on their free choice, to resettle in another part of their country, and to be smoothly reintegrated into their societies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/51, 23 April 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Underscores the importance of addressing protracted refugee situations and so-called forgotten emergencies and calls upon all States to promote conditions conducive to the voluntary return of refugees in safety and with dignity and to support the other two durable solutions of local integration or resettlement where appropriate. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/52, 24 April 2003, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Sierra Leone, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged:
All relevant parties in the region to continue to work towards the establishment of conditions which would permit the safe and voluntary return of displaced and refugee populations to their homes, and to ensure respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and international humanitarian law. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/80, 25 April 2003, § 3(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Also calls upon Israel to desist from changing the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure and legal status of the occupied Syrian Golan, and emphasizes that the displaced persons of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan must be allowed to return to their homes and to recover their properties. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/8, 15 April 2004, § 2, voting record: 31-1-21.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 concerning internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Noting the resolve of the international community to find durable solutions for all internally displaced persons and to strengthen international cooperation in order to help them return voluntarily to their homes in safety and with dignity or, based on their free choice, to resettle in another part of their country, and to be smoothly reintegrated into their societies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/55, 20 April 2004, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
1. Welcomes:
(k) The developments allowing access for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to Karen and Mon States in order to assist in creating conditions conducive to the return of refugees to these areas;
3. Expresses its grave concern at:
(f) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
5. Strongly urges the Government of Myanmar:
(i) To end the systematic enforced displacement of persons and other causes of refugee flows to neighbouring countries, to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community, and to respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/61, 21 April 2004, §§ 1(k), 3(f) and 5(i), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Also calls upon Israel to desist from changing the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure and legal status of the occupied Syrian Golan, and emphasizes that the displaced persons of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan must be allowed to return to their homes and to recover their properties. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/8, 14 April 2005, § 2, voting record: 32-2-19.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Expresses its grave concern at:
(g) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
5. Also calls upon the Government of Myanmar:
(e) To end the systematic enforced displacement of persons and other causes of refugee flows to neighbouring countries, to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community, and to respect the right of refugees to voluntary, safe and dignified return monitored by appropriate international agencies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/10, 14 April 2005, §§ 3(g) and 5(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Noting the resolve of the international community to find durable solutions for all internally displaced persons and to strengthen international cooperation in order to help them return voluntarily to their homes in safety and with dignity or, based on their free choice, to resettle in another part of their country, and to be smoothly reintegrated into their societies,
Recalling the relevant norms of international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international refugee law, and recognizing that the protection of internally displaced persons has been strengthened by identifying, reaffirming and consolidating specific standards for their protection, in particular through the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/46, 19 April 2005, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 concerning human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Underscores the importance of addressing protracted refugee situations and socalled forgotten emergencies, recognizing the severe and long-lasting physical and psychosocial impacts of prolonged displacement, and calls upon all States to promote conditions conducive to the voluntary return of refugees in safety and with dignity and to support the other two durable solutions of local integration, or resettlement where appropriate. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/48, 19 April 2005, § 13, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon all parties to the conflict to “respect the rights of refugees and internally displaced persons and their right of voluntary return in safety and dignity”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/82, 21 April 2005, § 3(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan, the UN Human Rights Council:
Also calls upon Israel to desist from changing the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure and legal status of the occupied Syrian Golan, and emphasizes that the displaced persons of the population of the occupied Syrian Golan must be allowed to return to their homes and to recover their property. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 2/3, 27 November 2006, § 2, voting record: 32-1-14.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a decision adopted in 1992 on the situation of human rights in Yugoslavia, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights demanded that “displaced people be given the opportunity to return to their homes”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Decision 1992/103, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1992/58, 14 October 1992, § (c).
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights recommended that “the United Nations and all Governments take measures to enable all refugees, deportees and displaced persons to return safely to their homes”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/8, 18 August 1995, § 5.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on housing and property restitution in the context of the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights reaffirmed “the right of all refugees, as defined in relevant international legal instruments, and internally displaced persons to return to their homes and places of habitual residence in their country and/or place of origin, should they so wish”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/26, 22 August 1998, § 1.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1980, in its Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation, the Executive Committee of UNHCR recognized that “voluntary repatriation constitutes generally … the most appropriate solution for refugee problems” and stressed that “the essentially voluntary character of repatriation should always be respected”. It also called upon governments of countries of origin “to provide formal guarantees for the safety of returning refugees”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 18 (XXXI): Voluntary Repatriation, 16 October 1980, §§ (a), (b) and (f).
The Committee completed these findings in other conclusions on voluntary repatriation in 1985 and further reaffirmed the necessity of removing the causes of refugee movements and to tackle this problem internationally. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 40 (XXXVI): Voluntary Repatriation, 18 October 1985, §§ (c), (d) and (k).
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 2007, in its Conclusion on Children at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee recommended that States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners:
In the context of voluntary repatriation of refugees, take appropriate steps to ensure that unaccompanied or separated children are not returned prior to the identification of adequate reception and care arrangements. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII): Children at Risk, 5 October 2007, preamble, § h(xv).
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1995, in its Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation to Afghanistan, the Executive Committee of UNHCR urged the parties to the conflict in Afghanistan to come to a political settlement, “thus allowing for the return of Afghan refugees and displaced persons to their homes in safety and dignity”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation to Afghanistan, UN Doc. A/50/12/Add.1, 1 November 1995, § 29(d).
UN Secretary-General
In 1994, in a report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Secretary-General reported that “regarding the refugees and displaced persons, UNHCR seeks to maintain internationally accepted principles and practices for their voluntary repatriation and return, which do not allow screening mechanisms”. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, UN Doc. S/1994/312, 18 March 1994, § 8.
UN Secretary-General
In January 1995, in a report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Secretary-General reported that “the Abkhaz side had refused to sign a declaration that would have allowed for a speedier return and in larger numbers [of refugees and IDPs]. It did, however, agree to reduce the review period for the consideration of application [for return] from four to two weeks.” 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, UN Doc. S/1995/10, 6 January 1995, § 3.
In a further report in May, the Secretary-General noted that a proposal by Abkhazia to register spontaneous returnees and to consider UNHCR-sponsored returnees at the rate of 200 per week was rejected by UNHCR as not meeting the requirements of the return timetable agreed to by all parties – except the Abkhaz side – during talks in February 1995. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, UN Doc. S/1995/342, 1 May 1995, pp. 2–3.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In several reports between 1994 and 1997 on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights stressed the right to voluntary return of IDPs. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Seventh periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1995/4, 10 June 1994, § 23; Special report on minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/8, 25 October 1996, § 83; Periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/56, 29 January 1997, §§ 14–19.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1995, in a report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights stated that the authorities should not make the return of refugees and IDPs conditional upon reciprocal returns being allowed in other areas. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Eighth periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1995/10, 4 August 1994, § 10; Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Tenth periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1995/57, 16 January 1995, § 22.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a special periodic report on minorities in the context of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights reported that in discussions with the authorities in the former Yugoslavia, she had stressed that the different government agencies had the responsibility of assisting displaced persons to return to their homes in safety and dignity. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Special periodic report on minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/8, 25 October 1996, §§ 81–83.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1997, in his final report submitted to the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Dimensions of Population Transfer, including the Implantation of Settlers and Settlements proposed a draft declaration on population transfer and the implantation of settlers for adoption by the UN Commission on Human Rights. Article 4(3) of the draft declaration provided: “All persons thus displaced shall be allowed to return to their homes, lands, or places of origin immediately upon cessation of the conditions which made their displacement imperative.” Article 8 provided: “Every person has the right to return voluntarily, and in safety and dignity, to the country of origin and, within it, to the place of origin or choice.” 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Dimensions of Population Transfer, including the Implantation of Settlers and Settlements, Final report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/23, 27 June 1997, Annex II, Draft declaration on population transfer and the implantation of settlers, Articles 4(3) and 8.
High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina
In a report in 1996, the High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina reiterated that “enabling refugees to return is important for a large number of reasons, including the creation of the conditions that will make the holding of free and fair elections possible”. 
High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Report, UN Doc. S/1996/190, 14 March 1996, Annex, §§ 68–73.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
The Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly has adopted several resolutions and recommendations emphasizing the right of displaced persons to return voluntarily and in safety to their homes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Transcaucasian region, Serbia and Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Georgia. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Res. 1010, 28 September 1993, § 12(i)(c) and (vii); Res. 1047, 10 November 1994, § 6; Res. 1066, 27 September 1995, § 9; Rec. 1305, 24 September 1996, § 8(iii)(a); Res. 1119, 22 April 1997, §§ 5(iv) and 10.
For example, in a recommendation adopted in 1996 in the context of the former Yugoslavia, the Assembly stated that “all displaced persons have the right to return to their original homes” and stressed that “such returns are an essential element of reconstruction, but that they must be voluntary”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1287, 24 January 1996, §§ 2–3.
European Parliament
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation in Abkhazia, the European Parliament stressed the importance of the right of all IDPs to return voluntarily to their places of origin or residence, irrespective of their ethnic, social or political affiliation, under conditions of complete safety and dignity. 
European Parliament, Resolution on the situation in Abkhazia, 20 November 1996, § 5.
European Union
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights, Italy, speaking on behalf of the EU, called for “a peaceful settlement to the conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia in order, inter alia, to allow the return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
EU, Statement by Italy on behalf of the EU before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.45, 17 April 1996, § 10.
European Union
In 1995, during a debate in the OSCE Permanent Council on the situation in Chechnya, France stated, on behalf of the EU, that “civilians must have the choice to leave this hell if they wish, being understood that the right to return to their homes of these refugees and displaced persons shall not be later limited”. 
EU, Statement by France on behalf of the EU before the Permanent Council of the OSCE, Vienna, 2 February 1995, Politique étrangère de la France, February 1995, p. 154.
European Council
In a declaration on Kosovo adopted in 1998, the European Council called upon the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia “to facilitate the full return to their homes of refugees and displaced persons”. 
European Council, Declaration on Kosovo, 15 June 1998.
GCC Supreme Council
In the Final Communiqué of its 13th Session in 1992, the GCC Supreme Council registered
its appreciation for Resolution 799 adopted by the UN Security Council which strongly condemned the mass expulsion by the Israeli Occupation Forces of hundreds of Palestinian civilians … and called on the Israeli Authorities to ensure an immediate and safe return of all those expelled to the occupied territories.
It also called on the UN Security Council “to do all that it deems necessary … to ensure a speedy return of the expelled civilians to their Homeland”. 
GCC, Supreme Council, 13th Session, Abu Dhabi, 21–23 December 1992, Final Communiqué, annexed to Letter dated 24 December 1992 from the United Arab Emirates to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/47/845-S/25020, 30 December 1992, pp. 6–7.
League of Arab States Council
In a resolution on Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted in 1992, the League of Arab States Council decided to call upon the Serb forces to make “all necessary arrangements to allow for the repatriation of the refugees to their homes”. 
League of Arab States, Council, Res. 5231, 13 September 1992, § 5.
OSCE Ministerial Council
In a decision on Georgia adopted in 1998, the OSCE Ministerial Council stated that, amongst others, “monitoring of the smooth and safe return of refugees” can contribute to a peaceful settlement of the conflict in Abkhazia, Georgia. 
OSCE, Ministerial Council, Seventh Meeting, Oslo, December 1998, Decision on Georgia, Doc. MC(7).DEC/1, fifth paragraph.
International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees
The Comprehensive Plan of Action adopted by consensus by the International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees in 1989 provided:
Persons determined not to be refugees should return to their country of origin in accordance with international practices reflecting the responsibilities of States towards their own citizens. In the first instance, every effort will be made to encourage the voluntary return of such persons. 
International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees, Geneva, 13–14 June 1989, Comprehensive Plan of Action, § 12; see also §§ 14–15.
International Conference on Central American Refugees
The governments represented at the International Conference on Central American Refugees in 1989 reaffirmed “their commitment to encourage the voluntary return of refugees and other persons displaced by the crisis, under conditions of personal security and dignity that would allow them to resume a normal life”. 
International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), Guatemala City, 29–31 May 1989, Declaration and Concerted Plan of Action, UN Doc. CIREFCA/89/14, 31 May 1989, § I(3); see also § II(10), (21), (28) and (30).
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Chairman’s Conclusions of the Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina in Florence in 1996 stated: “The right of return home of people who have been either displaced or have fled the country is a basic principle of the Peace Agreement which cannot be abridged.” The Conclusions further stated that “the creation of conditions for free and safe return, permitting the lifting of temporary protection, is now an urgent matter affecting political and economical viability of the country” and recommended urgent action with regard to “removal of legal and administrative obstacles to the return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Florence, 13–14 June 1996, Chairman’s Conclusions, annexed to Letter dated 9 July 1996 from the UN Secretary-General to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1996/542, 10 July 1996, Appendix I, §§ 11 and 13.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of the Russian Federation in 2003, the Human Rights Committee, while noting “the statement by the delegation that all persons who have returned to Chechnya have done so voluntarily”, also observed “reports of undue pressure on displaced persons living in camps in Ingushetia to make them return to Chechnya”. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of the Russian Federation, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/79/RUS, 1 December 2003, § 16.
The Human Rights Committee stated:
The State party should ensure that internally displaced persons in Ingushetia are not coerced into returning to Chechnya, including by ensuring the provision of alternative shelter in case of closure of camps (art. 12). 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of the Russian Federation, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/79/RUS, 1 December 2003, § 16.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan in 2007, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee notes … the State party’s expressed willingness to respect the voluntary return of internally displaced persons. It remains concerned at … the lack of resources made available to allow the displaced to return home under acceptable conditions. (art. 12 of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights])
In keeping with all international standards governing the matter, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the State party should:
(c) Not resort to forced relocation of displaced persons living in camps or unsafe areas without consulting them beforehand and offering acceptable alternatives;
(d) Redouble its efforts to guarantee the safe, voluntary return of displaced persons. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3, 29 August 2007, § 23.
[emphasis in original]
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
In a general recommendation adopted in 1996, CERD emphasized that “States parties are obliged to ensure that the return of … refugees and displaced persons is voluntary”.  
CERD, General Recommendation XXII (Article 5 and refugees and displaced persons), 1996, § 2.
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
In a decision on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia adopted in 1998, CERD reaffirmed that “all people who have been displaced or have become refugees have the right to return safely to their homes”. 
CERD, Decision 3(53) on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, UN Doc. A/53/18 p. 19, 17 August 1998, § 3.
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that “persons … evacuated must be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the concerned area have ceased” and that “temporarily removed persons must be allowed to return”. 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, §§ 835(2) and 546.
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards
The Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights of Åbo Akademi University in Turku/Åbo, Finland in 1990, states: “Persons or groups … displaced shall be allowed to return to their homes as soon as the conditions which made their displacement imperative have ceased.” 
Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, adopted by an expert meeting convened by the Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, 30 November–2 December 1990, Article 7(1), IRRC, No. 282, p. 333.
International Institute of Humanitarian Law
In 1995, with respect to the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law commented:
In no case shall [refugees and displaced persons] be expelled or return, in any manner whatsoever, to the frontiers where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. 
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Comments on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards submitted to the UN Secretary-General pursuant to UN Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/29, 28 November 1995, p 10.
Panmunjom Armistice Agreement
Article III(59)(d)(1) of the 1953 Panmunjom Armistice Agreement provides:
The Committee [for Assisting the Return of Displaced Civilians] shall, under the general supervision and direction of the Military Armistice Commission, be responsible for coordinating the specific plans of both sides for assistance to the return of the above-mentioned civilians, and for supervising the execution by both sides of all of the provisions of this Armistice Agreement relating to all the return of the above-mentioned civilians. It shall be the duty of this Committee to make necessary arrangements, including those of transportation, for expediting and coordinating the movement of the above-mentioned civilians; to select the crossing point(s) through which the above-mentioned civilians will cross the Military Demarcation Line; to arrange for security at the crossing point(s); and to carry out such other functions as are required to accomplish the return of the above-mentioned civilians. 
Agreement between the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the one hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, Panmunjom, 27 July 1953, Article III(59)(d)(1).
Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa
Article V of the 1969 Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa provides:
2. The country of asylum, in collaboration with the country of origin, shall make adequate arrangements for the safe return of refugees who request repatriation.
3. The country of origin, on receiving back refugees, shall facilitate their resettlement and grant them the full rights and privileges of nationals of the country, and subject them to the same obligations.
4. Refugees who voluntarily return to their country shall in no way be penalized for having left it for any of the reasons giving rise to refugee situations. Whenever necessary, an appeal shall be made through national information media and through the Administrative Secretary-General of the OAU, inviting refugees to return home and giving assurance that the new circumstances prevailing in their country of origin will enable them to return without risk and to take up a normal and peaceful life without fear of being disturbed or punished, and that the text of such appeal should be given to refugees and clearly explained to them by their country of asylum.
5. Refugees who freely decide to return to their homeland, as a result of such assurances or on their own initiative, shall be given every possible assistance by the country of asylum, the country of origin, voluntary agencies and international and intergovernmental organizations, to facilitate their return. 
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, adopted by the Sixth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa, 10 September 1969, Article V.
Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs
In paragraph 5 of the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs, the parties decided that:
The principal tasks of the [Quadripartite] Commission shall be to formulate, discuss and approve plans to implement programmes for safe, orderly and voluntary repatriation of the refugees and displaced persons … and for their successful reintegration. Such plans should include registration, transport, basic material assistance for a period of up to six months and rehabilitation assistance. 
Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Georgia, between the Abkhaz and Georgian Sides, the Russian Federation and UNHCR, Moscow, 4 April 1994, annexed to Letter dated 5 April 1994 from the permanent representative of Georgia to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/397, 5 April 1994, Annex II, § 5.
Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords
The 1995 Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords provides:
Article I. Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons
2. The Parties shall ensure that refugees and displaced persons are permitted to return in safety, without risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution, or discrimination …
3. The Parties shall take all necessary steps to prevent activities within their territories which would hinder or impede the safe and voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons …
Article II. Creation of Suitable Conditions for Return
1. The Parties undertake to create in their territories the political, economic and social conditions conducive to the voluntary return and harmonious reintegration of refugees and displaced persons. The Parties shall provide all possible assistance to refugees and displaced persons and work to facilitate their voluntary return in a peaceful, orderly and phased manner. 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 7, Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995, Articles I(2)–(3) and II(1).
Agreement on Normalization of Relations between Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Article 7 of the 1996 Agreement on Normalization of Relations between Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia specifies: “The Contracting Parties shall ensure conditions for a free and safe return of … displaced persons to their places of residence or other places that they freely choose.” 
Agreement on Normalization of Relations between the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 23 August 1996, Article 7.
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return
The 1997 Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return, concluded between Croatia, UNTAES and UNHCR, provided that until conditions were created for the safe return of Croatian citizens to their places of origin, displaced persons could remain in the houses they were occupying. Under the agreement, all Croatian citizens wishing to return to their homes were first required to register with the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees (ODPR). The agreement contained a number of detailed conditions that had to be fulfilled by returnees in cooperation with the ODPR, UNTAES and the UNHCR. The agreement made provision for expediting the process of return in principle and stipulated that the confirmation of arrangements for return would be issued within 15 calendar days of registration with the ODPR and that the return should take place as soon as possible thereafter. 
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on the Operational Procedures of Return between Croatia, UNTAES and UNHCR, Osijek, 23 April 1997, annexed to Letter dated 25 April 1997 from the permanent representative of Croatia to the UN addressed to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/341, 28 April 1997.
Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur
The 2004 Sudan-IOM Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur provides:
1. The government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration:
1.3 Recognize the importance of adhering to international humanitarian law and international human rights law in all activities related to the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
1.5 Agree to the establishment of a Management and Coordination Mechanism (MCM) on the voluntary return of internally displaced persons in Darfur. The MCM shall be initially composed of representatives of the Sudanese Government, IOM and the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator, and shall be convened by the second week of September 2004, and
1.6 Coordinate and agree, within the context of the MCM, upon standard operating procedures and criteria required for the implementation of this memorandum of understanding.
These shall be harmonized, as appropriate, with policies and practices concerning the voluntary repatriation of refugees to the Sudan.
3 For its part, the International Organization for Migration undertakes, subject to the availability of adequate resources, to:
3.1 Determine voluntariness and appropriateness of the return of the internally displaced persons to their area of origin in accordance with international humanitarian law, international human rights law and international principles which identify the rights and guarantees relevant to the protection of displaced persons in all phases of displacement, return or resettlement and reintegration,
3.2 Oversee and assist in the voluntary return of internally displaced persons to their homes.
3.3 Bring support to the communities affected by displacement and facilitate the conditions conducive to return,
3.4 Contribute to the reintegration of displaced families,
3.5 Carry out other activities that shall be considered appropriate in restoring peace and normal living conditions in the region. 
Memorandum of Understanding on Darfur between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the International Organization for Migration, Khartoum, 21 August 2004, §§ 1, 1.3, 1.5–1.6 and 3–3.5.
Kampala Convention
Article 11(1) of the 2009 Kampala Convention provides:
States Parties shall seek lasting solutions to the problem of their displacement by promoting and creating satisfactory conditions for voluntary return, local integration or relocation on a sustainable basis and in circumstances of safety and dignity. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 11(1).
According to Article 11(3) of the Convention, “State Parties shall cooperate, where appropriate, with African Union and international organizations or humanitarian agencies and civil society organizations” in order to find and implement lasting solutions for sustainable return, local integration or relocation. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 11(3).
Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the UN
In paragraphs 2 and 3 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the UN, Iraq welcomed the efforts of the UN to promote the voluntary return home of Iraqi displaced persons and agreed that measures to be taken for the benefit of displaced persons should be based primarily on their personal safety and the provision of humanitarian assistance and relief for their return and normalization of their lives in their places of origin. 
Memorandum of Understanding between Iraq and the United Nations, Baghdad, 18 April 1991, §§ 2 and 3.
Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (September 1992)
Paragraph 2 of the Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (September 1992) states:
Authorities of the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in close collaboration with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), will undertake urgent, joint measures to ensure the peaceful return to their homes in the United Nations protected areas of all persons displaced therefrom who so wish. To that end, they propose the prompt establishment of a quadripartite mechanism – consisting of authorities of the Government of Croatia, local Serb representatives, representatives of UNPROFOR and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) – to ensure that this process moves forwards. 
Joint Declaration by President Dobrica Cosić of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and President Franjo Tudjman of the Republic of Croatia, Geneva, 30 September 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General on the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/24795, 11 November 1992, Annex II, § 2.
Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (October 1992)
Paragraph 3 of the Joint Declaration by the Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia (October 1992) reaffirmed that the priority task of the quadripartite mechanism established in Paragraph 2 of their Joint Declaration (September 1992) “should be to organize and facilitate the return and the resettlement, under humane conditions, of displaced persons and groups”. 
Joint Declaration by President Dobrica Cosić of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and President Franjo Tudjman of the Republic of Croatia, Geneva, 20 October 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General on the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/24795, 11 November 1992, Annex VI, § 3.
Cotonou Agreement on Liberia
In Article 18(1) of the 1993 Cotonou Agreement on Liberia, the parties committed themselves “to create the conditions that will allow all refugees and displaced persons to, respectively, voluntarily repatriate and return to Liberia to their places of origin or habitual residence under conditions of safety and dignity”. 
Cotonou Peace Agreement on Liberia between the Interim Government of National Unity of Liberia (IGNU) of the first part and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) of the second part and the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) of the third part, Cotonou, 25 July 1993, annexed to Letter dated 6 August 1993 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Benin to the UN addressed to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/26272, 9 August 1993, Article 18(1).
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing
The 1992 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing provides:
Article 13
The current structure of the Government, namely, the number and appellation of Ministries, shall remain unchanged. However, a Secretariat of State in the Prime Minister’s Office in charge of Social Rehabilitation and Integration shall be established.
It shall be responsible for:
1. Repatriation and social and economic reintegration of the Rwandese refugees who may wish to go back home;
2. A Post-War Rehabilitation Programme as defined under Item 23.D of the present Protocol.
Article 23
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
D. Post-war Rehabilitation Programme
1. Provide humanitarian assistance, especially through the supply of foodstuffs, seeds and some building materials in a bid to contribute in the resettlement of those displaced as a result of the war and social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, in their original property.
2. Rehabilitate and rebuild the areas devastated by war and social strife encountered since the outbreak of war, especially through mine-clearance and rebuilding of socio-educational and administrative facilities.
3. Set up a programme of assistance to the victims of war (both civilian and military) and of social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, to the physically handicapped, orphans, widows and widowers.  
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing within the Framework of a Broad-Based Transitional Government, signed at Arusha respectively on 30th October, 1992 and on 9th January, 1993, Articles 13(1)–(2) and 23(D), as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement
The 1993 Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Repatriation and Resettlement provides:
The Government of the Republic of Rwanda on one hand, and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the other;
Agree on the following provisions on the repatriation of Rwandese refugees and the resettlement of displaced persons.
Chapter I: Repatriation of Rwandese Refugees
Section 1: Voluntary Return and Repatriation
Sub-Section 1: Basic Principles
Article 3
For purposes of settling returnees, the Rwandese Government shall make lands available, upon their identification by the “Commission for Repatriation” so long as they are not currently occupied by individuals.
Sub-Section 2: The Beneficiaries of the Programme for the Return and Repatriation
Article 8
The Programme for the Return and the Repatriation shall be designed solely for Rwandese Refugees.
Shall qualify as a Rwandese refugee:
1. Anyone in possession of documents issued by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), testifying that the bearer is a Rwandese refugee;
2. Any Rwandese national who declares himself to be a Rwandese refugee, but who is not registered with the Office of the UNHCR.
Sub-Section 3: Repatriation Procedures
Article 9
Upon the recommendation of the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall set up a Commission for Repatriation composed of Government, UNHCR, OAU and Refugee representatives.
Article 10
The Commission shall have, as a general mandate, to finalize and to implement a programme for the repatriation and reintegration of returnees.
The concrete missions of the Commission shall be as follows:
1. Conduct a socio-economic survey of refugees;
2. Organize a pre-repatriation census and registration of returnees;
3. Conduct an information and sensitization campaign both to the refugee community and the population within the country
4. Identify settlement sites, supervise the distribution of plots and establishment of basic infrastructures such as Reception Centres, Health Centres, Educational Centres, etc.;
5. Make travel arrangements for all returnees, where necessary, and arrangements for the transport of their property;
6. Supervise all kinds of assistance for the returnees, such as food aid, farming tools, building materials, domestic items, seeds, etc.;
That Commission may set up Committees, where necessary, for the execution of some of its missions.
Article 11
For border crossings, a list of items subject to an export ban in the country of asylum and to an import ban in Rwanda shall be communicated in advance to refugees opting for repatriation.
Property and assets of returnees shall be exempted from all import duties and taxes, except for commercial goods.
The exchange regulations shall be communicated to returnees and facilitated by the appropriate authorities.
Customs formalities shall also be specified by the country of asylum and by Rwanda.
The Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, in coordination with Immigration and Emigration Services, shall provide facilities at border posts and at the International airport, for the reception of returnees who shall have opted to go back home with their own means.
Sub-Section 4: Assistance
Article 12
The repatriation funding programme shall provide for provisional accommodation centres on the settlement sites in rural or in urban areas, in existing or those to be built, on condition that the latter are built for ultimate use.
Returnees at that time shall be fully taken care of, including an initial free medical check-up.
Article 13
Returnees shall provisionally be accommodated in shelters built on plots allocated to them, but they shall rapidly be given a set of building materials to enable them to build their own houses and design them in accordance with model development schemes drawn up by the Commission for Repatriation.
Article 14
Upon their arrival in the country, repatriates shall each be paid a small amount of money to enable them to meet vital needs not catered for by the aid programme.
Article 15
With the assistance of the International Community, the Rwandese Government shall provide assistance to the returnees, in the following areas:
1. food aid;
2. domestic items;
3. farming tools;
4. building materials;
5. health;
6. education.
The same assistance shall equally be provided to those returnees who may go back to their places of origin.
Article 16
Food aid shall be provided for a period of at least 15 months, after which conditions for the continued supply of that aid shall be reviewed.
Article 17
Each family of returnees shall be provided with basic items such as kitchen utensils and bed and beddings.
Article 18
The programme for the settlement of returnees shall also avail a set of farming tools and seeds, preferably selected to meet the soil and climate requirements in the area. In so doing, it shall enable the repatriated farmers to undertake farming activities as soon as possible.
Article 19
The repatriation programme shall also include the supply of medicines and various equipment for the existing or newly established Health Centres.
Vulnerable groups, i.e. women, children, the aged people and the handicapped shall be specifically taken care of.
Article 20
A programme of assistance for children admitted in the educational system shall be established and tailored in such a way as to cater for school fees, funds for the purchase of uniforms and school equipment for two academic years.
Article 21
The returnees who shall take up activities other than farming, but are not able to take care of themselves, shall each benefit from some of the assistance programmes mentioned above especially:
1. Accommodation and food aid for a period of 6 months;
2. basic items such as kitchen utensils, bed and beddings
The Rwandese Government shall establish, through the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, mechanisms for the orientation and follow-up of job seekers.
Sub-Section 5: Integration Modalities
Article 22
Returnees may benefit from opportunities availed by the Development Projects designed for the enhancement of employment in the public and private sectors, in the same conditions as residents.
Article 23
The Rwandese Government shall undertake negotiations with international funding institutions, within the framework of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), so that the absorption capacities of the Public Sector could be enhanced.
There are certain sectors, however, which already hold out employment opportunities, such as Education, Health and the Judiciary.
A returnee who shall be integrated in the public sector shall be employed at the level to be determined on the basis of their qualification and professional experience.
Employment shall not be subjected to any precondition and criteria other than the age for employment and retirement.
Article 24
Returnees who have contributed to the Social Security in Rwanda may claim their dues, either for themselves or their beneficiaries.
As for those who have been contributing to the Social Security abroad, the Rwandese Government shall negotiate with the countries concerned so as to arrange for the compensation or transfer of their dues.
Article 25
Lack of knowledge of Kinyarwanda or French shall not constitute an obstacle to employment and discharge of duties within the public sector.
During the first three years of service, with effect from the date of appointment, the returnees shall use those languages they are most familiar with, and shall take intensive French or Kinyarwanda courses. At the end of that period, consideration of this facility shall be re-examined in order to determine whether it would be maintained or not.
To that effect, a programme of linguistic support as well as translation and interpretation services shall be organized, according to the needs, soon after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, using funds provided for in the Plan of Action for returnees or any other funds.
Article 26
The existing Commissions on the Equivalence of diplomas shall include qualified personnel among returnees and shall pay special attention to that problem.
Diplomas and certificates internationally recognised shall be considered for purposes of employment in the educational institutions or appointment to professional posts, in accordance with the UNESCO grading regulations and systems.
Article 27
The access to employment opportunities in the Private Sector and the establishment of new enterprises in the country have been liberalized within the framework of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). They shall be open to returnees without any preconditions, and under the same conditions as residents.
Government role in that field will be to reactivate support to existing firms, promote new investments and simplify formalities required to get started in the Private Sector. The Plan of Action shall also include a Guarantee Security Fund, so as to facilitate access to loans by returnees.
Article 28
The Commission for Repatriation shall develop settlement sites. The sites shall be provided with basic socioeconomic infrastructures such as schools, Health Centres, water, access roads, etc.
The Housing scheme in these areas shall be modelled on the “village” grouped type of settlement to encourage the establishment of development centres in the rural area and break with the traditional scattered housing.
Article 29
The programme for the reintegration of returnees shall provide additional school facilities, by expanding existing schools or creating new infrastructures to accommodate the returnee children already at school or of school age.
Article 30
For purposes of ensuring a smooth integration into the educational system in the country, and avoiding that students interrupt their studies and suffer adverse effects, a number of measures shall be taken:
1. During the first year, education should be provided in the language used in the country of asylum.
2. Within the first three months, intensive French courses should be organised for teachers and students, especially for students in the senior level of primary school and for students in secondary schools and institutions of higher learning, from the anglophone countries.
3. Some of the aspects of adaptation may be catered for in the private educational system.
4. The Plan of Action for Rwandese refugees shall take in charge students in their last two years of the primary, secondary schools and institutions of higher learning who may wish to stay behind and complete their studies in the host countries, if the educational systems in which they were studying are not available in Rwanda. Their certificates shall be recognized in accordance with the UNESCO system of equivalence of diplomas, certificates, etc.
However, special attention shall be given to the writing and reading of Kinyarwanda through additional remedial lessons, to enable new pupils and any other who might experience similar difficulties to catch up with those who are more conversant with the language.
Sub-Section 6: Implementation of the Overall Programme of Repatriation
Article 31
In accordance with the mandate entrusted to them by the Dar es Salaam Summit of 19th February, 1991, the UNHCR and the OAU shall organize, within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, a Donors’ Conference for the financing of projects earmarked in the Plan of Action for the Rwandese refugees.
In addition to other internal sources of funding, the Rwandese Government shall also rely on bilateral cooperation to support the Repatriation Programme.
Article 32
The implementation, at the political and administrative level, of the Repatriation Programme shall be supervised by the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration.
For the technical implementation of the various components of the Repatriation Programme, the Government of Rwanda and the UNHCR shall preferably resort to those NGOs with an established reliability, taking also their respective specialization into account. As such, one or several NGOs shall undertake site development activities, building activities, and the distribution of food aid.
Sub-Section 7: Timetable for Repatriation
Article 33
All the returnees having the means to settle themselves without recourse to Government assistance may do so, soon after the signing of the Peace Agreement.
To that end, Rwandese Embassies shall issue travel documents to all Rwandese refugees who wish to go back to Rwanda.
Article 34
With respect to repatriation in groups, the following programme of sequence is envisaged:
1. Within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, the UNHCR and the OAU shall organize a Donors Conference on the financing of the Repatriation Programme.
2. Within six (6) months after the establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government, tripartite agreements between Rwanda, the UNHCR and individual countries in the Region and the UNHCR shall have been concluded on issues pertaining to the repatriation of refugees.
3. Within Six (6) months after its establishment, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall undertake operations for the preparation of settlement sites.
4. Within nine (9) months following the establishment of that Government, the repatriation of the first batch of returnees may begin.
Section 2: Other Repatriation Solution: Settlement in the Host Country
Article 35
The Broad-Based Transitional Government shall take and implement measures, including through bilateral agreements, for the protection of the Rwandese nationals who shall have opted to settle in the host countries as immigrants.
Those immigrants shall fully enjoy the same rights as all other Rwandese citizens.
Chapter II: Return of Persons Displaced by War and Social Strifes
Section 1: Preparatory Measures
Article 36
The organized return of persons displaced as a result of war and social strife shall be done after the following preparatory measures have been taken:
1. Deployment of the International Neutral Force.
2. Disengagement of Forces in the war zones.
3. Establishment of the Broad-Based Transitional Government.
4. Clearance of mines in the war zones.
5. Planning and provision of humanitarian assistance in essential services.
Section 2: Administration and Security in the War Zones
Article 37
The administration entities established before the outbreak of war shall be reconstituted.
Article 38
The socio-economic services established before the outbreak of war, especially in the educational, health, justice, youth, trade, agricultural and animal husbandry sectors at the level of administration entities in the war zones shall resume their activities.
Article 39
The Broad-Based Transitional Government shall determine mechanisms of appointing local authorities in these zones.
Article 40
The clearance of mines in the zones shall be conducted by the International Neutral Force, in collaboration with the Army Command High Council.
Article 41
Security shall be ensured by the local police to be provided with adequate means and assisted, where necessary, by the National Gendarmerie.
Section 3: Humanitarian Assistance
Article 42
Humanitarian Aid shall be distributed by the Secretariat of State for Rehabilitation and Social Integration, assisted by the Humanitarian Agencies.
Article 43
The humanitarian aid shall consist of:
1. Food aid;
2. Domestic items;
3. Farming tools;
4. Building materials;
5. Health care and Medicines;
6. Education (School equipment, uniforms, school fees for a period of two years);
7. Transport to their places of domicile for those who cannot afford it;
8. Labour costs for the construction of houses;
9. Seeds;
10. Establishment of temporary shelters.
Section 4: Timetable and Modalities for Return
Article 44
As soon as the preparatory measures spelled out in Article 36 of the present Protocol are put in place, the Broad-Based Transitional Government shall issue directives for the return of displaced persons.
Article 45
The return of war displaced persons to their homes shall, as much as possible, be coordinated with the return of the refugees who left the country during the war, as well as that of persons displaced as a result of social strife. 
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Repatriation of Refugees and the Resettlement of Displaced Persons, signed at Arusha on 9 June 1993, Articles 3 and 8–45, as annexed to the Arusha Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front, Arusha, 4 August 1993.
Afghan Peace Accord
Paragraph 6 of the 1993 Afghan Peace Accord provides: “Effective steps shall be taken to facilitate the return of displaced persons to their respective homes and locations.” 
Peace Accord between the Islamic State of Afghanistan, Harkat-e-Inqilab-e-Islami, Mahaz-e-Milli, Harkat-e-Islami, Hizbe-e-Islami, Jabha-e-Nijat-e-Milli, Ahmadzai Ittehad-e-Islami and Hizb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami, Islamabad, 7 March 1993, annexed to Letter dated 10 March 1993 from the permanent representative of Pakistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/25398, 11 March 1993, § 6.
Sudan Peace Agreement
Paragraph 6(iii)(1) of Chapter 4 of the 1997 Sudan Peace Agreement created several administrative structures designed, inter alia, “to assist, repatriate, resettle and rehabilitate the displaced and the returnees”. 
Sudan Peace Agreement between the Government of Sudan; the South Sudan United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF), comprised of the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) and the Union of Sudan African Parties (USAP); the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), the Equatoria Defence Force (EDF); and the South Sudan Independents Group (SSIG), Khartoum, 21 April 1997, also known as the Khartoum Peace Agreement, Chapter 4, § 6(iii)(1).
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 28 of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement states:
1. Competent authorities have the primary duty and responsibility to establish conditions, as well as provide the means, which allow internally displaced persons to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to their homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country. Such authorities shall endeavour to facilitate the reintegration of returned or resettled internally displaced persons.
2. Special efforts should be made to ensure the full participation of internally displaced persons in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 28.
Cairo Plan of Action
In paragraph 70 of the 2000 Cairo Plan of Action, African and EU heads of State and government, in order to address the problem of refugees and displaced persons, agreed “to continue to provide assistance to refugees and displaced persons and to participate in their reintegration in conformity with international law and relevant UN Conventions”. 
Cairo Plan of Action, adopted at the Africa-Europe Summit, held under the Aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union, Cairo, 3–4 April 2000, § 70.
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire
The 2007 Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire provides:
Preamble
At the invitation of His Excellency Mister Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, in his capacity as incumbent Chairman of the Authority of Heads of State and Government of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), acting upon the latter’s express mandate, two delegations of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, one representing the President of the Republic and the other the Forces Nouvelles, met in Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007 …
After identifying the problems encountered in the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements, as well as of the UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, the Parties, with a view to taking decisions, reaffirmed:
- their commitment to the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra and Pretoria Agreements;
- their commitment to all UN resolutions on Côte d’Ivoire, in particular to UN Security Council resolutions 1633 (2005) and 1721 (2006).
In order to facilitate the implementation of the Agreements and the resolutions addressed above, notably resolution 1721 (2006), the Parties have taken the following decisions:
VI. Measures aimed at consolidating national reconciliation, peace, security and free movement of persons and goods
6.5. On the programme to help the persons displaced by the war return
From the perspective of national reconciliation and political and institutional normalization, the Parties of the Direct Dialogue agree to put into place, as soon as possible, a programme to help the persons displaced by the war return. This programme aims to ensure the social reintegration of persons and families who have left their home or their property due to the war.  
Ouagadougou Political Agreement between the Presidency of Côte d’Ivoire and the Forces Nouvelles of Côte d’Ivoire, having met at Ouagadougou from 5 February to 3 March 2007, Ouagadougou, 4 March 2007, preamble and Section VI, § 6.5.
N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance
Article 10 of the 2004 N’Djamena Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance states:
The Parties will facilitate the return of the refugees and the displaced to their origin communities on a voluntary basis and under security and dignity conditions. They will put in place adequate protection measures and their property will be restored or their losses compensated. 
Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, annexed to the N’Djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement, signed by the Government of Sudan, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, the Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement, the African Union and the Chadian Mediation, N’Djamena, 8 April 2004, Article 10.
Colombia
Colombia’s Basic Military Manual (1995) provides that at the end of the conflict, the parties have a duty to “facilitate the return of the displaced population and to provide them with protection and humanitarian assistance”. 
Colombia, Derecho Internacional Humanitario – Manual Básico para las Personerías y las Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, 1995, p. 31.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
When the tactical situation permits, the armed forces must cooperate, as far as possible, to ensure that normal conditions are restored, so that the civilian population can return to normal after the conflict.
Commanders and their subordinates must contribute to restoring normal conditions for the civilian population by:
a. rehabilitating combat zones (removal of obstacles and dangerous objects, such as mines);
b. ensuring the return of people and objects to their usual places and reintegration;
c. repairing damage according to established priorities;
d. returning objects used or taken by the armed forces for combat purposes (as a result of mobilization) to their owners;
e. providing relief to civilians in need and the population in general;
f. providing means of transport;
g. restoring essential public services as a means of preventing epidemics and the spread of infectious and contagious diseases. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 66.
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states:
When the tactical situation permits, the armed forces must cooperate, as far as possible, to ensure that normal conditions are restored, so that the civilian population can return to normal after the conflict.
Commanders and their subordinates must contribute to restoring normal conditions for the civilian population by:
a. rehabilitating combat zones (removal of obstacles and dangerous objects, such as mines);
b. ensuring the return of people and objects to their usual place and their reintegration;
c. repairing damage according to established priorities;
d. returning objects used or taken by the armed forces for combat purposes (as a result of mobilization) to their owners;
e. providing relief to civilians in need and the population in general;
f. providing means of transport;
g. restoring essential public services as a means of preventing epidemics and the spread of infectious and contagious diseases. 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 67, p. 268.
In post-conflict situations, the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] shall be an active partner in the sustainable reintegration of IDPs [internally displaced persons] at their place of origin or where they would choose to resettle and continue on with productive lives. 
Philippines, Internal Peace and Security Plan “Bayanihan”, General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Quezon City, The Philippines, 2010, p. 29.
Angola
Angola’s Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001) provides:
It is the responsibility of the Provincial Governments, through the Sub-Groups on Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Provincial Humanitarian Coordination Groups, to carry out the following:
a) To plan, organize and ensure the implementation of all resettlement and return processes for displaced persons;
b) To receive new internally displaced persons and returnees and direct them to the reception centres;
d) To identify resettlement and return sites;
e) To monitor the overall resettlement and return process, ensuring the implementation of the norms on the resettlement of internally displaced populations;
g) To guarantee adequate transportation to assist populations returning to their points of origin. 
Angola, Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001), Article 2(a), (b), (d), (e) and (g); see also Article 3 (identification of land), Article 4 (security of site), Article 6 (state administration), Article 7 (rehabilitation of infrastructure), Article 8 (social assistance), Article 9 (water and sanitation), Article 10 (resettlement kits) and Article 11 (food).
Armenia
Armenia’s Law on Refugees and Asylum (2008) states: “All competent bodies of the Republic of Armenia dealing with asylum and refugee issues must … facilitate the voluntary return of a refugee or asylum seeker”. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 4(3).
The Law defines a refugee as:
a foreign national who is compelled to leave the country of his/her nationality, or, in case of a stateless person, the country of his/her former habitual residence due to generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violations of human rights, or other serious events disrupting public order. 
Armenia, Law on Refugees and Asylum, 2008, Article 6(1)(2).
Colombia
Under Colombia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (1997), a National System of Integral Care for the Displaced Population on Account of Violence was created in order to facilitate the integration of displaced persons in Colombian society. A National Plan was also established in order to, inter alia, adopt means to facilitate the voluntary return of displaced persons. 
Colombia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 1997, Articles 2(6) and 10(6).
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Transitional Period Charter (1991) provided that priority should be given to the rehabilitation of those sections of the population that had been forcibly uprooted. 
Ethiopia, Transitional Period Charter, 1991, Article 14.
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended to 2010, states:
Article 5. Rights of IDPs …
2. The Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories of Georgia [shall] support IDPs in [the] enjoyment of their rights at temporary dwelling spaces, together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
k) Assist IDPs to return to their place of permanent residence after the reasons … [for displacement] have ceased.
Article 7. … Rehabilitation of displaced persons at the places of their permanent residence
1. In case IDPs return to their places of permanent residence after the reasons … [for displacement] have ceased:
a) the relevant bodies of executive authorities and local self-government, including the Ministry of Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Refugees and Accommodation of Georgia, shall secure the exercise of their constitutional rights [and] create the necessary socio-economic living conditions for the safety at their places of permanent residence. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended to 2010, Articles 5(2)(k) and 7(1)(a).
The Law defines an IDP as:
a citizen of Georgia or a stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to a threat to his or his relatives’ life, health and freedom, as a result of an aggression by a foreign state, an internal conflict or massive violations of human rights. 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended to 2010, Article 1.
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Displaced Persons (1996), as amended in 2011, states:
Article 1 – The Term IDP [internally displaced person] and the Prohibition of Discrimination
1. Internally displaced person from the occupied territory– IDP is a citizen of Georgia or stateless person permanently residing in Georgia, who was forced to leave his place of permanent residency and seek asylum within the territory of Georgia due to the threat to his life, health and freedom or life, health and freedom of his family members, as a result of aggression of a foreign state, internal conflict o[r] mass violation of human rights or [a]s a result of events determined by … paragraph 11 of article 2 of this Law.
Article 5.4 –Ensuring the [rights of] IDP[s] in the Temporary Residence
1. The Ministry supports the IDPs in [the] enjoyment of their rights in … temporary dwelling spaces together with the executive authorities and local self-government bodies, who:
g) Assist the IDP to return to his/her place of permanent residence after the elimination of the reasons stated in the first paragraph of the first Article of the present Law;
Article 7 – State guarantees for rehabilitation of displaced persons at [their] places of permanent residence
… If [an] IDP after elimination of the reasons enumerated in article 1 of this law returns to his place of permanent residence:
a) [T]he relevant bodies of executive authorities and local self-government, including the Ministry of Refugees and Accommodation shall secure the exercise of [IDPs’] constitutional rights [and] shall create [the] necessary social-economic living conditions for … safety at their places of permanent residence[.] 
Georgia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1996, as amended in 2011, Articles 1(1), 5.4(1)(g) and 7(a).
Georgia
Georgia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (2014) states:
Article 5. Protection of the Population from Displacement
2. The Government shall:
c) minimize inevitable displacement and damages caused by it;
Article 6. Definition of an IDP [internationally displaced person]
1. A citizen of Georgia or a stateless person with a status residing in Georgia shall be considered as an IDP, if he/she was forced to leave his/her permanent place of residence because of threat to his/her or his/her family member[s’] life, health or freedom caused by the occupation of the territory by a foreign state, aggression, armed conflict, mass violence and/or massive human rights violations and/or he/she cannot return to his/her permanent place of residence due to the above mentioned reasons.
Article 16. Social Protection of an IDP
1. The Ministry [of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia], within its mandate, together with other state bodies[,] shall support an IDP to exercise his/her rights. In particular, they shall
g) help IDPs to return to their places of permanent residence after elimination of circumstances as referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6;
Article 18. State Guarantees for Reintegration after IDPs’ Return to Their Places of Permanent Residence
1. The state shall ensure [the] development of relevant mechanisms supporting [the] reintegration of IDPs [at] places of permanent residence when they return.
2. If IDPs, after [the] elimination of circumstances as referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6, return to their places of permanent residence, the Ministry and other state bodies within the competencies granted to them shall:
a) ensure [the] realization of IDP rights envisaged by this law and the Constitution of Georgia;
b) take measures to create [the] necessary socio-economic and legal conditions for … safe living at their places of permanent residence;
4. The Ministry, together with other relevant state bodies[,] shall co-ordinate return, resettlement and reintegration activities while guaranteeing [a] safe and dignified return.
5. The state takes all measures to ensure [the] participation of IDPs in planning and managing [the] process of return, resettlement and reintegration to the places of permanent residence. 
Georgia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 2014, Articles 5(2)(c), 6(1), 16(1)(g), 18(1)–(2)(b), and 18(4)–(5).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Internal Displacement (2004) states that the authorities responsible for the voluntary return or resettlement of internally displaced persons “shall endeavour to facilitate the reintegration of returned or resettled internally displaced persons”. 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 14(1).
The Law also states: “To the extent possible, the full participation of internally displaced persons in the planning and management of their return or resettlement and reintegration must be ensured.” 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 14(2).
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states with regard to the process of returning or resettling internally displaced persons:
The intermediate stage … refers to the transfer phase in which the following activities are carried out:
1. Make sure the necessary logistics are in place for the transport [of internally displaced persons] in conditions of emotional and physical safety and with the support of a specialized technical team, the Armed Forces and the Police; and
2. Transfer … food, clothing and first aid kits. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 32(1)–(2).
The Regulations also states concerning the process of returning or resettling internally displaced persons:
The resolution stage (after the displacement) refers to the execution of activities aimed at consolidating the reintegration of the internally displaced persons through:
1. Basic initial services in order to support the transition phase as long as farming does not generate immediate income. … [This] includes the provision of food, medicine for … a first aid kit, blankets, farming material to kick-start production, material for manual and semi-industrial work, shelter programmes and assistance in the resolution of after-effects.
2. Promotion of local economic activity through the identification and strengthening of the capacities for social and communal organization and production as well as the execution of social and agricultural infrastructure programmes and projects in order to reactivate the community’s productive economic basis and for the reconstruction of a social fabric;
3. Significant importance must be given at this stage to actions taken for the definition of priorities with the participation of both the resident and the returning displaced population, thus creating a Care Programme for the area.
4. The area’s Care Programme shall consider providing, among others, assistance in the fields of mental health, access to land, housing and development programmes in order to ensure a sustainable reintegration; and,
5. The implementation of a monitoring and evaluation system. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 33(1)–(5).
No data.
Afghanistan
In 1997, in identical letters to the UN Secretary-General and to the President of the UN Security Council, Afghanistan called upon the UN “to immediately intervene to prepare the circumstances allowing all civilians who have been deported and forcibly displaced to return to their homes”. 
Afghanistan, Identical letters dated 19 January 1997 to the UN Secretary-General and the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/54, 21 January 1997, Annex, pp. 2–3.
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
261. Between 2002 and 2008, UNHCR, in cooperation with the MoRR [Ministry of Refugees and Repatriations], has facilitated the voluntary return and reintegration of 4,291,302 refugees (2,247,891 males (53 per cent) males and 2,026,733 (47 per cent) females) mainly from Pakistan and Iran. Twenty-eight per cent are children under the age of 18 years … Another 1,302,136 Afghans have returned spontaneously with 977,647 forcibly returned from Pakistan and Iran. From 2002 to November 2008, UNHCR and its partners have identified 4,880 unaccompanied returnee and forcibly returned children who have been reintegrated with their families. Unaccompanied refugee children approaching UNHCR offices in countries hosting Afghans seeking voluntary repatriation are assisted to return safely only after their families are traced inside Afghanistan.
262. Refugee children returning to the country have the same rights and benefits as other Afghan children. The services may include housing assistance to returnees’ families in their original place of residence, humanitarian assistance to vulnerable families, job opportunities, accommodation, legal support, and education for school age children.
267. In 2002, a MOU [Memorandum of Understanding] was signed between the GoA [Government of Afghanistan], UNAMA [United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan], and UNHCR giving UNHCR a lead support role in relation to IDPs [internally displaced persons]. In 2005, a National Policy was formed with emphasis on durable solutions and affirming the lead role of the Afghan Government represented by the MoRR [Ministry of Refugees and Repatriations], with the support of UNHCR. The policy aims at assisting IDPs … and in finding durable solutions for IDPs through voluntary return and/or local integration.
268. … The displacement is mainly due to “conflict, ethnic tensions or human rights violations, and natural disasters such as drought, or secondary displacement”.
269. In 2002, during the fall of the Taliban regime, 1.2 million people were displaced. The majority of them returned spontaneously while 500,000 IDPs returned with the assistance of UNHCR. In 2006 alone, UNAMA reported that around 80–90,000 people fled due to fighting in the Helmand, Kandahar and Uruzgan provinces in southern Afghanistan. Some 99,035 families (490,459 individuals) were assisted between 2002 and July 2008 based on the MOU signed by GoA, UNAMA and UNHCR.
270. There are several reports about returning refugees being displaced again on their return because of the lack of economic opportunities, unresolved land and property disputes, lack of shelter and/or basic services such as healthcare and education in their respective places of origin. This situation is of particular concern in eastern Afghanistan. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 261–262 and 267–270.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Angola
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights in relation to Cyprus, Angola stated that “all restrictions preventing displaced persons and refugees from returning home should be lifted”. 
Angola, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/ 1996/SR.46, 22 May 1996, p. 3.
Australia
In 2009, in a ministerial statement on Sri Lanka before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
Sri Lanka faces the tremendous task of resettling hundreds of thousands of displaced citizens. This process has started, but since the fighting stopped four months ago at least 250,000 people remain in camps for internally displaced people. Civilians in northern Sri Lanka have lived under difficult conditions for many years and suffered greatly, especially in the last months of the conflict. It is now vital to move quickly, more quickly than has been the case to this point, to create the conditions for them to rebuild their lives.
This financial year, 2009–10, Australia will provide more than $35 million in development assistance to Sri Lanka. Supporting resettlement is a major focus for the coming months. Yesterday I said publicly that recently I had approved $2 million to support the resettlement of displaced people in Sri Lanka. … This funding will include assistance for continuing the process of documenting internally displaced people to facilitate their return, their assistance with essential items, including food and water for travel and reintegration, and assistance to families hosting displaced people.
Australia welcomes the Sri Lankan government’s commitment to resettling over 80 per cent of civilians from camps for internally displaced people by the end of 2009, and looks forward to the resettlement of all civilians as soon as possible. Freedom of movement for the civilians in the north is essential. The start of the monsoon season this month has increased the urgency for voluntary resettlement and other solutions that provide freedom of movement. Australia’s call applies especially to children, the sick and the elderly, but it extends to all those citizens of Sri Lanka currently in the camps for internally displaced people.
[A] prerequisite for the revival of northern Sri Lanka is the de-mining of former conflict areas. It is the case that the demining challenge will affect the resettlement of displaced people from the camps. That is why in June, Australia provided over $1 million to non-government organisations for de-mining and why we responded in August to a further request by the government of Sri Lanka by providing a further $1 million through the International Organisation for Migration for de-mining efforts.
The voluntary resettlement process requires full access by international humanitarian agencies to areas of return and to information to ensure effective coordination. Australia has consistently called upon the Sri Lankan government to ensure that such access is afforded and information provided. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ministerial statement: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 14 September 2009, pp. 9413–9414.
Australia
In 2009, in a response to a question without notice on Sri Lanka in the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
I announced when I was there a further contribution by Australia of $11 million: $6 million to assist in de-mining to ensure that the areas where people are resettled to are free from the terrible blight of landmines; also $3 million to help through the United Nations with housing to resettle these people from displaced camps into accommodation; and, thirdly, $2 million worth of food through the World Food Program.
I very much made the point to the President and his ministers that, in ensuring this resettlement occurs, freedom of movement so far as those displaced people are concerned is absolutely essential. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Question Without Notice: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 16 November 2009, p. 11673.
Australia
In 2009, in a response to a question without notice on asylum seekers in the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
[We] confirm our continued cooperation with the Sri Lankans to assist with their humanitarian and resettlement challenges, including providing … $5 million to support the resettlement of internally displaced persons and $2.3 million for demining the former conflict areas. This is particularly important given the heavy use of landmines in the area, which is of concern in the resettlement process, and given the number of landmines used in the civil war against the LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam]. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Question Without Notice: Asylum Seekers, Hansard, 25 November 2009, p. 12838.
Australia
In 2010, in a ministerial statement on Sri Lanka before the House of Representatives, Australia’s Minister for Foreign Affairs stated:
… Australia continues to advocate resettlement of all remaining displaced persons in safe and dignified conditions as soon as possible. …
In many cases resettlement areas have been badly affected by the conflict. There are impassable roads, destroyed houses and a lack of potable water. Infrastructure, including schools and health facilities, is damaged or non-existent. Large swathes of agricultural land are as yet unusable and tools to restart livelihoods are scarce. In addition, there is the ever-present danger of landmines and unexploded ordnance. Demining is an essential first step to allow people to return home and rebuild their lives. For this reason, Australia has already announced its commitment to provide up to $20 million for demining over the next five years to ensure that the northern part of Sri Lanka can be made safe for resettlement. 
Australia, House of Representatives, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ministerial statement: Sri Lanka, Hansard, 17 March 2010, p. 2806.
Belgium
In 2007, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Somalia, the representative of Belgium stated: “All parties … are duty-bound to … promote the return of displaced persons to their areas of origin.” 
Belgium, Statement by the permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on “The situation in Somalia”, 17 December 2007, p. 10.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 2005, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Bosnia and Herzegovina referred to the work of the Commission for Refugees and Displaced Persons in regard to the return of displaced persons. It stated: “Mine disposal is [an] important precondition for return, especially if it is known that the return to villages and places where agriculture and cattle breeding are basic for providing the returnees’ subsistence.” 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 24 November 2005, UN Doc. CCPR/C/BIH/1, § 150; see also § 151.
Burundi
In 2008, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Burundi stated:
41. Protocol IV [to the 2000 Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi], chapter I, article 3, on activities in preparation for return, resettlement and reintegration, stipulates that the Government must undertake preparatory measures by requesting international organizations and the host countries concerned to conduct a gender and age disaggregated census of the refugees, including the old caseload refugees (1972), and a multidimensional census of the disaster victims.
42. Pursuant to chapter I, article 4, on guidelines governing resettlement and integration, the National Commission for the Rehabilitation of Disaster Victims must strive to achieve the following aims and objectives:
- To grant all returning families, including female- and child-headed families, food aid, material support and assistance with health, education, agriculture and reconstruction until they become self-sufficient
- To provide communes, villages and collines (hills) with assistance in the reconstruction of community infrastructures and with support for income-generating activities, paying special attention to women and enhancing their roles in building and sustaining families and communities
- To offer intensive language courses for returnees to mitigate the language problems
- To help returnees in other areas such as medical services, psychosocial support, social security and retirement, education of children and the equivalency of diplomas awarded outside Burundi.
65. As to social questions, the Government has signed a joint programme with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) on the reception and resettlement of repatriated persons in dignity and with respect for human rights, in particular the human rights of the most vulnerable groups, such as women and children who are heads of families. The programme aims to provide human rights training to staff working with repatriated persons at the borders and in the host communities.
285. In addressing this situation, the main objective of the Ministry of Reintegration and Resettlement of Displaced and Repatriated Persons is to rehabilitate Burundians who have been victims of the war (domestically displaced, repatriated and dispersed persons). This takes place in the form of humanitarian aid, resettlement and reintegration, in which the focus must be on reconciliation and peaceful coexistence, income-generating activities and access to basic social services. A large part of this effort is devoted to helping children, who, like women and the elderly, are particularly vulnerable.
286. The Ministry conducts activities in three areas:
- Medical assistance
- Food supplies and other basic necessities
- School assistance
287. UNHCR has built homes and primary schools in areas with large numbers of repatriated persons. 
Burundi, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 7 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/BDI/2, submitted 17 July 2008, §§ 41–42, 65 and 285–287.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
76. From 2005 to 2007, a succession of crises at the regional level (in particular the Darfur conflict) and at the national level (insecurity and intercommunity and political tension) caused the internal displacement of some 180,000 persons in the eastern part of Chad, especially in the regions of Ouaddai and Sila. …
77. Displaced persons currently choose between integration, relocation or return to their village of origin. At this stage, the Government has taken significant steps to enable displaced persons to return by building shelters, health centres, schools, wells, etc.
78. Between 2007 and 2008, intercommunity fighting led to the forced displacement of some 16,000 Chadians within the country, in particular in the regions of Dar Sila and Ouaddai. ...
80. To date, the Government has set up:
– Two governmental institutions with a mandate for internally displaced persons: the national agency to coordinate support for humanitarian activities and the integrated security force … (CONSAHDIS) and the national commission for the reintegration of refugees and returnees (CNARR). CONSAHDIS supervises the integrated security force (DIS) and projects to assist displaced persons, returnees and/or relocated persons and host populations and manages displaced persons sites.
– A comprehensive stimulus programme for eastern Chad (PGRET), developed with the support of a number of partners, particularly UNDP, was officially approved in September 2010. This programme seeks to meet the needs of internally displaced persons and host communities in areas of return, with the help of substantial financial and human resources made available by the Government.
– PGRET is a strong and positive political signal from the Government, demonstrating its resolve to improve the living conditions of its citizens, enable returnees to put down roots and start a process that will enable them to enjoy their fundamental rights. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 76–78 and 80.
Colombia
In 2004, in its third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Colombia stated:
117. The [Government’s] Programme of Comprehensive Care for the Displaced Population and the Social Solidarity Network are trying to find ways to improve living conditions for displaced people by providing comprehensive assistance that will enable families to become productive again and to recover their emotional stability, either by returning to their place of origin or by relocating elsewhere in the country.
118. Under … the resettlement arrangements, 9,285 households and 1,813 individuals benefited from expenditure of 13,099 million pesos on income-generating projects, training for entry into the job market and housing projects in towns and in the countryside. 
Colombia, Third periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 August 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/Add.129, submitted 28 June 2004, §§ 117–118.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2009, in its report to the UN Human Rights Council, Côte d’Ivoire stated: “[T]he political and military crises faced by Côte d’Ivoire since 1999, exacerbated by the war which broke out in September 2002, have had many grave consequences in the political, economic and social spheres.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Report to the UN Human Rights Council, 3 September 2009, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/6/CIV/1, § 136.
Côte d’Ivoire also stated:
133. The successive political and military crises … have resulted in massive and repeated waves of population displacement. According to the available estimates, the number of those affected is between 750,000 and 1 million.
135. … [T]he State, working in conjunction with a number of partners has initiated and put in place incentives and programmes of assistance to enable displaced people to return to their regions of origin. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Report to the UN Human Rights Council, 3 September 2009, UN Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/6/CIV/1, §§ 133 and 135.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2010, in its combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Côte d’Ivoire stated: “The military and political crisis has displaced large numbers of people from the Centre North-West region to the government-controlled area.” 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, § 547.
Côte d’Ivoire also stated: “There are several resettlement programmes for … war victims”. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, § 271.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2013, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Côte d’Ivoire stated:
211. The National Commission of Inquiry created by Decree No. 2011-176 of 20 July 2011 to investigate violations of human rights and public freedoms in the aftermath of the presidential election held on 31 October and 28 November 2010 was given the task of conducting non-judicial investigations into breaches of human rights and international humanitarian law in the period from 31 October 2010 to 15 May 2011.
225. The security situation worsened further with the post-election crisis of December 2010, with armed conflict leading to widespread devastation and the destruction of police and gendarmerie stations and military camps. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 21 May 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/CIV/1, submitted 19 March 2013, §§ 211 and 225.
Côte d’Ivoire further stated:
The situation of displaced persons in Côte d’Ivoire
405. The violence that followed the presidential election in Côte d’Ivoire in November 2010 displaced hundreds of thousands of people. By the time the crisis reached its height, in 2011, about 200,000 men, women and children had sought asylum in 13 neighbouring countries, with Liberia, Ghana and Togo taking in the largest numbers. In addition, about a million people are estimated to have been displaced within Côte d’Ivoire. The situation improved considerably after April 2011, when the new President took office and a new Government was formed.
406. To help refugees return to Côte d’Ivoire, in August 2011 the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees concluded a tripartite agreement with the Governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia, thus creating the legal framework and procedures for the repatriation of Ivorian refugees in Liberia who freely consented to this. A similar agreement was concluded with the Ghanaian authorities in October 2011.
407. Within Côte d’Ivoire itself, most internally displaced persons were able to return to their homes and attempt to rebuild their lives. However, tens of thousands have yet to find lasting solutions to their displacement.
408. Lack of security, humanitarian needs and access to land are the main obstacles to the return of displaced persons in the west of the country, where ongoing land disputes are perpetuating displacement and feeding ethnic tensions. Other major difficulties stand in the way of internally displaced persons’ desire to resume a normal life: food insecurity, limited access to health, education and housing services and gender-based sexual violence.
409. Another factor is the inadequacy of the financial resources available to implement the different projects and programmes devised for the rehabilitation and/or reintegration of internally displaced persons.
Responses to internal population displacement
410. In October 2011, the Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Solidarity, which is responsible for coordination with humanitarian organizations, set up a National Humanitarian Action Coordination Committee bringing together a number of ministries, NGOs and United Nations agencies. In this cooperative framework, humanitarian actors developed a strategy to enable internally displaced persons to return on a voluntary, sustainable basis, and this was validated by the Government in November 2011.
411. The restoration of State authority and security throughout the country, together with the restoration of basic social services and the promotion of income-generating activities, constitute responses to the return and reintegration difficulties of internally displaced persons.
412. In addition, government programmes were put in place for displaced persons. Under the President’s Emergency Plan, about 380 water pumps in villages taking in returning displaced persons were repaired during the first half of 2012. The Government provided this distressed population with financial and material assistance. It even contributed to the rebuilding of 1,000 dwellings with technical support from a humanitarian agency, Care.
413. Following the incidents triggered by the closure of the Nahibly camp, populations have benefited from government food and non-food donations and from financial support totalling CFAF 70 million.
414. The Government has made a substantial effort on behalf of internally displaced persons in the Lagunes region by providing a fund of CFAF 50 million to initiate a huge return operation, acting once again in collaboration with humanitarian agencies.
415. The Government is also benefiting from various programmes put in place by the international community to assist with reintegration into communities in certain parts of the country, especially the west.
416. These combined actions have produced tangible results. Whereas in May 2011 there were an estimated 80,000 internally displaced persons on 118 sites, there are now no displaced persons on these sites. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, 21 May 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/CIV/1, submitted 19 March 2013, §§ 405–416.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In the framework of the 2008 DRC Pledge of Commitment signed by a number of armed groups, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), taking note of the pledge of the contracting parties and upon their request, undertook in conformity with the pertinent recommendations of the Conference on Peace, Stability and Development in the Provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu to “create a demilitarized zone to … secure the return of displaced persons”. 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP-Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Article IV, § 4.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In 2010, during a speech before the Parliament on the State of the Nation, the President of the Republic stated:
Even if still fragile in certain areas, peace is back in practically all the national territory.
The challenge before us now is to consolidate peace and stabilize the region. The response requires the following complementary actions:
- the progressive and organized return of displaced persons to their environments, as well as of refugees to their respective countries. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Speech by the President of the Republic before the Parliament on the State of the Nation, 8 December 2010, pp. 1–2.
Djibouti
In 1994, Djibouti concluded the Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation with the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), which provides:
The FRUD shall encourage the return of refugees and displaced persons from abroad.
They (FRUD) shall provide the government with a list of the individuals concerned, so that the State can provide them with aid and assistance. 
Djibouti, Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation concluded between the government of Djibouti and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), 26 December 1994, Title III.
El Salvador
In 2008, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, El Salvador stated in the section on special protection measures for returning children:
Reception mechanisms are established for Salvadoran children found travelling alone in other countries. These are mediated by the various institutions involved, namely the Department of Humanitarian Management and Migrant Care (DGHAM), the Ministry of External Relations, the National Civil Police General Directorate for Migration and Aliens (DGME) and the Salvadoran Institute for Full Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA), amongst others. 
El Salvador, Third and fourth reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 23 July 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/3-4, submitted 21 February 2008, § 279.
In the same section, the report further stated:
The type of assistance offered [to returning children] consisted of providing:
a) Accommodation;
b) Food;
c) Hygiene products;
d) Psychological assistance, when necessary. 
El Salvador, Third and fourth reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 23 July 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/3-4, submitted 21 February 2008, § 284.
El Salvador
In 2009, in its written replies to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning its third and fourth periodic reports, El Salvador stated with regard to the “Welcome Home” programme for returning children:
A Migrant Care Centre was set up at the La Hachadura border in July 2005 in order to furnish social and humanitarian assistance and human rights protection to vulnerable Salvadorans returning to the country. The Centre provides children and adolescents with temporary accommodation pending their transfer to ISNA [National Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents] staff, as well as food, upkeep and health care. 
El Salvador, Written replies by the Government of El Salvador to the list of issues prepared by the Committee on the Rights of the Child in connection with the consideration of the third and fourth periodic reports of El Salvador, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLV/Q/3–4/Add.1, submitted 10 December 2009, Question 8, § 26(d).
Georgia
In 2012, in its fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Georgia stated:
30. Before August 2008, Georgia already had up to 300,000 internally displaced persons [(IDPs)] from previous conflicts that occurred in [the] 1990s in Abkhazia, Georgia and Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia, Georgia. The Russia-Georgia War of 2008 resulted in a new flow of IDPs (more than 121 000 persons). Therefore, protection and promotion of human rights of IDPs remain … a priority for the Government of Georgia. [The] Government has developed an ambitious National Strategy on IDPs which refers to both – internally displaced people in [the] 1990s as well as in 2008; it aims at securing dignified living conditions for IDPs, their re-integration into Georgian society, and the creation of conditions that would allow for their voluntary and safe return to their permanent residences. The appropriate Action Plan for the implementation of the aforementioned Strategy on IDPs is also in place.
31. According to the National Strategy, the MIDPAR [Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees] was assigned the leading role in coordinating and monitoring … the implementation of the Strategy and the Action Plan. The implementation of the Strategy on IDPs [i]s being undertaken in three stages during which all IDPs in need receive a DHS [Durable Housing Solutions] in an environment that provides opportunities for sustainable socio-economic integration. …
32. Within the framework of the State Strategy on IDPs and its Action Plan, the Government of Georgia has assisted significant number[s] of IDPs in their housing needs. As of December 2011, 279 [b]uildings in Tbilisi and 375 [b]uildings in [the] regions, in total 654 [b]uildings, were rehabilitated and transferred into the ownership of 18,909 IDP families. Also, cottages were constructed for 4,872 families, idle buildings were rehabilitated and transferred into ownership of 4,696 families, cash assistance was issued for 5,517 families, new apartment blocks were constructed for 2,029 families and rural houses were purchased for 80 families. In total, 36[,]103 IDP families, both from old and new conflicts, were provided with [a] durable housing solution.
33. The Government pays IDP allowances [and] covers electricity and other communal bills. The Second and Third stages of the process are still ongoing and it will cover all remaining IDPs.
34. As for the privatization process of the Collective Centers [(CCs)], it started in 2009. IDPs living in CCs owned by the Government that can provide conditions for DHS are offered to privatize their living spaces with [a] symbolic price paid by the Government. The process is voluntary and IDPs can refuse privatization and continue to live there until [an] alternative solution is offered to them i.e. alternative accommodation. …
35. There were cases when IDPs were asked to leave buildings which did not represent CCs (IDPs illegally occupied the building) or … where IDPs have already received DHS and therefore … were ineligible to continue occupying spaces in those particular buildings. To make the process more transparent, MIDPAR with the support of the UNHCR and other partner[] NGOs[,] developed Special Operational Procedures (SOP) that give clear guidelines for [the] organization of [the] process of resettlement and inform[ation] of the IDPs. The SOP have been successfully implemented in practice and they are used as a guiding manual in all resettlement processes. 
Georgia, Fourth periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 1 November 2012, UN Doc. CCPR/GEO/4, submitted 25 June 2012, §§ 30–35.
Germany
In 2004, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the representative of Germany stated:
On the basis of the new report of the Secretary-General that we are considering today, I would like to share with the Council a catalogue of three areas for measures to move our protection agenda forward.
Thirdly, regarding refugees and internally displaced persons, in general, their situation must be improved – and not least, mechanisms for their protection. More has to be done to avoid forced military recruitment, and we have to ensure better support for the return of displaced persons. In that regard, we should examine how to better promote the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, which the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs established in 1998. Better publicity and public awareness would give them more effect and respect. We should also advocate the implementation of those guidelines into the national legislation of States. 
Germany, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.4990, 14 June 2004, pp. 24–25.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Germany
In 2010, in its third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Germany stated:
As [regards] projects to support children involved in armed conflict, Germany is currently promoting roughly 20 projects with the target group “child soldiers”, especially in the African Great Lakes area. The projects in Africa receiving support from the Federal Government to reintegrate child soldiers are promoted by much more than €100 million, the following being named as examples:
- The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development is providing support via the GTZ [German Technical Cooperation] for instance with the project entitled “Promotion of Employment for Marginalised Youths” for the return and reintegration of young war refugees to their homes in Sierra Leone. The goal of the project, which is to run until 2013, is for disadvantaged juveniles and young adults to participate actively in their communities’ social, economic and political activities. 
Germany, Third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights the Child, 11 September 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/DEU/3-4, submitted 10 October 2010, § 38.
Guatemala
In 2006, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Guatemala stated:
A crucial aspect of the process of reintegrating thousands of Guatemalan refugees or displaced persons into society was the adoption of a law relaxing the requirements for personal identification documents indicating the civil status of persons affected by the destruction of civil registration records in the armed conflict. Congressional Decree No. 73-95, the Act on Personal Documentation of the Population Displaced by the Internal Armed Conflict, was adopted for that purpose. 
Guatemala, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 17 July 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/GTM/1, submitted 17 May 2006, § 158.
Ireland
In 2009, Ireland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, in a written response to a question on the situation in Sri Lanka, stated:
As I have stated on many occasions in this House, I am deeply concerned about the situation in Sri Lanka. The immediate priority is still the welfare of the 280,000 or so Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) currently being held in IDP camps in the north of the country. There is urgent need for … IDPs to be facilitated in returning to their homes as soon as possible … [and] for reconstruction to get underway. 
Ireland, Dáil Eireann (House of Deputies), Minister for Foreign Affairs, Written Answers—Foreign Conflicts (3), Dáil Eireann debate Vol. 690 No. 1, 23 September 2009.
Kenya
In 2010, in its national report to the Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Kenya stated:
82. Kenya’s post-election violence has displaced more than 600,000 persons within the country since December 2007 … With the establishment of a coalition government on April 14, 2008, there was a need to transition from humanitarian relief to more permanent solutions for the IDPs. Their return from camps to their previous homes has significant political and economic implications for the government. The government’s National Reconciliation and Emergency Social and Economic Recovery Strategy prioritizes quick resettlement, citing: promoting development (particularly in the agricultural sector); improving the national image abroad; preventing IDP camps from becoming fertile grounds for recruitment into militias and criminal gangs; and enhancing human rights of those displaced.
83. Tension and localized violence in some areas continue to prevent the large-scale reintegration or return of the displaced into communities. 
Kenya, National Report to the Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Eighth Session, Geneva, 3–14 May 2010, UN Doc A/HRC/WG.6/8/KEN/1, 22 February 2010, §§ 82–83.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
In 1996, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic stated:
During the war, displacement of Lao children from one locality to another or from one province to another within the country caused few social problems, as according to Lao custom, these children usually stayed with their relatives. The exact number of Lao children who took refuge abroad and subsequently returned is unknown. Nevertheless, the Lao Government, in coordination with UNHCR, has implemented a humanitarian policy outlined in 1977 accepting all Lao refugees, including children, volunteering to return to their country. Repatriated refugees were given assistance in money or in kind, as appropriate. 
Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 24 January 1996, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.32, submitted 18 January 1996, § 160.
Liberia
In 2009, in its combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Liberia stated:
When the war ended, an important part of the work of the Government and its partners was to facilitate the return of internally displaced persons and refugees to Liberia and their communities. The Government worked with LRRC [Refugee Repatriation & Resettlement Commission] and UNHCR to facilitate return and reintegration in 2004. As of 06 December 2005, 253,570 internally displaced persons had been assisted. About 48,663 families were involved. In 2005 253,570 internally displaced persons and 44,064 refugees returned. In 2005, 44,064 refugees returned home. This left about 110,000 still residing in Liberia’s neighbouring countries. About 4,275 children entered reintegration programmes. 
Liberia, Combined second, third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 9 November 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/LBR/2-4, submitted 5 August 2009, § 301.
Nepal
In its National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons adopted in 2007, Nepal stated:
1. Background
Due to natural disasters, human-made circumstances and disasters, armed conflict and situations of violence and fears having [been] created therefrom, persons and families are forcefully displaced from their homes or places of their habitual residence and thus they are time and again required to face such situations that force them to reside in other parts of the country. …
Therefore, the State is required to make appropriate provisions for their return to their place of habitual residence or for settling them voluntarily in other places in the country. …
3. Definition[s]:
For the purpose of these Policies:
(a) “Internally Displaced Person” means a person who is living somewhere else in the country after having [been] forced to flee or leave their home or place of habitual residence due to armed conflict or situation of violence or gross violations of human rights or natural disasters or human-made disasters … or with an intention of avoiding the effects of such situations.
5. Mission
To rehabilitate the internally displaced persons or families with respect, safety and on a voluntary basis and to assist in the reconstruction of physical infrastructure and to adopt preventive as well as sustainable measures for re-socialization in order to prevent the re-emergence of such situations in the future.
6. Objectives
6.3 To create an environment conducive for the safe, voluntary and dignified return of displaced persons or the construction and rehabilitation of social [and] economic infrastructures for their settlement in other locations.
7. Strategies
In order to achieve the objectives of these policies, the following strategies will be adopted:
7.12 Displaced persons or families will be encouraged to voluntarily return to their places of habitual residence. For this purpose, an appropriate rehabilitation plan will be formulated and implemented.
8. Policies
In relation to internal displacement, the following policies will be adopted:
8.3 Regarding Rehabilitation
8.3.1 Displaced persons or families will have the freedom of returning voluntarily to the places of their permanent … [residence] from where they were … [originally] displaced or of residing in the place of current … [residence] or … [of rehabilitation] in other places of their choice within the country. Each of the displaced persons will be provided with opportunities to return to his/her place of habitual residence, … [rehabilitation] and also … integrating with their disintegrated family.
8.3.6 While formulating the necessary [rehabilitation] programmes for … displaced persons …, their participation will be mobilized. Special priority will be given to the participation of women.
9. Programmes
For the implementation of abovementioned strategies and policies, the following programmes will be undertaken:-
9.7 Programmes for returning displaced persons safely to their respective [places of] permanent … [residence]. 
Nepal, National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, 22 February 2007, §§ 1, 3, 5, 6.3, 7.12, 8.3.1, 8.3.6 and 9.7.
Nigeria
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Nigeria stated:
The armed conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia caused an influx of refugees into Nigeria, the bulk of them are women and children. …
In 2006, with [the] assistance of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Nigeria a number of refugee children have been repatriated back to their home countries. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 8.2.1.
Peru
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights on the issue of internal displacement, Peru reported that “the government [of Peru] was conducting a major resettlement programme, including specific projects in the areas of health, education, communications and emergency assistance”. 
Peru, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.39, 15 April 1996, § 19.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Evacuations adopted by the Presidential Human Rights Committee of the Philippines in 1991 provide: “Both the Government and Non-Government Organisations shall help in the rehabilitation of evacuees through socio-economic projects, skills formation and education.” 
Philippines, Presidential Human Rights Committee, Res. 91-001 Providing for Guidelines on Evacuations, Manila, 26 March 1991, § 10.
Philippines
In 2002, in a speech during the 6th Asia Pacific-Middle East Regional Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the President of the Philippines noted:
We thank the Red Cross and the Red Crescent for your valuable assistance in the population movements caused by armed conflict.
I thank you, for instance, that the last of the evacuees of the recent war in Mindanao have gone home. And we thank you for making that easier. We have a ceasefire in place with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front [MILF] and the MILF has started to organize their own NGO that will undertake development projects and receive assistance. 
Philippines, Speech by the President of the Philippines d uring the 6th Asia Pacific-Middle East Regional Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 25 November 2002.
Philippines
In 2003, in a statement delivered in Dapitan city in the province of Zamboanga del Norte, the President of the Philippines stated: “We are prepared … to take the initiative in creating the environment for the peaceful return of the Pikit evacuees to their villages”. 
Philippines, Statement by the President of the Philippines during the End-of-Tour Ceremony, 2 April 2003.
Rwanda
In a declaration in 1995, the Rwandan Government stated that displaced persons had a right to humanitarian assistance in order to facilitate their resettlement. 
Rwanda, Declaration of the President on the decision to close the IDP camps of Gikongoro, 24 April 1995, p. 2.
Rwanda
In 2010, in its Comments on the Draft UN Mapping Report on the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rwanda stated:
5. … [F]rom 1994 through 2003, Rwanda repatriated and reintegrated 1.5 million Hutu refugees from the former Zaire, and over 1.7 million refugees from Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda alone …
13. … On 15 November 1996, the AFDL [Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo] and the RPA [Rwandan Patriotic Army] moved against the ex-FAR [Rwanda Armed Forces, the national armed forces of Rwanda before July 1994] and Interahamwe forces in the camps, and in the process, rescued and repatriated 600,000 Rwandan refugees in the course of four days from the Mugunga camp only. This spectacular return of refugees prompted the mass repatriation of Rwandan refugees from Tanzania and Burundi in the following weeks, allowing the bulk of the Rwandan refugee population to return home.
24. … The intention of the RPA and the conduct of operations around the Mugunga camp aimed at liberating and repatriating innocent civilian refugees. In the conduct of operations, the RPA occupied positions that blocked exits farther inside the former Zaire, and left open safe corridors leading to Rwanda, but never fired any weapons into the camp. Loudspeakers were used to call upon refugees to return to Rwanda …
26. … Again, the priority objective of the operation was to … [allow] all refugees [to] return to Rwanda. In order to facilitate the return of hundreds of thousands of refugees, the APR formed a blocked corridor eastward from Lac Vert to Mugunga through Goma, and finally the border with Rwanda. This corridor kept the refugees from fleeing in the wrong direction, as well as protecting them from outside violence …
55. A total of 1,528,626 Hutu refugees were repatriated and reintegrated from the former Zaire, and 1,763,828 refugees were repatriated and reintegrated from Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania alone …
56. These numbers illustrate that the GoR [Government of Rwanda] did, indeed, have a clear policy from 1994 through 2003, and that policy continues today: to bring home all Rwandan refugees. This applies to refugees who have never taken a part in the hostilities, and combatants who have chosen to lay down their arms and return. During the timeframe that The Draft Mapping Report alleges genocide, the GoR repatriated over three million Hutu refugees and began down the path of reconciliation with the participation of an additional number of Rwandan Hutu, Tutsi and Twa citizens numbering in the millions who remained in the country. 
Rwanda, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Official Government of Rwanda Comments on the Draft UN Mapping Report on the DRC, 30 November 2010, §§ 5, 13, 24, 26, 55 and 56.
[footnote in original omitted]
Senegal
In 2011, in its third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, Senegal stated:
- The Committee notes that the conflict in Casamance sometimes impedes effective implementation of the [1984] Convention [against Torture]
187. The comprehensive peace agreement of 30 December 2004 concluded between the Government of Senegal and the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance has dramatically improved the situation …
193. Having undertaken to rebuild the region of Casamance, the State of Senegal made a commitment to make every effort to expedite the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes and to provide them with the necessary support to facilitate their reintegration into Senegalese society. 
Senegal, Third periodic report to the Committee against Torture, 5 October 2011, UN Doc. CAT/C/SEN/3, submitted 9 February 2011, §§ 187 and 193.
Senegal
In 2013, in its third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Senegal stated:
M. Measures adopted to protect children in Casamance
137. The Government has already launched a series of measures for this purpose. The National Agency to Revive Economic and Social Activity in Casamance (ANRAC) has been established with annual national funding of around 99 million, plus funding from development partners.
138. The aim of ANRAC is to rehabilitate and rebuild social infrastructure, including roads, schools and health services, and to develop conflict warning and prevention activities, as well as to address the social and environmental impact of conflicts. These activities complement those relating to disarmament, demobilization, resettlement and reintegration, demining and support for displaced persons and refugees returning to their places of origin.
139. … Additionally, in 2007 the Government established a humanitarian demining programme through the National Anti-Mine Centre of Senegal. Demining operations began progressively in 2008 and 16 villages have been cleared, allowing their inhabitants to return. By mid-June 2012, 6 other villages were declared demined and ready to be repopulated. 
Senegal, Third to fifth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 March 2015, UN Doc. CRC/C/SEN/3–5, submitted 29 April 2013, §§ 137–139.
Sierra Leone
In 2006, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sierra Leone stated with regard to the “resettlement and reintegration of displaced and returnee children” following the end of the civil conflict in January 2002:
272. Closely related to the issue of children associated with the fighting forces is the resettlement and reintegration of displaced/separated children as well as returnee children into communities.
273. In its 2005 Midterm Programme Review, UNICEF-Sierra Leone reported that 93 per cent of all registered separated children in Sierra Leone have been reintegrated. The FTR [Family Tracing and Reunification] programme, which comprised key stakeholders in protection matters for children such as the Police, other CPN [Child Protection Partners] partners and local authorities, proved to be efficient and reliable in tracing and reuniting families with their lost children.
274. The International Committee of the Red Cross also supported the FTR programme by publishing pictures of children who had been found along with their biological data to facilitate public identification and tracing. Significant reunification was achieved through this method as well. IRC [International Rescue Committee], a CPN partner, also reports employing various rural/village level reintegration mechanisms for separated and ex-combatant children. Cleansing rituals and family reunification was achieved through these programmes; and in many cases involving sexually-abused child victims, communities accepted the victims and their plights as incidents of war. War Child-Sierra Leone and several other CPN partners also use recreation and psychosocial healing to impact effective reintegration of affected children.
275. The Government particularly reports that in 2003 alone, the Ministry for Social Welfare and its CPN partners together with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) effectively resettled and reintegrated a total of 478 Sierra Leonean children, comprising 310 boys and 168 girls, from the neighbouring countries of Guinea and Liberia. The Ministry and its partners equally provided alternative care for 408 separated Liberian children as earlier explained. One hundred and thirty one of these Liberian children were subsequently reunified with their families. 
Sierra Leone, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 8 September 2006, UN Doc. CRC/C/SLE/2, §§ 272–275.
Sri Lanka
In 2008, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the 2000 Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Sri Lanka stated:
36. The former Special Representative of the [UN] Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict Mr. Olara Otunnu was invited by the Government to visit Sri Lanka in May 1998, to add strength to the advocacy campaign against child recruitment … The LTTE [Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam] made the following commitments in relation to children in armed conflict to Mr. Otunnu during his meeting with the LTTE[:]
(b) The LTTE … agreed to not impede the movement of displaced people to the cleared areas. This involved a commitment by the LTTE not to prevent the return of the displaced Muslim population, which include many women and children, from returning to their homes, and accepted that a framework to monitor this process should be introduced …
37. These commitments were not implemented by the LTTE. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 15 February 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/LKA/1, submitted 16 June 2008, §§ 36(b) and 37.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Switzerland
In 2009, in its Report on Foreign Policy, Switzerland’s Federal Council stated:
Programmes on the civilian promotion of peace will in the future also seek to focus on topics necessary for ensuring the sustainability of peace processes and considered a priority for Switzerland, such as … dealing with the past.
In the context of processes for dealing with the past, Switzerland, for example, supports countries concerned in the realization of their obligations concerning … the return of displaced persons[.] 
Switzerland, Federal Council, Report on Foreign Policy 2009, 2 September 2009, Section 3.3.6.2, p. 5801.
Thailand
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
Children in temporary shelters for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict
101. The aim of Thailand’s policy towards displaced persons fleeing armed conflict is to provide assistance on a humanitarian basis pending eventual repatriation. …
102. Some of the measures taken to ensure proper care and treatment of these people are:
(a) The establishment of a committee, consisting of representative[s] from relevant agencies, tasked with providing care for displaced persons in temporary refuge and determining [a] long-term plan aimed at eventual repatriation or settlement in a third country;
(c) Development of profile and personal records for care and repatriation;
(g) Preparation for [a] repatriation plan with UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees] and cooperation with the MOE [Ministry of Education] and non-governmental organizations in providing education and vocational training.
(h) Facilitating resettlement in a third country in cooperation with IOM [International Organization for Migration.] 
Thailand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 September 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/3-4, submitted 11 July 2011, §§ 101 and 102(a), (c), (g) and (h).
Turkey
In its pleadings before the European Court of Human Rights in Akdivar and Others v. Turkey in 1996, the Turkish Government submitted that it had introduced a programme in south-eastern Turkey to facilitate the return of displaced persons to their villages by providing the necessary infrastructure in rural areas. 
Turkey, Pleadings before the European Court of Human Rights, Akdivar and Others v. Turkey, 16 September 1996, p. 20.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Security Council affirmed “the right of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes” and called on “the parties to facilitate this.” 
UN Security Council, Res. 876, 19 October 1993, § 5, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In two resolutions adopted in 1993 and 1994, the UN Security Council called on all parties “to cooperate with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies operating in Mozambique to facilitate the speedy repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 882, 5 November 1993, § 17; Res. 898, 23 February 1994, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN Security Council demanded that the Government of Croatia “create conditions conducive to the return of those persons who had left their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1009, 10 August 1995, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on violations of international humanitarian law and of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the UN Security Council urged all the parties “to fully cooperate with … efforts [to assist displaced persons], with a view to create conditions conducive to the repatriation and return of refugees and displaced persons in safety and dignity”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1034, 21 December 1995, § 18, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Angola adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council urged the international community “to fulfil expeditiously its pledges to provide assistance to facilitate … the resettlement of displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1075, 11 October 1996, § 22, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted in 1996, the UN Security Council stressed the importance of “facilitating the return or resettlement of refugees and displaced persons which should be gradual and orderly and carried out through progressive, coordinated programmes that address the need for local security, housing and jobs”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1088, 12 December 1996, § 11, voting record: 18-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Croatia adopted in 1997, the UN Security Council noted with concern that “the lack of conditions necessary for the return of displaced persons … prevents the return in any substantial number of those displaced seeking to return”. The Council urged the Government of Croatia:
to create the necessary conditions of security, safety and social and economic opportunity for those returning to their homes in Croatia, including the prompt payment of pensions; and to foster the successful implementation of the Agreement on Operational Procedures of Return. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1120, 14 July 1997, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on Georgia adopted in 1997, the UN Security Council demanded that the Abkhaz side “guarantee the safety of spontaneous returnees already in the area and regularize their status in cooperation with UNHCR and in accordance with the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1124, 31 July 1997, preamble, §§ 11–12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on Kosovo, the UN Security Council underlined the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for creating the conditions which allow “refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1199, 23 September 1998, § 4(c), voting record: 14-0-1.
In another resolution adopted the same year, the Council demanded that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia “facilitate, in agreement with UNHCR and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the safe return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1203, 24 October 1998, § 12, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council expressed its deep concern about “the large-scale displacement and relocation of East Timorese civilians, including large numbers of women and children” and stressed that it was the responsibility of the Indonesian authorities “to take immediate and effective measures to ensure the safe return of refugees in West Timor and other parts of Indonesia to East Timor”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1272, 25 October 1999, preamble and § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population, and requests further measures to be undertaken inter alia by the United Nations Development Programme, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to create conditions conducive to the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, including through quick-impact projects, to develop their skills and to increase their self-reliance, with full respect for their inalienable right to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1462, 30 January 2003, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population, and requests further measures to be undertaken inter alia by the United Nations Development Programme, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs to create conditions conducive to the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, including through quick-impact projects, to develop their skills and to increase their self-reliance, with full respect for their inalienable right to return to their homes in secure and dignified conditions. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1494, 30 July 2003, § 15, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation in Liberia, the UN Security Council encouraged “UNMIL, within its capabilities and areas of deployment, to support the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1509, 19 September 2003, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council:
16. Recalls that the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population;
17. Welcomes the mission led by the United Nations Development Programme to the Gali region (December 2003) to assess the feasibility of a sustainable recovery process for the local population and potential returnees and to identify further actions to improve the overall security conditions and ensure sustainable return and looks forward to the publication of the resulting report. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1524, 30 January 2004, §§ 16–17, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council requested “all parties and concerned States to facilitate the voluntary, safe and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and to cooperate fully to this end with ONUB and the relevant international organizations”.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1545, 21 May 2004, § 13, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council stressed “that any return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes must take place voluntarily with adequate assistance and with sufficient security”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1556, 30 July 2004, preamble, voting record: 13-0-2.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation in Georgia, the UN Security Council recalled that “the Abkhaz side bears a particular responsibility to protect the returnees and to facilitate the return of the remaining displaced population”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1615, 29 July 2005, § 19, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
Decides further that the mandate of UNMIS in Darfur shall also include the following:
(a) To facilitate and coordinate in close cooperation with relevant United Nations agencies, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance inter alia by helping to establish the necessary security conditions in Darfur. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1706, 31 August 2006, § 9, voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In 1994 and 1995, in statements by its President on the conflict in Georgia, the UN Security Council called upon the Abkhaz party “to take all necessary measures, in cooperation with UNHCR, to ensure a speedy and organized voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/78, 2 December 1994, p. 1; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/12, 17 March 1995, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President on Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Security Council urged “the Abkhaz authorities to accelerate the return process significantly, to guarantee the safety of all returnees and to regularize the status of spontaneous returnees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/39, 18 August 1995.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called on the Government of Rwanda and the international community to intensify efforts “to bring about a climate of trust and confidence which would assist in the early and safe return of refugees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/22, 27 April 1995, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on Georgia, the UN Security Council encouraged the UN Secretary-General “to take such steps as are necessary, in cooperation with the parties, in order to ensure a prompt and safe return of the refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/25, 8 May 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President regarding the situation in Somalia, the UN Security Council urged:
the Somalia leaders to live up to their commitments under the “Eldoret Declaration”, to facilitate the delivery of much-needed humanitarian assistance, to assure the safety of all international and national aid workers, to provide immediate safe access for all humanitarian personnel, and to support the return and reintegration of refugees. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/2, 12 March 2003, pp. 2–3.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the importance of mine action for peacekeeping operations, the UN Security Council urged:
Member States, as appropriate, to provide adequate and sustained financial assistance to support mine action and alleviate the suffering of populations affected by mines and unexploded ordnance, and whenever possible, increase their support through further contributions to the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Action and call[ed] particular attention to the need to address the socio-economic, physical and psychosocial reintegration of landmine survivors, the need to facilitate the orderly return of refugees and internally displaced persons affected by mines and unexploded ordnance, the need to restore land to productive use, and the need to prioritize mine action efforts to enable the risk-free movement of people and goods. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/22, 19 November 2003, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President concerning the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, the UN Security Council emphasized “the need for the Government of Sudan to facilitate the voluntary and safe return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes, and to provide protection for them, and also calls upon all parties, including opposition groups, to support these objectives”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/18, 25 May 2004, p. 1.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1950, the UN General Assembly adopted the Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which provides: “The High Commissioner shall engage in such additional activities, including repatriation and resettlement, as the UN General Assembly may determine.” 
UN General Assembly, Res. 428 (V), 14 December 1950, § 9, voting record: 36-5-11-8.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1991, the UN General Assembly appealed to all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan “to cooperate fully especially on the subject of mine detection and clearance, in order to facilitate the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes in safety and dignity, in conformity with the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 46/136, 17 December 1991, § 16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Urges all States and relevant organizations to support the High Commissioner’s search for durable solutions to refugee problems, including voluntary repatriation, integration in the country of asylum and resettlement in a third country, as appropriate, and welcomes in particular the ongoing efforts of her Office to pursue wherever possible opportunities to promote conditions conducive to the preferred solution of voluntary repatriation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/116, 20 December 1993, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the UN General Assembly stressed “the need to create an environment conducive to the realization of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and to the return by refugees and displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/206, 23 December 1994, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN General Assembly called upon the Government of Croatia “to remove all legal and administrative hurdles which are preventing the return of refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 50/193, 22 December 1995, § 128(b), voting record: 144-1-20-20.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly called upon the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and ethnic Albanian leaders “to allow for and facilitate the free and unhindered return to their homes, in safety and dignity, of all internally displaced persons and refugees” and expressed “its concern about reports of continuing harassment or other impediments in this regard”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 53/164, 9 December 1998, § 23), voting record: 122-3-34-26.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the UN General Assembly stressed “the importance of and the responsibility of all parties to create a secure environment in Kosovo that will allow refugees and displaced persons to return”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 54/183, 17 December 1999, § 13), voting record: 108-4-45-31.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2000, the UN General Assembly urged all parties to the continuing conflict in the Sudan:
To respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms [and] to respect fully international humanitarian law, thereby facilitating the voluntary return, repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 55/116, 4 December 2000, § 3(b), voting record: 85-32-49-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Calls for continued international assistance to the vast number of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons to facilitate their safe and orderly return and sustainable reintegration into society so as to contribute to the stability of the entire country. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 A, 5 December 2003, § 16, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance for humanitarian relief, rehabilitation and development for Timor-Leste, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the efforts of the Government of Indonesia and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in providing humanitarian assistance to the refugees of Timor-Leste in the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara, in facilitating their return to and reintegration in Timor-Leste or in assisting with their local integration and resettlement, as appropriate, in Indonesia. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/121, 17 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly called upon:
African States, the international community and relevant United Nations organizations to take concrete action to meet the needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons for protection and assistance and to contribute generously to national projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on humanitarian and special economic assistance to Serbia and Montenegro, the UN General Assembly:
1. Calls upon all States, regional organizations, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and other relevant bodies to continue to provide assistance to alleviate the needs of refugees and internally displaced persons, bearing in mind in particular the special situation of women, children, the elderly and other vulnerable groups, and to assist financially and otherwise in seeking durable solutions for a safe return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin, or for settlement at their place of refuge for those who want to integrate locally, in cooperation with the local authorities, with a successive transition to development projects aimed at durable solutions to those questions.
5. Welcomes the continued commitment of Serbia and Montenegro and encourages it to cooperate further with the United Nations system as well as development and humanitarian organizations to address the needs of the affected population, including refugees and internally displaced persons, and urges the relevant authorities and the international community to support and stimulate development assistance for the implementation of the National Strategy for Resolving Problems of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, national strategies for poverty reduction and other programmes that will ensure that the needs of the vulnerable refugees and internally displaced persons in Serbia and Montenegro are met and to pursue durable solutions to their plight, in particular voluntary repatriation and reintegration, stresses the need to create conditions that are conducive to their safe return, and emphasizes in this regard the importance of regional cooperation in the search for solutions to the plight of refugees;
6. Urges the relevant government authorities in Serbia and Montenegro to develop, with the assistance of the United Nations system, national policies for comprehensive durable solutions for internally displaced persons based on the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, and in that regard invites the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo to strengthen its efforts, within its mandate, in coordination with relevant government authorities in Serbia and Montenegro, for the establishment of the necessary conditions for the safe and sustainable return of internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/215, 22 December 2004, §§ 1 and 5–6, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Liberia, the UN General Assembly:
7. Urges the National Transitional Government and all States to facilitate and support the return and reintegration of ex-combatants into their home communities, with special attention to children;
8. Commends the Secretary-General for his continuing efforts to mobilize international assistance for the development and reconstruction of Liberia, and requests him to continue his efforts to mobilize all possible assistance within the United Nations system to help in the reconstruction and development of Liberia and in the return and reintegration of refugees, displaced persons and demobilized soldiers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/219, 22 December 2004, §§ 7–8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Recalls the important role of effective partnerships and coordination in meeting the needs of refugees and in finding durable solutions to their situations, welcomes the efforts under way, in cooperation with countries hosting refugees and countries of origin, including their respective local communities, United Nations agencies and other development actors, to promote a framework for durable solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations, which includes the “4Rs” approach (repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction) to sustainable return, and encourages States, in cooperation with United Nations agencies and other development actors, to support, inter alia, through the allocation of funds, the development and implementation of the 4Rs and other programming tools to facilitate the transition from relief to development. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, § 17, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon the international community, including States and the Office of the High Commissioner and other relevant United Nations organizations, within their respective mandates, to take concrete action to meet the protection and assistance needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and to contribute generously to projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight and facilitating durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on international assistance for the economic rehabilitation of Angola, the UN General Assembly recognized “the primary responsibility of the Government of Angola for the welfare of its citizens, including returning refugees and internally displaced persons, together with the support of the international community”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/219, 20 December 2006, § 2, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
19. Recalls the important role of effective partnerships and coordination in meeting the needs of refugees and in finding durable solutions to their situations, welcomes the efforts under way, in cooperation with countries hosting refugees and countries of origin, including their respective local communities, relevant United Nations agencies, international and intergovernmental organizations, regional organizations, as appropriate, non-governmental organizations and development actors, to promote a framework for durable solutions, particularly in protracted refugee situations, which includes an approach to sustainable and timely return which encompasses repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, and encourages States, in cooperation with relevant United Nations agencies, international and intergovernmental organizations, regional organizations, non-governmental organizations and development actors, to support, inter alia, through the allocation of funds, the implementation of such a framework to facilitate an effective transition from relief to development;
20. Recognizes that no solution to displacement can be durable unless it is sustainable, and therefore encourages the Office of the High Commissioner to support the sustainability of return and reintegration. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, §§ 19–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
10. Recognizes that no solution to displacement can be durable unless it is sustainable, and therefore encourages the Office of the High Commissioner to support the sustainability of return and reintegration;
13. Calls upon the international community, including States and the Office of the High Commissioner and other relevant United Nations organizations, within their respective mandates, to take concrete action to meet the protection and assistance needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and to contribute generously to projects and programmes aimed at alleviating their plight and facilitating durable solutions for refugees and displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, §§ 10 and 13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
8. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes, and emphasizes that durable solutions for internally displaced persons, including through voluntary return, sustainable reintegration and rehabilitation processes and their active participation, as appropriate, in the peacebuilding process, are necessary elements of effective peacebuilding;
15. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by further improving access to internally displaced persons. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/153, 18 December 2007, §§ 8 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of and assistance to Palestinian women, ECOSOC called upon “Israel to facilitate the return of all refugees and displaced Palestinian women and children to their homes and properties, in compliance with the relevant United Nations resolutions”. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2003/42, 22 July 2003, § 4, voting record: 42-2-4.
This call was reiterated in subsequent resolutions adopted in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007. 
ECOSOC, Res. 2004/56, 23 July 2004, § 4, voting record: 49-1-3; Res. 2005/43, 26 July 2005, § 4, voting record: 46-2-4; Res. 2006/8, 25 July 2006, § 4, voting record: 38-2-1; Res. 2007/7, 24 July 2007, § 4, voting record: 38-2-1.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed its concern over continuing human rights violations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including “actions that undermine the principle of the right to return, including … resettlement of displaced persons in homes which, under the agreement reached in Geneva on 18 March 1996, should remain vacant for six months”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1996/71, 23 April 1996, § 3(b).
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1999 on the situation of human rights in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights encouraged “continued efforts to dismantle the regroupment camps and the return of displaced persons to their villages as and when security conditions permit”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1999/10, 23 April 1999, § 6.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2001, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties to the continuing conflict in the Sudan “to respect and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, to respect fully international humanitarian law, thereby facilitating the voluntary return, repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2001/18, 20 April 2001, § 3(a), voting record: 28-0-25.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socio-economic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
4. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
10. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of non-discrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons;
12. Stresses the need to further strengthen inter-agency arrangements and the capacities of United Nations agencies and other relevant actors to meet the immense humanitarian challenge of internal displacement, and calls upon States to provide adequate resources for programmes to assist and protect internally displaced persons with a view to enhancing the capacities of countries with situations of internal displacement, and of the relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to meet the needs of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/51, 23 April 2003, §§ 2, 4, 10 and 12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Emphasizes the responsibility of all States and international organizations to cooperate with those countries, particularly developing countries, affected by mass exoduses of refugees and displaced persons, and calls upon Governments, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, other relevant parts of the United Nations system and other humanitarian and development organizations to continue to respond to the assistance and protection needs which exist in countries hosting large numbers of refugees and displaced persons until durable solutions are found. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/52, 24 April 2003, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
All relevant authorities and Member States to provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 8(n), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socioeconomic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
4. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
9. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of non-discrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons;
11. Encourages all Governments, in particular Governments of countries with situations of internal displacement, to facilitate United Nations activities and to respond favourably to requests for visits as well as for information, and urges Governments as well as the relevant parts of the United Nations system, also at the country level, to follow up effectively on United Nations recommendations and to make available information on measures taken in this regard;
12. Stresses the need to strengthen further inter-agency arrangements and the capacities of United Nations agencies and other relevant actors to meet the immense humanitarian challenge of internal displacement, and calls upon States to provide adequate resources for programmes to assist and protect internally displaced persons with a view to enhancing the capacities of countries with situations of internal displacement, and of the relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to meet the needs of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/55, 20 April 2004, §§ 2, 4, 9 and 11–12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
11. Calls upon:
(h) All relevant authorities and Member States to provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent and extensive humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced;
(i) All relevant international stakeholders to support the United Nations Joint Action and Recovery Plan for Somalia, which seeks to find sustainable solutions for the reintegration and resettlement of internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, § 11(h)–(i), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages the continuing voluntary repatriation of refugees … calls on the parties concerned to establish and promote conditions permitting voluntary, permanent return in full security, further recommends the Transitional Government and humanitarian partners to provide the displaced persons with humanitarian assistance and to facilitate their return and reintegration, and encourages the Transitional Government to continue the settlement of disputes relating to the property of repatriated and displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/82, 21 April 2004, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Liberia, the UN Commission on Human Rights calls upon the international community:
To mobilize the necessary resources to enable the National Transitional Government to implement relief and recovery programmes, including repatriation and resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees, and, to this end, to implement the decisions taken by the International Reconstruction Conference for Liberia. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/83, 21 April 2004, § 6(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on technical cooperation and advisory services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all parties “to apply all necessary measures to encourage the voluntary return of all refugees and displaced persons”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/84, 21 April 2004, § 4(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Expresses concern at the persistent problems of large numbers of internally displaced persons worldwide, in particular the risk of extreme poverty and socioeconomic exclusion, their limited access to humanitarian assistance, vulnerability to human rights violations, as well as difficulties resulting from their specific situation, such as lack of food, medication or shelter and issues pertinent during their reintegration, including, in appropriate cases, the need for the restitution of or compensation for property;
5. Notes the importance of taking the human rights and the specific protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons into consideration, when appropriate, in peace processes and in reintegration and rehabilitation processes;
10. Calls upon Governments to provide protection and assistance, including reintegration and development assistance, to internally displaced persons, to develop national policies aimed at addressing their plight, as well as to ensure that they benefit from public services, in particular basic social services such as health services and education, based on the principle of nondiscrimination, and to facilitate the efforts of relevant United Nations agencies and humanitarian organizations in these respects, including by improving access to internally displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/46, 19 April 2005, §§ 3, 5 and 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
14. Welcomes the efforts of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to contribute to the creation of an environment for a viable and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons in post-conflict societies through initiatives such as the rehabilitation of the justice system, including mechanisms for restoration of property and compensation and reparations as appropriate, the creation of independent national institutions capable of defending human rights, broad-based programmes of human rights education and the strengthening of local non-governmental organizations through field presences and programmes of advisory services and technical cooperation, and calls on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to strengthen its efforts in these areas;
15. Encourages the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, other relevant components of the United Nations system, other humanitarian organizations and regional organizations to continue to cooperate within their respective mandates and in accordance with international law in the creation of an environment for a viable and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons in post-conflict societies. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/48, 19 April 2005, §§ 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Encourages the continuing voluntary repatriation of refugees … calls upon the parties concerned to establish and promote conditions permitting voluntary, permanent return in full security, recommends to the Transitional Government and humanitarian partners that they provide the displaced persons with humanitarian assistance and facilitate their return and reintegration, and encourages the Transitional Government to continue the settlement of disputes relating to the property of repatriated and displaced persons. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/75, 20 April 2005, § 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Nepal, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon the Government of Nepal to provide urgent protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, taking account of the particular needs of women and children, to facilitate their safe return, reintegration and resettlement elsewhere in the country, as appropriate, and to develop appropriate policies and legislation in this regard, using the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/78, 20 April 2005, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon:
The United Nations, nongovernmental organizations and the Bretton Woods institutions to … provide support for the voluntary return and reintegration of Somali refugees and the provision of urgent and extensive humanitarian assistance to, and protection for, those who have been internally displaced. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, § 8(d), adopted without a vote.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1992, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights exhorted the Government of Guatemala “to adopt measures to facilitate the return to their places of origin of refugees and displaced persons within the country who wish to do so while at the same time extending all guarantees of security and full respect for human rights”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1992/18, 27 August 1992, preamble and § 7.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1993, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights exhorted the Government of Guatemala “to continue its constructive dialogue with refugees and internally displaced persons in order to resolve satisfactorily the question of their resettlement in Guatemala in conditions of dignity and security”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1993/16, 20 August 1993, § 5.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 1980, in its Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation, the UNHCR Executive Committee “recognized the importance of refugees being provided with the necessary information regarding conditions in their country of origin in order to facilitate their decision to repatriate”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 18 (XXXI): Voluntary Repatriation, 16 October 1980, § e.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Executive Committee
In 1996, in its Conclusion on humanitarian issues in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the UNHCR Executive Committee called upon:
Governments of the countries of origin to create conditions for and to ensure the organized return of refugees and displaced persons in safety and dignity in a phased and coordinated manner, in cooperation with and with the assistance of UNHCR, the host countries and the international community as a whole. 
UNHCR, Conclusion on Humanitarian Issues in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. A/50/12/Add.1, 1 January 1996, § 31(e).
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 2007, in its Conclusion on Children at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee recommended that States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners:
Facilitate the integration of internally displaced children in places of settlement through targeted action in support of their integration as fully included members of the community, including by taking measures to address discrimination faced by internally displaced children. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII): Children at Risk, 5 October 2007, preamble, § h(xvi).
UN Secretary-General
In 1992, in a report on Cambodia, the UN Secretary-General reported that among the objectives set for repatriation and resettlement were the identification and provision of agricultural and settlement land, installation assistance, and food for an average of one year for up to 360,000 returnees, as well as the provision of limited reintegration assistance and infrastructural improvements. He noted that there was a need to identify and allocate land for resettlement and that this process would require detailed mine verification. Resettlement packages for returnees would include basic housing materials, sawn timber, poles, bamboo, plastic tarpaulin sheeting, construction tools, as well as household items and agricultural tools, and an allowance for local purchases. It was foreseen in the repatriation component of the report that food assistance would be provided for an average period of 12 months at distribution points close to the final destination of returning displaced persons. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on Cambodia, UN Doc. S/23613, 19 February 1992, pp. 33–35, §§ 132–146.
UN Secretary-General
In 1995, in a report on the situation in Tajikistan, the UN Secretary-General reported that:
As a result of the fourth round of inter-Tajik talks … the parties agreed to step up their efforts to ensure the voluntary, safe and dignified return of all refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of permanent residence and adopted concrete measures to that end. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Tajikistan, UN Doc. S/1995/472, 10 June 1995, § 8(c).
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, the UN Secretary-General reported that:
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in close cooperation with non-governmental organizations, initiated … three major projects … to support the reintegration of those persons who have returned to their places of residence. The first project consists of the rehabilitation of 23 schools in the security zone, including the supply of school furniture. The second project supports the Gali hospital by providing medical equipment. The third project is intended to increase the corn harvest by distributing seeds, fertilizer and diesel oil.  
UN Secretary-General, Report concerning the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, UN Doc. S/1996/ 507, 1 July 1996, § 16.
UN Secretary-General
In 1997, in a report on UNAVEM in Angola, the UN Secretary-General highlighted the need to coordinate the voluntary return of groups of internally displaced persons and to develop resettlement plans. 
UN Secretary-General, Progress report on the UNAVEM, UN Doc. S/1997/438, 5 June 1997, p. 6, § 21.
UN Secretary-General (Representative)
In 1997, in a report on his visit to Mozambique, the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons reported that:
A major rehabilitation programme was launched in 1993 in order to promote and support the return and reintegration process. It was considered that durable reintegration could only be effected if minimum conditions were put in place to reduce the vulnerability of the rural population to new displacements. 
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, Report on the Representative’s visit to Mozambique from 23 November to 3 December 1996, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/43/Add.1, 24 February 1997, § 64.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a mission to Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extra-judicial, Arbitrary or Summary Executions stated:
The government of Burundi should elaborate and implement, without delay, a policy to improve security, which would enable the displaced … population … to return to their communes and would facilitate their reintegration and reinstallation. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s mission to Burundi, 19–29 April 1995, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1995, § 98.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights suggested that:
Food, shelter and the minimum requirements for basic living should be provided [to returnees]. Priority should be given to ensuring access to food and a safe environment, free from physical dangers. This will require continued implementing of the land-mines-clearance programmes, providing medical treatment, and locating safe sources of water. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan, Final report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/64, 27 February 1996, § 110.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a visit to Rwanda, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights for Zaire recommended that “the government establish resettlement programmes” to facilitate the return of internally displaced persons and that these programmes should cover “housing, education, health and, above all, security for all, especially women and children”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Zaire, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s visit to Rwanda, 6–14 July 1996, concerning ethnic conflict in the Northern Kivu region, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/6/Add.1, 16 September 1996, § 126 (j).
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights noted that, in spite of the provisions contained in the 1995 Dayton Accords, the authorities in the Republika Srpska had actively prevented displaced Bosniacs from returning to their villages. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/9, 22 October 1996, § 13.
UNHCR Standing Committee
In 1998, in a report on developments in the former Yugoslavia, the UNHCR Standing Committee welcomed the “Open Cities” initiative, whereby municipalities agreed to facilitate the return of minorities in combination with assistance from the international community. 
UNHCR, Standing Committee Report: Update on Regional Developments in the Former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. EC/48/SC/CRP.10, 2 April 1998, §§ 5, 21 and 22.
High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina
In a report in 1996, the High Representative for the Implementation of the Peace Agreement on Bosnia and Herzegovina stated: “A significant proportion of displaced persons and refugees will return voluntarily if, in practice, a secure and safe environment exists, and if adequate shelter and essential services are available or likely to become so soon.” 
High Representative for the implementation of the Bosnian peace agreement, Report, UN Doc. S/1996/190, 14 March 1996, § 70.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In several recommendations on Kosovo adopted in 1998, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly emphasized that the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia must create the material and security conditions necessary to enable IDPs and refugees to return voluntarily in safety and dignity to their own homes. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1376, 24 June 1998, § 12(iv); Rec. 1384, 24 September 1998, § 2; Rec. 1385, 24 September 1998, § 2.
OAU Council of Ministers
In several resolutions and decisions adopted between 1995 and 1997, the OAU Council of Ministers urged member States to create conditions conducive to the voluntary return of displaced persons to their places of habitual residence and to facilitate this process. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1589 (LXII), 21–23 June 1995, § 9; Res. 1653 (LXIV), 1–5 July 1996, § 4; Doc. CM/Draft/Dec. (LXV) Rev.1, 24–28 February 1997, p. 14; Decision 362 (LXVI), 28–31 May 1997, § e.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In the Final Declaration of the Kosovo International Human Rights Conference in 1999, the OSCE stated: “Conditions have to be created to allow for the safe return of refugees and internally displaced persons across Kosovo.” 
OSCE, Kosovo International Human Rights Conference, Pristina, 10–11 December 1999, Final Declaration, § 4.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1969)
The 21st International Conference of the Red Cross in 1969 adopted a resolution on the implementation of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV, particularly in the occupied territories in the Middle East, in which it requested the authorities concerned “to fulfil their humanitarian obligations by facilitating the return of the people to their homes and their reintegration into their communities”. 
21st International Conference of the Red Cross, Istanbul, 6–13 September 1969, Res. X, § 3.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1973)
The 22nd International Conference of the Red Cross in 1973 adopted a resolution on the application of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV in the Middle East in which it requested the authorities concerned “to fulfil their humanitarian obligations in facilitating the return of people to their homes and their reintegration into their communities”. 
22nd International Conference of the Red Cross, Teheran, 8–15 November 1973, Res. III.
International Conference on Central American Refugees
The Concerted Plan of Action adopted at the International Conference on Central American Refugees in 1989 stressed the necessity of according humanitarian treatment to internally and externally displaced persons, which presumed, in principle, facilitating the return to their homes and the reconstruction of their communities. 
International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), Guatemala City, 29–31 May 1989, Declaration and Concerted Plan of Action, UN Doc. CIREFCA/89/14, 31 May 1989, § I(28–30).
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1992)
In a resolution adopted in 1992 on support to the recent international initiatives to halt the violence and put an end to the violations of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the 88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference called on parties “to ensure conditions for the safe return to their homes of all refugees and displaced persons”. 
88th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Stockholm, Resolution on support to the recent international initiatives to halt the violence and put an end to the violations of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 12 September 1992, § 3.
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (1993)
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the need for urgent action in the former Yugoslavia, particularly as regards the protection of minorities and the prevention of further loss of life in order that peaceful co-existence and respect for human rights can be restored for all peoples, the 89th Inter-Parliamentary Conference urged “the creation of the necessary conditions for the safe repatriation of all displaced civilians and refugees to their homes as soon as possible”.  
89th Inter-Parliamentary Conference, New Delhi, Resolution on the need for urgent action in the former Yugoslavia, particularly as regards the protection of minorities and the prevention of further loss of life in order that peaceful co-existence and respect for human rights can be restored for all peoples, 17 April 1993, § 11.
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Chairman’s Conclusions of the Florence Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1996 reiterated the importance of the “free and safe return” of IDPs and refugees and laid out detailed provisions designed to facilitate such return. 
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Florence, 13–14 June 1996, Chairman’s Conclusions, annexed to Letter dated 9 July 1996 from the UN Secretary-General to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1996/542, 10 July 1996, Appendix I, §§ 11–15.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent proposed that all the parties to an armed conflict take effective measures to ensure that displaced persons “are able to return voluntarily, in peaceful conditions and in safety to their homes or to resettle voluntarily elsewhere”. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.1, § 1(c).
Human Rights Committee
In 1995, in its consideration of the report of the Russian Federation, the Human Rights Committee stated:
41. The Committee urges that “appropriate and effective measures be adopted to enable all persons displaced as a consequence of the events that occurred in North Ossetia in 1992 to return to their homeland.
45. The Committee urges that adequate measures be adopted to alleviate the conditions of all displaced persons following the fighting in Chechnya, including measures aimed at facilitating their return to their towns and villages. 
Human Rights Committee, Consideration of the report of the Russian Federation, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.54, 26 July 1995, §§ 41 and 45.
Human Rights Committee
In 2006, in its concluding observations on the report submitted by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo on the human rights situation in Kosovo since June 1999, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee is concerned about the very low number of minority returns and the inability of displaced persons to recover their real property, including agricultural lands (art. 12 [of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]).
UNMIK [United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo], in cooperation with PISG [Provisional Institutions of Self-Government], should intensify efforts to ensure safe conditions for sustainable returns of displaced persons, in particular those belonging to minorities. In particular, it should ensure that they may recover their property, receive compensation for damage done and benefit from rental schemes for property temporarily administered by the Kosovo Property Agency. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the report submitted by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo on the human rights situation in Kosovo since June 1999, UN Doc. CCPR/C/UNK/CO/1, 14 August 2006, § 18.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the initial report of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2006, the Human Rights Committee stated:
The Committee notes with concern that, despite the return of housing units to their pre-armed conflict owners and the allocation of significant funds to the reconstruction of demolished housing units, many refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) have still not returned to their pre-armed conflict places of residence or have left again after having returned there. (art. 12 [of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights])
The State party should increase its efforts to create the necessary conditions for sustainable returns, i.e. by combating discrimination against minority returnees, ensuring the social re-integration of returnees and their equal access to employment, education, and social and public services, such as water and electricity, and by further de-mining areas with significant returnee populations. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Bosnia and Herzegovina, UN Doc. CCPR/C/BIH/CO/1, 22 November 2006, § 20.
[emphasis in original]
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
In 1994, in its concluding observations on the report of the Sudan, CERD recommended that “concrete steps be taken to encourage the voluntary return of all refugees and persons displaced in the conflict”. 
CERD, Concluding observations on the report of the Sudan, UN Doc. A/49/18, 19 September 1994, p. 72, § 476.
No data.
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy
The 1994 Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation, concluded by the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD) with the Government of Djibouti, provides:
The FRUD shall encourage the return of refugees and displaced persons from abroad.
They (FRUD) shall provide the government with a list of the individuals concerned, so that the State can provide them with aid and assistance. 
Djibouti, Agreement on Peace and National Reconciliation concluded between the government of Djibouti and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie – FRUD), 26 December 1994, Title III.
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)
The Report on SPLM/A Practice notes that the SPLM/A supported an appeal by the House of Bishops of the Sudan in February 1998, which called upon donors, NGOs and other international organizations “to assist in the repatriation of 14,000 displaced citizens of Bor who are desperately waiting to go home”. 
Report on SPLM/A Practice, 1998, Chapter 5.5, referring to Appeal for repatriation of Bor displaced people by the House of Bishops meeting in Nairobi, 6 February 1998.
DRC Pledge of Commitment
In 2008, the armed groups party to the DRC Pledge of Commitment, “deeply deploring the insecurity that has prevailed for a long time in the province of North Kivu, causing massive displacements of populations and enormous suffering of civilians as well as massive violations of human rights”, undertook to strictly observe rules of international humanitarian law and human rights law, notably:
[to ensure] the return of refugees to the country, under supervision of the tripartite UNHCR-Government of the DRC [Democratic Republic of the Congo] and Governments of the countries of asylum (Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania) according to a calendar adopted by the Technical Humanitarian and Social Commission;
[to] establish a Commission charged with supervising the return of internally displaced persons and their resettlement in their places of origin in collaboration with the United Nations and other humanitarian organisations. 
Acte d’engagement signé par le CNDPMouvement Politico-Militaire, la PARECO/FAP, les Mai-Mai Kasindien, les Mai-Mai Kifuafua, les Mai-Mai Vurondo, les Mai-Mai Mongol, l’UJPS, les Mai-Mai Rwenzori et le Simba avec l’engagement solennel des Représentants de la Communauté Internationale, facilitateurs du présent acte d’engagement – les Nations-Unies, la Conférence Internationale sur la Région des Grands Lacs, les Etats-Unis d’Amérique, l’Union Africaine, l’Union Européenne et le Gouvernement (Pledge of Commitment signed by the CNDP, Mouvement Politico-Militaire, PARECO/FAP, Mai-Mai Kasindien, Mai-Mai Kifuafua, Mai-Mai Vurondo, Mai-Mai Mongol, UJPS, Mai-Mai Rwenzori and Simba with the solemn commitment of the representatives of the international community, facilitators of this pledge of commitment – the United Nations, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, the United States of America, the European Union and the Government), Goma, 23 January 2008, Preamble and Article III, §§ 1–5.
Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs
In paragraph 10 of the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs, the parties agreed that “representatives of refugees and displaced persons will be provided with facilities to visit the areas of return and to see for themselves arrangements made for their return”. 
Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Georgia, between the Abkhaz and Georgian Sides, the Russian Federation and UNHCR, Moscow, 4 April 1994, annexed to Letter dated 5 April 1994 from the permanent representative of Georgia to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/397, 5 April 1994, Annex II, § 10.
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 28(1) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement stipulates:
Competent authorities have the primary duty and responsibility to establish conditions, as well as provide the means, which allow internally displaced persons to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to their homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily in another part of the country. Such authorities shall endeavour to facilitate the reintegration of returned or resettled internally displaced persons. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 28(1).
No data.
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states:
The initial stage [of returning or resettling internally displaced persons] … refers to the phase before the transfer [of internally displaced persons] in which the following actions are carried out:
3. Evaluation of the return or resettlement zone with the participation of representatives of internally displaced persons, which includes the definition of actions, conditions and requirements necessary to facilitate the process of integration and reconciliation and to prevent possible conflicts. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 31(3).
No data.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1980, in a Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation, the UNHCR Executive Committee recognized that “visits by individual refugees or refugee representatives to their country of origin to inform themselves of the situation there … could also be of assistance” in facilitating the decision of repatriation. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 18 (XXXI): Voluntary Repatriation, 16 October 1980, § e.
UN Secretary-General
In September 1992, in a report concerning the former Yugoslavia, the UN Secretary-General reported “an encouraging development … involving daytime visits by refugees from one side of the Sector to the other to start work on the rehabilitation of their houses”. 
UN Secretary-General, Further report pursuant to Security Council resolutions 743 (1992) and 762 (1992), UN Doc. S/24600, 28 September 1992, § 21.
In a further report in November, the Secretary-General noted that a “programme for displaced persons to visit their villages and former homes has been accelerated with the cooperation of the two sets of local authorities”. 
UN Secretary-General, Further report pursuant to Security Council resolution 743 (1992), UN Doc. S/24848, 24 November 1992, § 18.
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Secretary-General reported that attempts by UNHCR to gain permission to organize visits by displaced persons to their homes in “non-majority areas” had largely been refused by the authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska “on grounds of lack of security guarantees or clear instructions from the leadership concerned. In other instances, visits by one ethnic group are conditioned on the other ethnic group being able to visit their own homes on the other side.” 
UN Secretary-General, Report of pursuant to Security Council resolution 1035 (1995), UN Doc. S/1996/210, 29 March 1996, § 19.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a special periodic report on minorities in the context of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights noted that groups of villagers were able to visit their homes in Montenegro with a view to returning there. Requests for a similar programme in Serbia had not been answered. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Special periodic report on minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/8, 25 October 1996, § 83.
UN Secretary-General (Special Representative)
In 1997, in a report on his visit to Mozambique, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons reported that:
Return was normally initiated once information on the security situation in the home area had been received and initial preparations had been made for resettlement. Often, one or two family members would travel to the area of origin and assess the situation while the rest of the family remained in the area of flight. 
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, Report on the Representative’s visit to Mozambique from 23 November to 3 December 1996, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/43/Add.1, 24 February 1997, § 54.
No data.
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Chairman’s Conclusions of the Florence Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1996 called for “co-operation by the parties under UNHCR guidelines for visits by refugees and displaced persons to their localities (‘assessment visits’)”. 
Peace Implementation Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Florence, 13–14 June 1996, Chairman’s Conclusions, annexed to Letter dated 9 July 1996 from the UN Secretary-General to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1996/542, 10 July 1996, Appendix I, § 13.
No data.
No data.
No data.
Note: For practice concerning amnesty for participation in armed conflict in general, see Rule 159, Section A.
Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs
In paragraph 3(c) of the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs, the parties agreed that:
Displaced persons/refugees shall have the right to return peacefully without risk of arrest, detention, imprisonment or legal criminal proceedings. Such immunity shall not apply to persons where there are serious evidences that they have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in international instruments and international practice as well as serious non-political crimes committed in the context of the conflict. Such immunity shall also not apply to persons who have previously taken part in the hostilities and are currently serving in armed formations … Persons falling into these categories should be informed through appropriate channels of the possible consequences they may face upon return. 
Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Georgia, between the Abkhaz and Georgian Sides, the Russian Federation and UNHCR, Moscow, 4 April 1994, annexed to Letter dated 5 April 1994 from the permanent representative of Georgia to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/397, 5 April 1994, Annex II, § 3(c).
Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords
The 1995 Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords provides:
Any returning refugee or displaced person charged with a crime, other than a serious violation of international humanitarian law … or a common-law crime unrelated to the conflict, shall upon return enjoy an amnesty. 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 7, Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995.
Protocol on Tajik Refugees
Paragraph 2 of the 1997 Protocol on Tajik Refugees provides:
The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan assumes the obligation … not to institute criminal proceedings against returning refugees or displaced persons for their participation in the political confrontation and the civil war, in accordance with the legislation in force in the Republic. 
Protocol on Refugees between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, the United Tajik Opposition and the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Tajikistan, Tehran, 13 January 1997, annexed to UN Doc. S/1997/56, Progress Report of the UN Secretary-General on the situation in Tajikistan, 21 January 1997, Annex III, § 2.
No data.
No data.
No data.
No data.
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in Croatia, the UN Secretary-General noted:
One potential obstacle to the return of young adult males is the requirement that they first undergo interrogations by Croatian authorities concerning their activities on behalf of the so-called “Republic of Serb Krajina”. In the absence of broad amnesty legislation, these interrogations have caused widespread apprehension among potential returnees, as well as delays in the processing of applications. 
UN Secretary-General, Further report on the situation of human rights in Croatia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1019 (1995), UN Doc. S/1996/691, 23 August 1996, § 22.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
In 1996, in a statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees stated:
Personal security was evidently of critical importance in the context of peaceful and dignified return. The amnesty adopted by the Bosnian parliament, covering, inter alia, draft evaders and deserters, was thus a very welcome step. 
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, Summary Record, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.4, 25 March 1996, § 54.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights noted:
54. The new Law on Amnesty passed by the Parliament [of Croatia] … has been hailed by most observers as a significant step towards both the return of Croatian Serb refugees and the peaceful reintegration of the region of Eastern Slavonia into the rest of the country. However, the Special Rapporteur’s attention has been drawn to the need to scrutinize the Law’s application in practice.
57. … The potential benefit of the new amnesty legislation in raising the confidence of Croatia’s Serb population and encouraging returns would be substantially damaged if persons still found themselves the subject of criminal proceedings. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Periodic report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/9, 22 October 1996, §§ 54 and 57.
Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
In a recommendation on Kosovo adopted in 1998, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly urged the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to create the conditions for displaced persons to return voluntarily in safety and dignity to their own homes, including “providing and respecting an amnesty for those wishing to return”. 
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Rec. 1385, 24 September 1998, § 7(b).
No data.
No data.
No data.
No data.
Note: For practice concerning non-discrimination in general, see Rule 88.
Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa
Article 5 of the 1969 Convention Governing Refugee Problems in Africa provides:
Refugees who voluntarily return to their country shall in no way be penalized for having left it for any of the reasons giving rise to refugee situations. Whenever necessary, an appeal shall be made … inviting refugees to return home and giving assurance that the new circumstances prevailing in their country of origin would enable them to return without risk and to take up a normal and peaceful life without fear of being disturbed or punished.  
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, adopted by the Sixth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Addis Ababa, 10 September 1969, Article 5.
Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs
In paragraph 3(a) of the 1994 Quadripartite Agreement on Georgian Refugees and IDPs, the parties agreed that “displaced persons/refugees have the right to return voluntarily to their places of origin or residence irrespective of their ethnic, social or political affiliation under conditions of complete safety, freedom and dignity”. 
Quadripartite Agreement on Voluntary Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Republic of Georgia, between the Abkhaz and Georgian Sides, the Russian Federation and UNHCR, Moscow, 4 April 1994, annexed to Letter dated 5 April 1994 from the permanent representative of Georgia to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/397, 5 April 1994, Annex II, § 3(a).
Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords
Articles I and II of the 1995 Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons annexed to the Dayton Accords stated:
Article I: Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons
The parties shall ensure that refugees and displaced persons are permitted to return in safety, without risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution or discrimination, particularly on account of their ethnic origin, religious belief, or political opinion.
… [T]he parties shall take immediately the following confidence building measures:
a. the repeal of domestic legislation and administrative practices with discriminatory intent or effect;
Article II: Creation of Suitable Conditions for Return
The parties shall not discriminate against returning refugees and displaced persons. 
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Annex 7, Agreement on Refugees and Displaced Persons, signed by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, Dayton, 22 November 1995, Articles I and II.
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return
The 1997 Agreement of the Joint Working Group on Operational Procedures of Return stated:
The government of Croatia shall provide equal access and equal treatment for safe return, reconstruction, and other mechanisms specified … for all Croatian citizens who in 1991 resided in the Croatian Danube region … or who are currently living there. 
Agreement of the Joint Working Group on the Operational Procedures of Return between Croatia, UNTAES and UNHCR, Osijek, 23 April 1997, annexed to Letter dated 25 April 1997 from the permanent representative of Croatia to the UN addressed to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/341, 28 April 1997.
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons
The 1992 Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons affirmed that voluntary return with full guarantees of security and non-discrimination was the basic right of the displaced. 
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons, signed by the parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sarajevo, 11 April 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General pursuant to UN Security Council resolution 749, UN Doc. S/23836, 24 April 1992, Annex III, pp. 12–13.
General Peace Agreement for Mozambique
The 1992 General Peace Agreement for Mozambique provided:
Mozambican refugees and displaced persons shall not forfeit any of the rights and freedoms of other citizens for having left their original place of residence … [and] shall be registered and included in electoral rolls together with other citizens in their places of residence. 
General Peace Agreement for Mozambique, along with seven Protocols and four related documents, Rome, 4 October 1992, annexed to Letter dated 6 October 1992 from the permanent representative of Mozambique to the UN addressed to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/24635, 8 October 1992.
Cotonou Agreement on Liberia
Article 18(2) of the 1993 Cotonou Agreement on Liberia states:
The parties call upon Liberian refugees and displaced persons to return to Liberia and to their places of origin or habitual residence, and declare that they shall not be jeopardized in any ethnic, political, religious, regional or geographical considerations. 
Cotonou Peace Agreement on Liberia between the Interim Government of National Unity of Liberia (IGNU) of the first part and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) of the second part and the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) of the third part, Cotonou, 25 July 1993, annexed to Letter dated 6 August 1993 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Benin to the UN addressed to the UN Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/26272, 9 August 1993, Article 18(2).
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 29(1) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement provides:
Internally displaced persons who have returned to their homes or places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country shall not be discriminated against as a result of their having been displaced. They shall have the right to participate fully and equally in public affairs at all levels and have equal access to public services. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 29(1).
No data.
Colombia
According to Colombia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (1997), forcibly displaced persons have the right not to be discriminated against on account of their social condition, race, religion, political opinion, place of origin or physical disability. 
Colombia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 1997, Article 2(3).
Peru
Peru’s Law on Internal Displacement (2004) states:
Internally displaced persons who have returned to their homes or places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country shall not be discriminated against as a result of their having been displaced. They have the right to participate fully and equally in public affairs at all levels and have equal access to public services. 
Peru, Law on Internal Displacement, 2004, Article 17(1).
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states:
Internally displaced persons who return to their places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country have a right to:
f) Be protected against … political persecution. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 6(f).
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Afghanistan
In 1997, in letters to the UN Secretary-General and the President of the UN Security Council, Afghanistan called upon the UN “to prepare the circumstances allowing all civilians who have been deported and forcibly displaced to return to their homes without being subjected to discrimination on the basis of gender, age or ethnic origin”. 
Afghanistan, Identical letters dated 19 January 1997 to the UN Secretary-General and the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/1997/54, 21 January 1997, p. 3.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, Germany’s Federal Government reported to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament):
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law.  
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
UN Security Council
In 1994, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon the Government of Rwanda “to ensure that there are no reprisals against those wish[ing] to return to their homes and resume their occupation”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1994/42, 10 August 1994, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 1996, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council called upon the Government of Croatia “to stop all forms of discrimination against the Croatian Serb population in the provision of social benefits and reconstruction assistance”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/48, 20 December 1996, pp. 1–2.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1980, in a Conclusion on Voluntary Repatriation, the UNHCR Executive Committee stressed the importance “of returning refugees not being penalized for having left their country of origin for reasons giving rise to refugee situations”. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 18 (XXXI): Voluntary Repatriation, 16 October 1980, § f.
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report on the situation of human rights in Croatia, the UN Secretary-General noted that a law adopted by the Croatian Parliament on areas of special national interest promised “various benefits, including lower taxes and the possibility of gaining ownership of property after 10 years of occupancy, to persons moving to the region”. The Secretary-General added, however, that “although the law by its terms applies equally to Serbs and Croats, the difficulties being encountered by Croatian Serbs wishing to return makes it likely that Croats rather than Serbs will be the main beneficiaries of these measures”. 
UN Secretary-General, Further report on the situation of human rights in Croatia pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1019 (1995), UN Doc. S/1996/456, 21 June 1996, § 26.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a special report on minorities in the context of the former Yugoslavia, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights stated that an “area of concern … involves difficulties which Croatian Serbs have encountered in acquiring documents necessary to obtain social benefits”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Former Yugoslavia, Special periodic report on minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/8, 25 October 1996, §§ 127–128.
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International Conference on Central American Refugees
The Concerted Plan of Action adopted at the International Conference on Central American Refugees in 1989 stated that returning persons should not be subject to discrimination. 
International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), Guatemala City, 29–31 May 1989, Declaration and Concerted Plan of Action, UN Doc. CIREFCA/89/14, 31 May 1989, § I(21).
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