Practice Relating to Rule 131. Treatment of Displaced Persons

Note: For practice concerning the specific needs of women in general, see Rule 134. For practice concerning the specific needs of children in general, including education for displaced children, see Rule 135. For practice concerning the specific needs of the elderly in general, see Rule 138.
Additional Protocol I
Article 78 the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides:
No party to the conflict shall arrange for the evacuation of children, other than its own nationals, to a foreign country except for a temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of health or medical treatment of the children or, except in occupied territory, their safety so require. Where the parents or the legal guardians can be found, their written consent to such evacuation is required … In each case, all Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible precautions to avoid endangering the evacuation. Whenever an evacuation occurs … each child’s education, including his religious and moral education as his parents desire, shall be provided while he is away with the greatest continuity … [An identification card providing full details] shall be established for each child. 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 78. Article 78 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VI, CDDH/SR.43, 27 May 1977, p. 254.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 22 of the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child provides:
States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties. 
Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 44/25, 20 November 1989, Article 22.
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
Article 23 of the 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child provides:
1. States Parties to the present Charter shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by parents, legal guardians or close relatives, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of the rights set out in this Charter and other international human rights and humanitarian instruments to which the States are Parties.
2. States Parties shall undertake to cooperate with existing international organizations which protect and assist refugees in their efforts to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other close relatives of an unaccompanied refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with the family …
3. The provisions of this Article apply mutatis mutandis to internally displaced children whether through natural disaster, internal armed conflicts, civil strife, breakdown of economic and social order or howsoever caused. 
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, adopted by the Sixteenth Ordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Res. 197 (XVI), Monrovia, 17–20 July 1990, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990), Article 23.
Inter-American Convention on Violence against Women
Article 9 of the 1994 Inter-American Convention on Violence against Women provides:
States parties shall take special account of the vulnerability of women to violence by reason of … their status as … refugees or displaced persons … [and by reason of being] affected by armed conflict. 
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women, adopted by the Twenty-fourth Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly, Res. 1257 (XXIV-O/94), Belém do Pará, 9 June 1994, Article 9.
Kampala Convention
Article 9(2)(c) of the 2009 Kampala Convention provides that States Parties shall:
Provide special protection for and assistance to internally displaced persons with special needs, including separated and unaccompanied children, female heads of households, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities or with communicable diseases. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 9(2)(c).
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Paragraph 4 of the 1991 Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of IHL between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 78 the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Memorandum of Understanding on the Application of International Humanitarian Law between Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Geneva, 27 November 1991, § 4.
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons
The 1992 Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons made specific reference to women, children and the elderly as forming particularly vulnerable segments of the displaced population. 
Sarajevo Declaration on Humanitarian Treatment of Displaced Persons, signed by the parties to the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sarajevo, 11 April 1992, annexed to Report of the UN Secretary-General pursuant to UN Security Council resolution 749, UN Doc. S/23836, 24 April 1992, Annex III, pp. 12–13.
Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 2.3 of the 1992 Agreement on the Application of IHL between the Parties to the Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina requires that all civilians be treated in accordance with Article 78 the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
Agreement between Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representatives of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Miljenko Brkić (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 22 May 1992, § 2.3.
UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
The preamble to the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women expressed the UN General Assembly’s concern that “some groups of women, such as … refugee women, elderly women and women in situations of armed conflict are especially vulnerable to violence”. 
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the UN General Assembly, Res. 48/104, 20 December 1993, preamble.
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 4(2) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement provides:
Certain internally displaced persons, such as children, especially unaccompanied minors, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of households, persons with disabilities and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition, and to treatment which takes into account their special needs. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 4(2).
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Principle 19(2) of the 1998 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement provides:
Special attention should be paid to the health needs of women, including access to female health care providers and services, such as reproductive health care, as well as appropriate counselling for victims of sexual abuse and other abuses. 
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, presented to the UN Commission on Human Rights by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2, 11 February 1998, Principle 19(2).
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1989) provides:
No party to the conflict shall undertake the evacuation of children to a foreign country. If an evacuation has been undertaken, all the necessary measures shall be taken to facilitate the return of the children to their families and their country. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, PC-08-01, Público, Edición 1989, Estado Mayor Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, aprobado por Resolución No. 489/89 del Ministerio de Defensa, 23 April 1990, § 4.12.
Australia
Australia’s Defence Force Manual (1994) provides:
Children who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in [the 1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, Manual on Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Force Publication, Operations Series, ADFP 37 – Interim Edition, 1994, § 947(e).
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states:
9.20 Refugees and those fleeing armed conflict are protected persons who must at all times be treated humanely and shall not be attacked or threatened with acts or threats of violence … Women shall be especially protected against attack in particular against rape and any form of indecent assault. …
9.50 … [C]hildren who are not nationals of the state may not be evacuated by that state to a foreign country unless the evacuation is temporary and accords to certain conditions set out in G. P. I. [1977 Additional Protocol I]. 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, §§ 9.20 and 9.50.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Djibouti
Djibouti’s Manual on International Humanitarian Law (2004) states that “children below the age of fifteen who have become orphans or have been separated from their families for reasons related to the war may not be left to themselves”. 
Djibouti, Manuel sur le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme applicables au travail du policier, Ministère de l’Intérieur, Direction Générale de la Police, 2004, p. 26.
Indonesia
Indonesia’s Military Manual (1982) states that parties to the conflict should ensure the protection of unaccompanied children under 15 years old. Such children should be educated and provided with adequate food. In hostile situations, children should be evacuated to neutral States, and children under 12 years old should wear an identity disc. 
Indonesia, The Basics of International Humanitarian Law, Legal Division of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1982, § 68.
Angola
Angola’s Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001) provides:
It is the responsibility of the Provincial Governments, through the Sub-Groups on Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Provincial Humanitarian Coordination Groups, to carry out the following:
c) To identify the displaced persons who wish to be resettled or return to their areas of origin, giving particular attention to the most vulnerable (widows, children, elderly, disabled) who may require special assistance. 
Angola, Rules on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations, 2001, Article 2(c); see also Article 8 (social assistance).
Belarus
Belarus’s Law on the Rights of the Child (1993) states that children of refugees must be protected and provided with material and medical assistance by the public authorities. 
Belarus, Law on the Rights of the Child, 1993, Article 30.
Colombia
Colombia’s Law on Internally Displaced Persons (1997) has established a National Plan in order to, inter alia, pay special attention to women and children. 
Colombia, Law on Internally Displaced Persons, 1997, Article 10(7); see also Criminal Code, 1999, Article 127 (for forcible transfer of children to another group as a part of a genocide campaign).
Croatia
Croatia’s Law on Displaced Persons and Directive on Displaced Persons (1993) provide that Croatia shall ensure that displaced children are educated and that their basic needs in terms of accommodation, food, health care and social integration are met. 
Croatia, Law on Displaced Persons, 1993, Article 13; Directive on Displaced Persons, 1991, Articles 2 and 13.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Law on Child Protection (2009) states:
Article 41
A displaced or refugee child, or a child seeking to obtain refugee status, whether accompanied or not by his parents, a close relative or any other person, is entitled to protection, support and humanitarian assistance.
The State shall ensure the exercise of his rights. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 41.
The Law also states:
Article 2
For the purpose of the present law, it is understood as:
1. child: every person under the age of 18;
2. displaced child: a child, non-accompanied by his or her parents or guardian, who was forced to leave his home environment as a result of war, natural disasters or other serious events, and settled elsewhere within the country where he resides;
3. refugee child: a child who was forced to flee his country by crossing an international border, and who claims refugee status or any other form of international protection. 
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Law on Child Protection, 2009, Article 2(1)–(3).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Guinea
Guinea’s Children’s Code (2008) states:
Competent Guinean authorities shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that a Child seeking to obtain a refugee status or a Child considered a refugee receives the protection and humanitarian assistance he or she is entitled to irrespective of whether he or she is accompanied by his or her parents, a legal guardian or a next of kin. 
Guinea, Children’s Code, 2008, Article 432.
Ireland
Under Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, any “minor breach” of the 1977 Additional Protocol I, including violations of Article 78, is a punishable offence. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the two additional protocols to [the 1949 Geneva] Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108(b).
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states:
Internally displaced persons who return to their places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country have a right to:
p) Special attention to the health needs of women, with particular attention to victims of sexual assault. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 6(p).
The Regulations also states:
The following groups of internally displaced persons shall receive special protection and attention due to their vulnerable situation which exposes them to a greater risk of suffering violations of human rights, physical attacks and other similar acts:
1. Girls, boys and adolescents, especially orphans or children who were abandoned, whose parents are missing and/or whose parents are incarcerated;
2. Persons with disabilities;
3. Elderly persons. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 11(1)–(3); see also Article 14.
Philippines
The Act on Child Protection (1992) of the Philippines provides:
Children should be given priority during evacuation as a result of armed conflict. Existing community organizations shall be tapped to look after the safety and well-being of children during evacuation operations. Measures shall be taken to ensure that children evacuated are accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being …
In places of temporary shelter, expectant and nursing mothers and children shall be given additional food in proportion to their physiological needs. Whenever possible, children shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports and outdoor games. 
Philippines, Act on Child Protection, 1992, Sections 23–24.
South Africa
In 1987, in the Petane case, the Cape Provincial Division of South Africa’s Supreme Court dismissed the accused’s claim that the 1977 Additional Protocol I reflected customary international law. The Court stated:
The accused has been indicted before this Court on three counts of terrorism, that is to say, contraventions of s 54(1) of the Internal Security Act 74 of 1982. He has also been indicted on three counts of attempted murder.
The accused’s position is stated to be that this Court has no jurisdiction to try him.
… The point in its early formulation was this. By the terms of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I to the [1949] Geneva Conventions the accused was entitled to be treated as a prisoner-of-war. A prisoner-of-war is entitled to have notice of an impending prosecution for an alleged offence given to the so-called “protecting power” appointed to watch over prisoners-of-war. Since, if such a notice were necessary, the trial could not proceed without it, Mr Donen suggested that the necessity or otherwise for giving such a notice should be determined before evidence was led. …
On 12 August 1949 there were concluded at Geneva in Switzerland four treaties known as the Geneva Conventions. …
South Africa was among the nations which concluded the treaties. … Except for the common art 3, which binds parties to observe a limited number of fundamental humanitarian principles in armed conflicts not of an international character, they apply to wars between States.
After the Second World War many conflicts arose which could not be characterised as international. It was therefore considered desirable by some States to extend and augment the provisions of the Geneva Conventions, so as to afford protection to victims of and combatants in conflicts which fell outside the ambit of these Conventions. The result of these endeavours was Protocol I and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions, both of which came into force on 7 December 1978.
Protocol II relates to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts. Since the State of affairs which exists in South Africa has by Protocol I been characterised as an international armed conflict, Protocol II does not concern me at all.
The extension of the scope of art 2 of the Geneva Conventions was, at the time of its adoption, controversial. …
The article has remained controversial. More debate has raged about its field of operation than about any other articles in Protocol I. …
South Africa is one of the countries which has not acceded to Protocol I. Nevertheless, I am asked to decide, as I indicated earlier, as a preliminary point, whether Protocol I has become part of customary international law. If so, it is argued that it would have been incorporated into South African law. If it has been so incorporated it would have to be proved by one or other of the parties that the turmoil which existed at the time when the accused is alleged to have committed his offences was such that it could properly be described as an “armed conflict” conducted by “peoples” against a “ra[c]ist regime” in the exercise of their “right of self-determination”. Once all this has been shown it would have to be demonstrated to the Court that the accused conducted himself in such a manner as to become entitled to the benefits conferred by Protocol I on combatants, for example that, broadly speaking, he had, while he was launching an attack, distinguished himself from civilians and had not attacked civilian targets. …
… I am prepared to accept that where a rule of customary international law is recognised as such by international law it will be so recognised by our law.
To my way of thinking, the trouble with the first Protocol giving rise to State practice is that its terms have not been capable of being observed by all that many States. At the end of 1977 when the treaty first lay open for ratification there were few States which were involved in colonial domination or the occupation of other States and there were only two, South Africa and Israel, which were considered to fall within the third category of ra[c]ist regimes. Accordingly, the situation sought to be regulated by the first Protocol was one faced by few countries; too few countries in my view, to permit any general usage in dealing with armed conflicts of the kind envisaged by the Protocol to develop.
Mr Donen contended that the provisions of multilateral treaties can become customary international law under certain circumstances. I accept that this is so. There seems in principle to be no reason why treaty rules cannot acquire wider application than among the parties to the treaty.
Brownlie Principles of International Law 3rd ed at 13 agrees that non-parties to a treaty may by their conduct accept the provisions of a multilateral convention as representing general international law. …
I incline to the view that non-ratification of a treaty is strong evidence of non-acceptance.
It is interesting to note that the first Protocol makes extensive provision for the protection of civilians in armed conflict. …
In this sense, Protocol I may be described as an enlightened humanitarian document. If the strife in South Africa should deteriorate into an armed conflict we may all one day find it a cause for regret that the ideologically provocative tone of s 1(4) has made it impossible for the Government to accept its terms.
To my mind it can hardly be said that Protocol I has been greeted with acclaim by the States of the world. Their lack of enthusiasm must be due to the bizarre mixture of political and humanitarian objects sought to be realised by the Protocol. …
According to the International Review of the Red Cross (January/February 1987) No 256, as at December 1986, 66 States were parties to Protocol I and 60 to Protocol II, which, it will be remembered, deals with internal non-international armed conflicts. With the exception of France, which acceded only to Protocol II, not one of the world’s major powers has acceded to or ratified either of the Protocols. This position should be compared to the 165 States which are parties to the Geneva Conventions.
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status o[f] customary international [law].
I have not been persuaded by the arguments which I have heard on behalf of the accused that the assessment of Professor Dugard, writing in the Annual Survey of South African Law (1983) at 66, that “it is argued with growing conviction that under contemporary international law members of SWAPO [South-West Africa People’s Organisation] and the ANC [African National Congress] are members of liberation movements entitled to prisoner-of-war status, in terms of a new customary rule spawned by the 1977 Protocols”, is correct. On what I have heard in argument I disagree with his assessment that there is growing support for the view that the Protocols reflect a new rule of customary international law. No writer has been cited who supports this proposition. Here and there someone says that it may one day come about. I am not sure that the provisions relating to the field of application of Protocol I are capable of ever becoming a rule of customary international law, but I need not decide that point today.
For the reasons which I have given I have concluded that the provisions of Protocol I have not been accepted in customary international law. They accordingly form no part of South African law.
This conclusion has made it unnecessary for me to give a decision on the question of whether rules of customary international law which conflict with the statutory or common law of this country will be enforced by its courts.
In the result, the preliminary point is dismissed. The trial must proceed. 
South Africa, Supreme Court, Petane case, Judgment, 3 November 1987, pp. 2–8.
South Africa
In 2010, in the Boeremag case, South Africa’s North Gauteng High Court stated:
In Petane, … Conradie J found that the provisions of [the 1977 Additional] Protocol I are not part of customary international law, and therefore are also not part of South African law.
Referring to the fact that in December 1986 only 66 of the 165 States party to the Geneva Conventions had ratified Protocol I, the Court [in Petane] stated:
This approach of the world community to Protocol I is, on principle, far too half-hearted to justify an inference that its principles have been so widely accepted as to qualify them as rules of customary international law. The reasons for this are, I imagine, not far to seek. For those States which are contending with “peoples[’]” struggles for self-determination, adoption of the Protocol may prove awkward. For liberation movements who rely on strategies of urban terror for achieving their aims the terms of the Protocol, with its emphasis on the protection of civilians, may prove disastrously restrictive. I therefore do not find it altogether surprising that Mr Donen was unable to refer me to any statement in the published literature that Protocol I has attained the status of customary international law.
Important changes with respect to certain aspects applicable at the time of Petane have taken place. The ANC [African National Congress] has become South Africa’s ruling party and in 1995 ratified Protocol I. The total number of States that have ratified it, is now … 162.
This last aspect forms the basis on which the First Respondent [the State] and the applicants agree that Protocol I forms part of customary international law as well as of South African law. As requested, this position is accepted for the purposes of the decision, without deciding on the matter.
Despite these changes, it remains debatable whether the provisions of Protocol I have become a part of South African law in this way.
The consensus of both parties to the conflict is required. See Petane … and Article 96 of Protocol I. …
Parliament’s failure to incorporate Protocol I into legislation in accordance with Article 231(4) of the Constitution in fact points to the contrary, and is indicative that the requirements of usus and/or opinio juris have not been met. See Petane. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, pp. 21–22.
[footnotes in original omitted]
The Court also held:
If the [1977 Additional Protocol I] applies in South Africa as customary international law, the two requirements that form the basis of customary law must be met. It is arguable that the requirement of usus has been met by the vast number of States that have acceded or ratified it. By ratifying Protocol I the Republic of South Africa has indicated its intention to apply the Protocol, thereby fulfilling the requirement of opinio juris. 
South Africa, North Gauteng High Court, Boeremag case, Judgment, 26 August 2010, p. 66.
Afghanistan
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Afghanistan stated:
National Strategy for Children at Risk
55. This strategy was adopted in 2006 and seeks to provide a framework for the development of a network of services and programmes which protect children and support their families … The aim is to protect children from exploitation, violence, and abuse. Various categories of children have been identified as “at risk” … Through implementation of this strategy over the last three years 2,366,177 children have been protected.
164. The MoLSAMD [Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs & Disabled] adopted the National Strategy for Children at Risk in 2006. One of the Strategy’s objectives is to build a supportive environment for children at risk by creating conditions for: adequate income and livelihoods for the maintenance of children; suitable and affordable shelters; access to basic healthcare; awareness on importance of nutrition; access to quality education; enabling a secure environment; preventing underage and forced marriages; social protection; awareness on respecting the rights of children; and access to safe drinking water. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 55 and 164.
Afghanistan also stated that the category of “children at risk” includes “affected children … , internally displaced … children”. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 55, footnote n. 17.
Afghanistan further stated:
Child street workers
176. In Afghanistan there are no street children, but there are child street workers who resort to working in the streets because of their families’ poor economic conditions, conflict-related problems (internal displacement and weakening of community support networks), and lack of educational opportunities.
178. The existence of child street workers is a big challenge for the Government and civil society. The Government, in cooperation with international organizations, has established drop-in day centres to support these children. The children come to the centres daily at specific hours. Here they have access to schooling, learning skills of their interest, and food, after which they go back to their work. These centres have teachers, social workers, and other service personnel. 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, §§ 176 and 178.
Afghanistan also stated that: “The laws of Afghanistan define all individuals under the age of 18 years as a child.” 
Afghanistan, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 13 June 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/AFG/1, submitted 28 August 2009, § 72.
Burundi
In 2008, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Burundi stated:
295. In addition to experiencing the flight of its populations to other countries, Burundi has also taken in refugees from its neighbours, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. Children account for the largest percentage of these refugees. They receive assistance from UNHCR, and the Government provides camps. Three refugee camps for Congolese have been opened in the country, one in Gasorwe, the second in Mwaro and the third in Nagagara, a neighbourhood in Bujumbura. Rwandan refugees arrive from time to time and are quickly repatriated to their country.
296. The camps accommodate nearly 3,000 children under 18 years of age. An unknown number of urban refugee children, mainly of Congolese origin, are also in the camps, where they benefit from the protection of UNHCR, which ensures respect for their rights. They also receive material assistance from UNHCR, which distributes food and other basic necessities (foodstuffs once a month, cooking utensils, mosquito nets, blankets, jerry cans, pails, mats, soap and clothing). Pregnant women in the camps receive a kit for their newborns consisting of a carrying sling, diapers and flannels. The kit is in the process of being modified to add soap and baby clothing so as to better meet the needs of newborns. Newborns who cannot be breastfed for medical reasons (mothers who are HIV-positive or have problems lactating) receive infant formula for several months.
297. A nutritional supplement centre has been set up at the Muyinga camp which periodically conducts a survey to ascertain the nutritional health of children and address nutritional deficiencies. More than 1,300 children up to the age of 5 years were tested in April, and 150 received a food supplement package. Children in nurseries at the camp receive baby cereal daily.
298. Basic health care, medicines, hospitalizations, vaccinations and preventive medicine are provided. HIV/AIDS carriers receive psychosocial assistance and counselling.
299. The following measures are taken with regard to unaccompanied, separated or orphaned children:
- They are placed in families and monitored.
- Individual records are produced to assess their situation and ensure that action is taken in their best interests. The best solution is sought for each individual case.
- Unaccompanied repatriated children are looked after and an attempt is made to reunify them with their families.
300. The following initiatives have been taken at the Mwaro and Muyinga refugee camps with regard to education:
- Classrooms for primary school education have been built; the classrooms are equipped with desks and blackboards.
- Classroom materials are supplied in cooperation with UNICEF and other partners.
- UNHCR supplies school uniforms, where available.
- Assistance is made available so that children raised in the camps can receive secondary school education.
- Support is provided for the functioning of the schools, teacher training, educational follow-up and inspections on the basis of an agreement with a Congolese school in order to facilitate the teaching of the Congolese curriculum. Refugee children at the camps can take tests to enrol in Congolese school in Bujumbura. They receive assistance in the form of transport and food as well as during the examinations.
- Lodging and food are provided for pupils at the camp who passed the tests for admission to the Bujumbura boarding school.
- In close cooperation with UNHCR, the Ministry of Education and Culture holds tests for Burundian children in refugee camps in Tanzania until they are repatriated. UNHCR covers the ensuing costs (logistics, travel expenses). The initiative enables the children to return to school once they are repatriated to Burundi. 
Burundi, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 7 January 2010, UN Doc. CRC/C/BDI/2, submitted 17 July 2008, §§ 295–300.
Chad
In 2007, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Chad stated:
235. Chad is having to cope with an influx of refugees as a result of the conflicts which broke out in 2003 in Darfur and the Central African Republic.
236. In 2005, the east of the country was sheltering 220,000 refugees from Darfur, 60 per cent of them aged under 18.
237. In the south, Chad is sheltering some 40,000 refugees from the Central African Republic. Some 5,500 refugees are estimated to be living in urban areas. They are from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda, as well as from Sudan and the Central African Republic.
239. In the case of unaccompanied children, arrangements for identification, care, monitoring, family search and family reunification have been put in place in order to protect them against sexual abuse and exploitation … in the camps and the host communities. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 December 2007, UN Doc. CRC/C/TCD/2, submitted 7 June 2007, §§ 235–237 and 239.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Committee on the Rights of the Child with regard to Chad’s second periodic report, Chad stated:
(a) Information concerning children deprived of a family environment and separated from their parents is available only for the following years:
2007: 658, including 207 refugee children and 451 children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups and separated from their parents
2008: 59 children recruited or used by armed forces and armed groups and separated from their parents
(b) In 2006, 326 children were placed in 12 institutions throughout the country, while in 2007, 566 children were placed in 19 institutions throughout the country;
(c) Eight children placed with foster families;
(d) Five children have been fully adopted since January 2008, two girls and three boys, including one child adopted abroad. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the second periodic report of Chad, 8 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/TCD/Q/2/Add.1, submitted 7 January 2009, p. 5.
Chad
In 2009, in its written replies to the issues raised by the Human Rights Committee with regard to Chad’s initial report, Chad stated:
8. As a result of the conflict in Darfur in 2003, Chad was faced with an influx of Darfur refugees in the east of the country. In 2005 there were 220,000 refugees from Darfur, 60 per cent of whom were under the age of 18. The refugees are cared for by the Government of Chad with the support of the United Nations and international and national refugee organizations. In 2005 Chad signed a memorandum of understanding on the monitoring of separated or unaccompanied Sudanese children with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
9. A total of 437 separated and 104 unaccompanied children have been identified and taken into care … Children requesting refugee status are entitled to protection and humanitarian assistance under … international instruments which have been ratified by Chad. Protection and humanitarian assistance are guaranteed to refugees and their children as part of their civil rights and economic, social and cultural rights.
10. Conflict between communities, Janjaweed incursions and rebel attacks have caused the internal displacement of 50,000 persons in the Dar Sila region, 1,981 of them school aged children and 136 children separated from their parents. Protection and humanitarian assistance are provided by United Nations agencies, the Government and national human rights organizations.
11. … [C]hildren … receive basic social and health services. Social workers and humanitarian personnel have received training in listening and counselling techniques, … and children’s rights in general. Play-based activities have been developed to help the children deal with the trauma they have suffered. 
Chad, Written replies by the Government of Chad to the Human Rights Committee concerning the list of issues to be taken up in connection with the initial report of Chad, 20 January 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/Q/1/Add.1, submitted 12 January 2009, §§ 8–11.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
76. From 2005 to 2007, a succession of crises at the regional level (in particular the Darfur conflict) and at the national level (insecurity and intercommunity and political tension) caused the internal displacement of some 180,000 persons in the eastern part of Chad, especially in the regions of Ouaddai and Sila. …
78. Between 2007 and 2008, intercommunity fighting led to the forced displacement of some 16,000 Chadians within the country, in particular in the regions of Dar Sila and Ouaddai. Most of the displaced women had suffered rape or other forms of sexual violence.
81. The Government continues to give priority to the safety of refugees [and] internally displaced persons … in Chad. It is true that general security conditions have improved. Since the departure of MINURCAT [UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad], the Chadian integrated security force DIS supported by the United Nations has played and continues to play a key role in maintaining security in and around refugee camps and in protecting convoys of displaced persons returning to their villages of origin. The presence of DIS is essential to … reduce the number of acts of sexual and gender-based violence in and around camps.
The Integrated Security Force is divided into six police stations and six police posts
82. Each station contains a safe cell or protection service for women and children whose task is to prevent and investigate sexual offences and domestic violence and to recommend psychosocial, medical and legal care or assistance.
83. DIS has female staff members who have three main responsibilities:
– Sheltering victims of violence;
– Guiding victims towards care facilities;
– Conducting police investigations. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 76, 78 and 81–83.
Côte d’Ivoire
In 2010, in its combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Côte d’Ivoire stated:
Acts of discrimination occurring as a result of social and political crises
73. In 2007, the Ministry of the Family, Women and Social Affairs, in cooperation with UNFPA [United Nations Population Fund], carried out a study on gender-based violence in the district of Abidjan, where most persons displaced by war were concentrated. The study revealed that 21.35 per cent of respondents, consisting mainly of women, were the victims of sexual violence.
Situation of displaced, migrant or refugee women
547. The military and political crisis has displaced large numbers of people from the Centre North-West region to the government-controlled area. Displaced persons remain vulnerable economically and in terms of their health. The inadequate living conditions of displaced persons have knock-on effects on their health.
548. The war has led to numerous acts of sexual violence, psychological trauma and lasting physical injuries. It has proved difficult to identify all the new health-care requirements arising from the crisis in the context of efforts to meet needs such as the provision of psychological assistance. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Combined initial to third periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 18 October 2010, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/CIV/1-3, submitted 7 September 2010, §§ 73 and 547–548.
El Salvador
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights concerning the conflict in Burundi, El Salvador identified the necessity of taking into account the needs of the “most vulnerable groups of displaced persons and, in particular, disabled persons, including those disabled by mine blasts as a result of the conflict”. 
El Salvador, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/ 1996/SR.15, 30 May 1996, § 37.
[2011-03]
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Ghana
In 1995, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Ghana stated: “The sole government agency responsible for abandoned and orphaned children, worked with the Save the Children Fund to provide care for the children affected by the conflict [in the northern part of the country].” Family tracing and reunification assistance services were also established and unaccompanied displaced children were either placed in camps, in orphanages or with relatives. 
Ghana, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.39, 19 December 1995, § 126.
Guinea
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guinea stated:
176. More than 80 per cent of separated children are refugees who have been displaced after conflicts broke out in the sub[-]region, in particular in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and following the rebel attacks endured by Guinea in 2000.
182. There is a category of children whose families have not been found despite many years of efforts. The solution in these situations should be in the best interest of the child.
183. A unit has been set up to search for long-term solutions for children who have not been reunited with their families. The solutions proposed include:
(a) Finding families for the most vulnerable children;
(b) Setting up income-generating activities for children to help them to become independent;
(c) Ensuring that those remaining with a foster family have a legal status that enables their long-term reintegration into society;
(d) Adoption carried out in accordance with the law, which can be the answer to some children’s problems. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 176 and 182–183.
Guinea also stated:
471. Guinea has been greatly affected by the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone that have raged since 24 December 1989. Faithfully observing international human rights agreements, the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] and the [1990] African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Guinea has generously opened its doors to more than half a million refugees, including more than 305,000 children and young persons under 18 years of age (or 61 per cent of the refugee population), traumatized and hounded by a war that threatens their survival. They have been given shelter throughout the national territory, but especially in Guinée Forestière.
476. Although a large majority of these children are now placed in foster families, their specific needs as separated children have not been taken into account. However, their wellbeing has become a cause for concern today. To date, few specific programmes have been implemented to meet their needs.
477. The exact number of children affected by this situation is not known. IRC [International Rescue Committee] puts the number of separated children living in Guinea at more than 10,000.
482. Action taken:
- Placement of unaccompanied and separated children
487. There are also shelters and counselling centres for the physical and psychological rehabilitation of … refugee children in particular. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 471, 476–477, 482 and 487.
Jordan
The Report on the Practice of Jordan states that special care is provided to children who have been orphaned or separated from their families, the elderly and the disabled.  
Report on the Practice of Jordan, 1997, Chapter 5.3.
Nepal
In 2007, in its National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, Nepal stated:
1. Background
Due to natural disasters, human-made circumstances and disasters, armed conflict and situations of violence and fears having [been] created therefrom, persons and families are forcefully displaced from their homes or places of their habitual residence and thus they are time and again required to face such situations that force them to reside in other parts of the country. …
3. Definition[s]:
For the purpose of these Policies:
(a) “Internally Displaced Person” means a person who is living somewhere else in the country after having [been] forced to flee or leave their home or place of habitual residence due to armed conflict or situation of violence or gross violations of human rights or natural disasters or human-made disasters … or with an intention of avoiding the effects of such situations.
7. Strategies
In order to achieve the objectives of these policies, the following strategies will be adopted:
7.10 Specially targeted programmes will be … [implemented] to protect the rights of … [certain] displaced persons such as women, the elderly, children, orphans, disabled persons and similar types of vulnerable groups or persons with special risks.
8. Policies
In relation to internal displacement, the following policies will be adopted:
8.2. Regarding Relief
8.2.4 Taking into consideration the conditions of vulnerable displaced persons such as orphan children without guardians, pregnant women, single women and mothers with small children, the disabled and the elderly, … humanitarian assistance and treatment will be provided [to them] with priority.
8.3 Regarding Rehabilitation
8.3.1 Displaced persons or families will have the freedom of returning voluntarily to the places of their permanent … [residence] from where they were … [originally] displaced or of residing in the place of current … [residence] or … [of rehabilitation] in other places of their choice within the country. Each of the displaced persons will be provided with opportunities to return to his/her place of habitual residence, … [rehabilitation] and also … integrating with their disintegrated family.
8.3.6 While formulating the necessary [rehabilitation] programmes for … displaced persons …, their participation will be mobilized. Special priority will be given to the participation of women.
9. Programmes
For the implementation of abovementioned strategies and policies, the following programmes will be undertaken:-
9.13 Programmes specially targeted at women, the elderly, children and orphans, disabled persons and other such persons. 
Nepal, National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, 22 February 2007, §§ 1, 3, 7, 7.10, 8, 8.2.4, 8.3.1, 8.3.6, 9, and 9.13.
Nigeria
In 2008, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Nigeria stated:
The armed conflicts in Sierra Leone and Liberia caused an influx of refugees into Nigeria, the bulk of them are women and children. The National Commission for Refugees (NCR) maintains a camp in Oru, Ogun State …
… National and [i]nternational CSOs [civil society organizations] have been able to augment government efforts towards the promotion and the protection of the rights of women and children within the camp. Refugee children enjoy equal rights as nationals with regards to all the rights enshrined in the CRC [1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child], for instance:
- Health & Nutrition: Refugee children have access to the national health services. Every year immunization against Polio, yellow fever, measles and other vaccine preventable diseases are conducted for all children and adults in the camp, through the National Expanded Programme of Immunization. Free pre-natal services were offered at the government hospitals in Ijebu-Ode and Oru for pregnant women. After delivery, children are immunized progressively from first week to the ninth week.
- Birth Registration: Refugee children have access to birth registration through the National Population Commission. 
Nigeria, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 5 January 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/NGA/3-4, submitted 19 May 2008, § 8.2.1.
II. RIGHTS OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED CHILDREN:
f. ID [Internally Displaced] children shall be entitled to good medical care and immunization against diseases that may cause death, retard their growth or affect their general wellbeing
h. This National Policy shall ensure that ID children are protected against torture, sexual exploitation, drug abuse as well as early and force[d] marriage before the age of 18.
III. RIGHTS OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED WOMEN:
Conscious of the fact that women are an especially vulnerable group among IDPS … the Federal government, though this National Policy, hereby adopts as follows:
b. Every woman in an IDP camp shall have the rights to her privacy;
c. Women in IDP camps shall not be subjected to any form of indignity; including beating, forced labour, sexual abuse, or forceful stripping either for medical examination or other reasons whatsoever without her consent;
d. Under no circumstance shall women and men be lumped together in a room except as husbands and wives or as members of the same family;
e. It is the policy of government to protect Internally Displaced Women from forced marriage. Thus, nobody shall determine the partner of, or the period within which internally displaced women ought to get married;
f. Women in IDP camps shall be entitled to hold any position of authority in camp without any form of discrimination;
g. Women in IDP camps shall be free to take micro-credit and other financial assistance with or without the consent of their husbands for economic self-reliance;
h. Women in IDP camps have the right to own property and disburse the property with or without the consent of their spouses;
i. Every woman in an IDP camp has the right to embark on any form of lawful economic activity of her choice to enhance her well-being and that of her family;
j. Women in IDP camps are entitled to self-development, particularly in the area of education and skill acquisition.
III. RIGHTS TO HEALTHCARE:
B. In every Internal Displacement camp, there shall be established a special regime for the protection and care of:
-the aged
-the pregnant women
-children. 
Nigeria, National Commission for Refugees, National Policy on Internally Displaced Persons, 11 March 2011, pp. 20, 24, 29 and 30–32.
Oman
In May 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on the situation in Rwanda, Oman made specific reference to the special needs of internally displaced women, children and elderly people. 
Oman, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3377, 16 May 1994, p. 7.
Pakistan
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Pakistan stated: “The facilities provided for the children of the refugees are in consonance with the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” 
Pakistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 April 2003, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.21, submitted 19 January 2001, § 343.
Pakistan further stated: “The number of refugees within and outside camps will be documented and a record will be maintained for all children by age and gender.” 
Pakistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.21, submitted 19 January 2001, § 352.
In addition, the report noted: “Pakistan advocates the establishment of an international fund for displaced children for the welfare of cross-border migrant children (whether or not declared as ‘refugees’).” 
Pakistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 April 2003, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.21, submitted 19 January 2001, § 356.
Peru
In 1996, during a debate in the UN Commission on Human Rights, Peru reported that in response to the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s concern about the displacement of almost 400,000 children, “the Government had established food aid programmes for displaced children, in particular orphans”. 
Peru, Statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/SR.55, 21 May 1996, p. 12, §§ 45–46.
Philippines
In 1993, in its report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Philippines stated:
202. [The Special Protection Act of the Philippines provides that] during any evacuation resulting from armed conflict, children are to be given priority … Measures shall be taken to ensure that children who are evacuated are accompanied by persons responsible for their safety and well-being. Whenever possible, members of the same family are to be housed in the same premises.
206. Children who are lost, abandoned or orphaned as a result of an armed conflict are referred to the local Council for the Protection of Children or to the Department of Social Welfare and Development. All efforts are undertaken to locate the child’s parents and relatives. Arrangements are made for the temporary care of the child by a licensed foster family or a child-caring agency. 
Philippines, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.23, 3 November 1993, §§ 202 and 206.
Rwanda
In 2003, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Rwanda stated:
As of 30 June 2001, Rwanda had a population of 31,380 refugees, including 30,857 Congolese and 527 Burundians. More than 40% of these refugees were under the age of 18.
The Rwandan Government is cooperating closely with United Nations bodies, in this case the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees and UNICEF, and with non-governmental organizations in order to meet their needs, to the extent of its resources. Refugee children enjoy the same rights as Rwandan children with respect to health, education and nutritional assistance. For example, their integration or reintegration into the educational system, both formal (nursery, primary and secondary) and informal (literacy and vocational training), has been facilitated.  
Rwanda, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc CRC/C/70Add.22, 8 October 2003, § 313.
Special protection measures
17. With regard to special protection measures, laws, policies, strategies and programmes have been established to protect the categories of vulnerable children, namely refugee children, children affected by armed conflicts, children in conflict with the law, children in situations of exploitation, children belonging to a minority or an indigenous group and children living or working in the streets.
Sri Lanka
In 1994, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sri Lanka noted:
A special effort is being made to meet the needs of children in varying situations … These include health and nutritional needs of infants and pre-school children, education for children of school age, care and rehabilitation for children traumatized by violence and deprivation of parents, and restoration to homes and families in the case of children who have been separated from parents or who have lost them … The government has been working closely with NGOs to provide the basic needs of households including the special needs of children. Several programmes have been initiated to deal with problems of traumatized children and children separated from parents. 
Sri Lanka, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.13, 5 May 1994, § 146.
Switzerland
In 2013, Switzerland’s Federal Department of Foreign Affairs issued the document “Women, Peace and Security: National Action Plan to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)”, which stated:
GOAL 3
Greater inclusion of a gender perspective during and after violent conflicts in emergency aid, reconstruction and in dealing with the past
SUBORDINATED GOAL 3
Switzerland implements UNSCR [UN Security Council resolution] 1325 during and after violent conflicts, as well as in fragile contexts through its bilateral measures for emergency aid, reconstruction and dealing with the past.
Measures
1 Emergency aid and reconstruction measures in conflict and post-conflict situations are gender-sensitive and take account of the specific security and basic needs of women and girls in the following areas:
- Gender-specific security needs of refugees and internally displaced persons (e.g. in the management of refugee camps and camps for the displaced, and other forms of refugee assistance)
5 Activities undertaken to protect and guarantee the rights of internally displaced persons and refugees, and the search for durable solutions are gender-sensitive. 
Switzerland, Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Women, Peace and Security: National Action Plan to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), 2013, pp. 16–17.
[footnotes in original omitted]
Tajikistan
In 2008, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Tajikistan stated: “Over the last 10 years, the conflict in Afghanistan has driven about a thousand Afghans to seek refuge in Tajikistan.” 
Tajikistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2 April 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/TJK/2, submitted 21 February 2008, § 8.
In the report, Tajikistan also stated:
540. The refugee children come from the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. …
547. According to information supplied by the migration service, there are at present 705 refugee children enrolled in general schools in Dushanbe, of whom 650 are enrolled at the Somonyon school, where they are taught in their own language, while 52 are enrolled in other institutions where the teaching is in Tajik. Refugee children have access to education in schools close to their place of residence or live and study in boarding schools (Shakhrinau district of the city of Kurgan-Tyube), while some receive a special secondary education. 
Tajikistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2 April 2009, UN Doc. CRC/C/TJK/2, submitted 21 February 2008, §§ 540 and 547
Thailand
In 2004, in its second periodic report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
[C]hildren accompanying their parents or unaccompanied children will be treated in the same way as their parents and other displaced persons. They will receive treatment based on humanitarian principles, and provided with accommodation, food, education, health and medical care. Such services are provided by NGOs under the close supervision of the Government. 
Thailand, Second periodic report of Thailand to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, 31 May 2005, UN Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.15, submitted 7 June 2004, § 168.
Thailand
In 2005, in reply to a list of issues raised by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
The Cabinet Resolution issued on 5 July 2005 … requires the Ministry of Education to provide appropriate forms of education for children from neighbouring countries who have fled armed conflicts. 
Thailand, Written replies by the Government of Thailand concerning the List of Issues received by the Committee on the Rights of the Child relating to the Consideration of the Second Periodic Report of Thailand, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/Q/2/Add.1, 29 December 2005, p. 19.
Thailand
In 2009, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Thailand stated:
37. Preventive measures taken by Thailand with regards to at-risk children, including street children, orphans, disadvantaged children, stateless children, displaced children and children having fled armed conflict, include:
B.2.Public health services
41. Other welfare services, health care, etc. are provided to all children indiscriminately, including children who are illegal immigrants. … Children fleeing armed conflicts in temporary shelters are provided basic health care by the Ministry of Interior and NGOs. 
Thailand, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child under the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 19 July 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/1, submitted 30 October 2009, §§ 37 and 41.
Thailand
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
Children in temporary shelters for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict
101. The aim of Thailand’s policy towards displaced persons fleeing armed conflict is to provide assistance on a humanitarian basis pending eventual repatriation. While taking refuge in the temporary shelters, displaced persons are forbidden to go out of the designated areas or take any actions that might jeopardize the relationships with Thailand’s neighbors. The management of the camps follows strict guidelines and takes into account the observations and concerns of the CRC Committee [Committee on the Rights of the Child].
102. Some of the measures taken to ensure proper care and treatment of these people are:
(d) Protection against human trafficking by imposing restriction of their mobility outside the camps and taking strict legal actions against those attempting to lure or persuade them to seek employment outside;
105. Protection of children and women in temporary refuge, apart from measures against the threat of human trafficking, includes bringing in international justice procedures, under a pilot project initiated by UNHCR during 2006–2007 in cooperation with [the] Rights and Liberties Protection Department and the MOI [Ministry of Interior]. There had been incidents of violence and crimes committed in the camps, in which customary laws and procedures could not provide adequate protection and rehabilitation to victims, who were often women and children. Long-term measures in this regard will need further attention from Thailand. 
Thailand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 September 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/3-4, submitted 11 July 2011, §§ 101, 102(d) and 105.
Uzbekistan
In 2010, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Uzbekistan stated:
915. At the beginning of 2006, there were in the country 762 underage refugees from Afghanistan. At the beginning of 2008, there lived in the country 384 refugee families, including 424 minors. At the beginning of 2009, 97 refugee families lived in the country. They comprised 673 persons, 112 of whom were minors, most of them of school age.
916. The staff of internal affairs, national education and health care authorities, in cooperation with local government representatives, take specific steps to protect the rights and interests of refugee children and carry out proactive work to prevent juvenile delinquency among them.
917. Under the Health Care Act, medical attention provided by treatment and preventive care facilities and guaranteed by the State to be free includes children’s examinations and treatment. 
Uzbekistan, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 26 January 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/UZB/3-4, submitted 22 February 2010, §§ 915–917.
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of
In 1994, in its initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia stated:
A refugee child is entitled to full health care, which covers prevention, emergency medical care, specialist check-ups, dental care, as well as medicaments, hospitalization, and check-ups in health care institutions, etc. …
Disabled children and youth – refugees up to the age of 18 and university students up to 26 – are entitled to specialized and rehabilitation care in institutions for rehabilitation and to orthopaedic and prosthetic appliances and aids. 
Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, Initial report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.16, 17 November 1994, §§ 354–355.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Security Council noted the particular vulnerability of women, children and the elderly in the large-scale forced displacement of civilians. 
UN Security Council, Res. 819, 16 April 1993, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1999, the UN Security Council strongly condemned the targeting of children in situations of armed conflict, including forced displacement. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1261, 25 August 1999, § 2, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on the protection of children in situations of armed conflict, the UN Security Council urged member States and parties to armed conflict “to provide protection and assistance to refugees and internally displaced persons, as appropriate, the vast majority of whom are women and children”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1314, 11 August 2000, § 6, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2000 on women and peace and security, the UN Security Council called upon all parties to armed conflict “to respect the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements, and to take into account the particular needs of women and girls”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1325, 31 October 2000, § 12, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Recalls the particular impact which armed conflict has on women and children, including as refugees and internally displaced persons, as well as on other civilians who may have specific vulnerabilities, and stressing the protection and assistance needs of all affected civilian populations. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In June 1998, in a statement by its President on children and armed conflict, the UN Security Council strongly condemned the forced displacement of children. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1998/18, 29 June 1998, § 2.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Welcomes the High Commissioner’s policy on refugee children and the activities undertaken to ensure its implementation, aimed at ensuring that the specific needs of refugee children, including in particular unaccompanied minors, are fully met within the overall protection and assistance activities of the Office, in cooperation with governments and other relevant organizations. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/116, 20 December 1993, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN General Assembly expressed alarm at the large number of displaced persons in the Sudan and made specific reference to the vulnerable situation of displaced women, children and members of minorities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/198, 23 December 1994, preamble and § 10, voting record: 101-13-49-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on an investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in West Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Expressing its grave concern at incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse against vulnerable populations, in particular refugees and internally displaced persons in West Africa and elsewhere,
2. Expresses its serious concern that the conditions in refugee camps and communities may make refugees, especially women and children, vulnerable to sexual and other forms of exploitation;
3. Condemns any exploitation of refugees and internally displaced persons, especially sexual exploitation, and calls for those responsible for such deplorable acts to be brought to justice. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 57/306, 15 April 2003, preamble and §§ 2–3, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Considering that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict and bear the brunt of atrocities and other consequences of conflict,
33. Requests all Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to pay particular attention to meeting the special needs of refugee women and children and displaced persons, including those with special protection needs;
34. Calls upon States and the Office of the High Commissioner to make renewed efforts to ensure that the rights, needs and dignity of elderly refugees are fully respected and addressed through appropriate programme activities. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, preamble and §§ 33–34, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, the UN General Assembly:
Aware of the fact that the majority of refugees are children and women,
Bearing in mind that unaccompanied refugee minors are among the most vulnerable refugees and the most at risk of neglect, violence, forced military recruitment, sexual assault, abuse and vulnerability to infectious disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, malaria and tuberculosis, and therefore require special assistance and care,
Mindful of the fact that the ultimate solution to the plight of unaccompanied minors is their return to and reunification with their families,
Bearing in mind that the most important steps in working with unaccompanied minors are rapid identification, immediate registration and documentation and tracing of family,
Recalling the outcome document entitled “A world fit for children”, adopted on 10 May 2002 by the General Assembly at its twenty-seventh special session,
Noting with appreciation the efforts of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the United Nations Children’s Fund in the identification and tracing of unaccompanied minors, and welcoming their efforts in reunifying families of refugees,
Welcoming the efforts exerted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to reunite refugees with their families,
Noting the efforts of the High Commissioner to ensure the protection of and assistance to refugees, including children and unaccompanied minors, and that further enhanced efforts need to be exerted to this effect,
Recalling the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol thereto relating to the Status of Refugees,
1. Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General;
2. Expresses its deep concern at the continuing plight of unaccompanied refugee minors, and emphasizes once again the urgent need for their early identification and for timely, detailed and accurate information on their number and whereabouts;
3. Stresses the importance of providing adequate resources for programmes of identification, registration, documentation and tracing of unaccompanied minors and their reunification with their families;
4. Calls upon the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in cooperation with other relevant United Nations bodies, to incorporate into its programmes policies that aim at preventing the separation of refugee families, conscious of the importance of family unity;
5. Calls upon all Governments, the Secretary-General, the Office of the High Commissioner, all United Nations organizations, as well as other international organizations and non-governmental organizations concerned to exert the maximum effort to assist and protect refugee minors and to expedite the return and reunification with their families of unaccompanied refugee minors;
6. Urges the Office of the High Commissioner, all United Nations organizations, as well as other international organizations and non-governmental organizations concerned to take appropriate steps to mobilize resources commensurate with the needs of unaccompanied refugee minors and for their reunification with their families;
7. Calls upon all States and other parties to armed conflict to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law and, in this regard, calls upon States parties to respect fully the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and related instruments, and to respect the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which accord children affected by armed conflict special protection and treatment;
8. Condemns all acts of exploitation of unaccompanied refugee minors, including their use as soldiers or human shields in armed conflict and their forced recruitment into military forces, and any other acts that endanger their safety and personal security;
9. Acknowledges that education is among the most effective initial means of ensuring protection for unaccompanied minors, especially girls, by shielding them from exploitative activities such as child labour, military recruitment or sexual exploitation and abuse;
10. Calls upon the Secretary-General, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, the United Nations Children’s Fund, other United Nations organizations and other international organizations to mobilize adequate assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors in the areas of relief, education, recreational activities, health and psychological rehabilitation;
11. Encourages the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict in his efforts to raise awareness worldwide and mobilize official and public opinion for the protection of children affected by armed conflict, including refugee minors;
12. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its sixtieth session on the implementation of the present resolution and to give special attention in his report to the girl-child refugee. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/150, 22 December 2003, preamble and §§ 1–12, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
13. Recognizes that a considerable number of children, including … internally displaced and refugee children … live without parental support, and in this regard urges States to take special measures to support such children and the institutions, facilities and services that care for them, and to build and strengthen children’s abilities to protect themselves;
15. Also urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls affected by armed conflicts and in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape and sexual abuse, and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account the special needs of girls affected by armed conflict in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/156, 22 December 2003, §§ 13 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, to pay particular attention to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations, including by facilitating their work. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/157, 22 December 2003, § 38, voting record: 179-1-0-11.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and welcomes the commitment of the Representative of the Secretary-General to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their particular assistance, protection and development needs, as well as to other groups with special needs such as older persons and persons with disabilities, taking into account the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and bearing in mind Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) of 31 October 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/177, 22 December 2003, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
7. Recognizes that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict and bear the brunt of atrocities and other consequences of conflict, and in this regard takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security submitted to and discussed by the Security Council;
8. Reiterates the importance of the full and effective implementation of standards and procedures to better address the specific protection needs of refugee children and adolescents and to safeguard rights and, in particular, to ensure adequate attention to unaccompanied and separated children and former child soldiers in refugee settings, as well as in the context of voluntary repatriation and reintegration measures. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/172, 20 December 2004, §§ 7–8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on humanitarian and special economic assistance to Serbia and Montenegro, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States, regional organizations, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and other relevant bodies to continue to provide assistance to alleviate the needs of refugees and internally displaced persons, bearing in mind in particular the special situation of women, children, the elderly and other vulnerable groups. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/215, 22 December 2004, § 1, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/261, 23 December 2004, § 35, voting record: 166-2-1-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
6. Recognizes that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict and bear the brunt of atrocities and other consequences of conflict, and calls upon States to promote and protect the human rights of all refugees and other persons of concern, paying special attention to those with specific needs, and to tailor their protection responses appropriately,
7. Reiterates the importance of the full and effective implementation of standards and procedures, including the monitoring and reporting mechanism outlined in Security Council resolution 1612 (2005) of 26 July 2005, to better address the specific protection needs of refugee children and adolescents and to safeguard rights and, in particular, to ensure adequate attention to unaccompanied and separated children and children affected by armed conflict, including former child soldiers in refugee settings, as well as in the context of voluntary repatriation and reintegration measures. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/128, 16 December 2005, §§ 6–7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on UNRWA operations, the UN General Assembly encouraged “the Agency’s further consideration of the needs and rights of children in its operations in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/102, 8 December 2005, preamble and § 6, voting record: 159-6-3-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 concerning the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Affirms the importance of mainstreaming the protection needs of women and children to ensure their participation in the planning and implementation of programmes of the Office of the High Commissioner and State policies and the importance of according priority to addressing the problem of sexual and gender-based violence. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/129, 16 December 2005, § 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
13. Recognizes that a considerable number of children, including … internally displaced and refugee children … live without parental support, and in this regard urges States to take special measures to support such children and the institutions, facilities and services that care for them, and to build and strengthen children’s abilities to protect themselves;
15. Also urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls affected by armed conflicts and by post-conflict situations and in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape and sexual abuse, and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account the special needs of girls affected by armed conflict in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/141, 16 December 2005, preamble and §§ 13 and 15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and welcomes the commitment of the Representative of the Secretary-General to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their particular assistance, protection and development needs, as well as to other groups with special needs, such as severely traumatized individuals, older persons and persons with disabilities, taking into account the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and bearing in mind Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) of 31 October 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/168, 16 December 2005, § 5, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, stressing the need for States as well as the international community to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to the special assistance, protection and development needs of those children through, inter alia, programmes aimed at rehabilitation and physical and psychological recovery, and to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and family reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations, including by facilitating their work. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/231, 23 December 2005, § 22, voting record: 130-1-0-60.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on UNRWA operations, the UN General Assembly encouraged “the Agency’s further consideration of the needs and rights of children in its operations in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/114, 14 December 2006, § 8, voting record: 169-6-8-9.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
12. Emphasizes that international protection of refugees is a dynamic and action-oriented function that is at the core of the mandate of the Office of the High Commissioner and that it includes, in cooperation with States and other partners, the promotion and facilitation of, inter alia, the admission, reception and treatment of refugees in accordance with internationally agreed standards and the ensuring of durable, protection-oriented solutions, bearing in mind the particular needs of vulnerable groups and paying special attention to those with specific needs, and notes in this context that the delivery of international protection is a staff-intensive service that requires adequate staff with the appropriate expertise, especially at the field level;
13. Affirms the importance of mainstreaming the protection needs of women and children to ensure their participation in the planning and implementation of programmes of the Office of the High Commissioner and State policies and the importance of according priority to addressing the problem of sexual and gender-based violence;
14. Acknowledges that forcibly displaced women and girls can be exposed to particular protection problems related to their gender, their cultural and socioeconomic position, and their legal status, that they may be less likely than men and boys to be able to exercise their rights, and that, therefore, specific action in favour of women and girls may be necessary to ensure that they can enjoy protection and assistance on an equal basis with men and boys, and notes the important guidance provided in the Executive Committee conclusion on women and girls at risk to address issues of identification of those individuals and action to be taken in prevention and response. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, §§ 12–14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
6. Recognizes that, among refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons, women and children are the majority of the population affected by conflict, and in this context notes the conclusion on women and girls at risk adopted by the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at its fifty-seventh session;
8. Reiterates the importance of the full and effective implementation of standards and procedures, including the monitoring and reporting mechanism outlined in Security Council resolution 1612 (2005) of 26 July 2005, to better address the specific protection needs of refugee children and adolescents and to safeguard rights and, in particular, to ensure adequate attention to unaccompanied and separated children and children affected by armed conflict, including former child soldiers in refugee settings, as well as in the context of voluntary repatriation and reintegration measures. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, §§ 6 and 8, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women, the UN General Assembly:
Urges States to take action to eliminate all forms of violence against women … and to this end:
(o) To protect women and girls in situations of armed conflict, post-conflict settings and refugee and internally displaced persons settings, where women are at greater risk of being targeted for violence and where their ability to seek and receive redress is often restricted, bearing in mind that peace is inextricably linked with equality between women and men and development, that armed and other types of conflicts and terrorism and hostage-taking still persist in many parts of the world and that aggression, foreign occupation and ethnic and other types of conflicts are an ongoing reality affecting women and men in nearly every region, undertake efforts to eliminate impunity for all gender-based violence in situations of armed conflict. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/143, 19 December 2006, § 8(o), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to violence and risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, stressing the need for States as well as the international community to continue to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to the special assistance, protection and development needs of those children through, inter alia, programmes aimed at rehabilitation and physical and psychological recovery, and to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and family reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations, including by facilitating their work. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/146, 19 December 2006, § 25, voting record: 185-1-0-6.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on UNRWA operations, the UN General Assembly encouraged “the Agency to make further progress in addressing the needs and rights of children in its operations in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/104, 17 December 2007, § 7, voting record: 170-6-3-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
3. Notes with appreciation the important guidance provided in the Executive Committee conclusion on children at risk to address issues of identification of these individuals and action to be taken in prevention, response and solutions;
14. Emphasizes that international protection of refugees is a dynamic and action-oriented function that is at the core of the mandate of the Office of the High Commissioner and that it includes, in cooperation with States and other partners, the promotion and facilitation of, inter alia, the admission, reception and treatment of refugees in accordance with internationally agreed standards and the ensuring of durable, protection-oriented solutions, bearing in mind the particular needs of vulnerable groups and paying special attention to those with specific needs, and notes in this context that the delivery of international protection is a staff-intensive service that requires adequate staff with the appropriate expertise, especially at the field level;
15. Affirms the importance of age, gender and diversity mainstreaming in analysing protection needs and in ensuring the participation of refugees and other persons of concern to the Office of the High Commissioner, as appropriate, in the planning and implementation of programmes of the Office and State policies, and also affirms the importance of according priority to addressing discrimination, gender inequality and the problem of sexual and gender-based violence, recognizing the importance of addressing the protection needs of women and children in particular. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, §§ 3 and 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
Recognizing the particular vulnerability of women and children among refugees and other persons of concern, including exposure to discrimination and sexual and physical abuse,
Recognizing also that refugees, internally displaced persons and, in particular, women and children are at an increased risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS, malaria and other infectious diseases,
7. Also notes that the conclusion on children at risk, adopted by the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at its fifty-eighth session, held at Geneva from 1 to 5 October 2007, is aimed at enhancing the assistance and protection provided by the Office of the High Commissioner to children, as defined under article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, who are asylum-seekers, stateless, refugees, internally displaced or returnees;
8. Encourages the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child to incorporate in their work the Executive Committee conclusion on children at risk;
9. Affirms that children, because of their age, social status and physical and mental development, are often more vulnerable than adults in situations of forced displacement, recognizes that forced displacement, return to post-conflict situations, integration in new societies, protracted situations of displacement and statelessness can increase the vulnerability of children generally, takes into account the particular vulnerability of refugee children to being forcibly exposed to the risks of physical and psychological injury, exploitation and death in connection with armed conflict, and acknowledges that wider environmental factors and individual risk factors, particularly when combined, can put children in situations of heightened risk. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, preamble and §§ 7–9, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on policies and programmes involving youth: youth in the global economy – promoting youth participation in social and economic development, the UN General Assembly:
8. Recognizes that while youth today are better placed than ever before to participate in and benefit from global development, many young people remain marginalized, disconnected or excluded from the opportunities that globalization offers, and in this regard calls upon Member States, with the support of the international community, as appropriate, to:
(l) Ensure that national policies and programmes on youth development address the particular needs of young people who are in distressed circumstances or otherwise socially excluded or marginalized, including indigenous, migrant, refugee and displaced youth, young persons living in situations of armed conflict, terrorism, hostage-taking, aggression, foreign occupation, civil war or post-conflict settings, young people subjected to racism or xenophobia, street children, poor youth in urban or rural areas and youth affected by natural or man-made disasters. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, § 8(l), adopted without a vote.
In the resolution, the UN General Assembly adopted the “Supplement to the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, § 2, adopted without a vote.
According to the Supplement:
43. Development, peace and security and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing. The scale of the violence perpetrated against civilians, including youth, in the past couple of decades is extremely worrisome. Armed conflicts have resulted in killings, the massive displacement of people, including youth, and the destruction of communities, which has impacted negatively on their development.
44. Youth are often among the main victims of armed conflict. Children and youth are killed or maimed, made orphans, abducted, taken hostage, forcibly displaced, deprived of education and health care and left with deep emotional scars and trauma … Armed conflict destroys the safe environment provided by a house, a family, adequate nutrition, education and employment …
50. Governments should protect young persons in situations of armed conflict, post-conflict settings and settings involving refugees and internally displaced persons, where youth are at risk of violence and where their ability to seek and receive redress is often restricted, bearing in mind that peace is inextricably linked with equality between young women and young men and development, that armed and other types of conflicts and terrorism and hostage-taking still persist in many parts of the world, and that aggression, foreign occupation and ethnic and other types of conflicts are an ongoing reality affecting young persons in nearly every region, from which they need to be protected. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/126, 18 December 2007, annex: §§ 43–44 and 50, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the girl child, the UN General Assembly:
17. Recognizes that a considerable number of girl children are particularly vulnerable, including … internally displaced and refugee children … and children who are incarcerated who live without parental support, and therefore urges States, with the support of the international community, where relevant, to take appropriate measures to address the needs of such children by implementing national policies and strategies to build and strengthen governmental, community and family capacities to provide a supportive environment for such children, including by providing appropriate counselling and psychosocial support, and ensuring their enrolment in school and access to shelter, good nutrition and health and social services on an equal basis with other children;
19. Urges all States and the international community to respect, promote and protect the rights of the girl child, taking into account the particular vulnerabilities of the girl child in pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict situations, and further urges States to take special measures for the protection of girls, in particular to protect them from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, gender-based violence, including rape, sexual abuse and sexual exploitation, torture, abduction and forced labour, paying special attention to refugee and displaced girls, and to take into account their special needs in the delivery of humanitarian assistance and disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation assistance and reintegration processes. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/140, 18 December 2007, §§ 17 and 19, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the rights of the child, the UN General Assembly:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, taking into account their gender-specific needs, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to violence and risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, stressing the need for States as well as the international community to continue to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to the special assistance, protection and development needs of those children through, inter alia, programmes aimed at rehabilitation and physical and psychological recovery, and to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, where appropriate and feasible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and family reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations, including by facilitating their work. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/141, 18 December 2007, § 29, voting record: 183-1-0-8.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and welcomes the commitment of the Representative of the Secretary-General to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their particular assistance, protection and development needs, as well as to other groups with special needs, such as severely traumatized individuals, older persons and persons with disabilities, taking into account the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and bearing in mind Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) of 31 October 2000. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/153, 18 December 2007, § 6, adopted without a vote.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 1982 on women and children under apartheid, ECOSOC:
Appeals to all Governments and organizations to provide generous contributions to the projects of the national liberation movements and front-line States for assistance to refugee women and children from South Africa and Namibia. 
ECOSOC, Res. 1982/24, 4 May 1982, § 3.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 1982 on women and children refugees, ECOSOC:
Considering the special problems of women refugees, particularly with regard to their physical safety,
1. Expresses grave concern at the plight of Kampuchean women and children, including the many thousands who have been forced to flee to other countries as refugees. 
ECOSOC, Res. 1982/25, 4 May 1982, preamble and § l.
UN Economic and Social Council
In a resolution adopted in 1991 on refugee and displaced women and children, ECOSOC:
Recalling that the majority of refugees and displaced persons are women and children and that a significant number of families are headed by women,
Expressing its deep concern about the widespread violations of the rights of refugee and displaced women and children and their specific needs regarding protection and assistance,
Recognizing that ensuring equal treatment of refugee and displaced women and men may require specific action in favour of the former,
2. Calls upon the international community to give priority to extending international protection to refugee women and children by implementing measures to ensure greater protection from physical violence, sexual abuse, abduction and circumstances that could force them into illegal activities;
5. Encourages Member States and relevant organizations to provide access to individual identification and registration documents, on a non-discriminatory basis, to all refugee women and, wherever possible, children, irrespective of whether the women and children were accompanied by male family members. 
ECOSOC, Res. 1991/23, 30 May 1991, preamble and §§ 2 and 5.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995, the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed alarm at the large number of displaced persons in the Sudan and made specific reference to the vulnerable situation of displaced women, children and members of minorities. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/77, 8 March 1995, preamble, voting record: 33-7-10.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
13. Reaffirms:
(d) The importance of special attention for children in situations of armed conflict, in particular in the areas of health and nutrition, education and social reintegration, and in developing emergency and other humanitarian assistance policies and programmes, and of enhanced coordination and cooperation throughout the United Nations system to this end;
17. Calls upon all States:
(b) And United Nations bodies and agencies, in coordination with other international humanitarian organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to ensure the early identification and registration of unaccompanied refugee and internally displaced children, to give priority to programmes for family tracing and reunification, and to continue monitoring the care arrangements for unaccompanied refugee and internally displaced children, taking into account the 1997 guidelines on policies and procedures in dealing with unaccompanied children seeking asylum of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1998/76, 22 April 1998, §§ 13(d) and 17(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all States “to take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … refugee children, internally displaced children, children affected by armed conflicts”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/19, 22 April 2003, § 6(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the elimination of violence against women, the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed deep concern that “some groups of women, such as … refugee and internally displaced women … and women in situations of armed conflict are often especially targeted or vulnerable to violence”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/45, 23 April 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and welcomes the commitment of the Representative of the Secretary-General to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their special assistance, protection and development needs, as well as those of other groups with special needs among the internally displaced, such as older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/51, 23 April 2003, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Deeply disturbed by the scale and magnitude of exoduses and displacements of people in many regions of the world and by the human suffering of refugees and displaced persons, a high proportion of whom are women and children,
9. Recognizes that, in addition to the problems refugee and displaced women and girls share with all refugees and displaced persons, they are vulnerable to persecution, gender-based discrimination and gender-specific violations of human rights, and calls upon States to protect and promote and respect the human rights of refugee and displaced women and children, to ensure that their particular needs are met, and to ensure that women are full and equal participants in the planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all projects and programmes. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/52, 24 April 2003, preamble and § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
3. Also condemns the abduction of children from refugee camps by armed groups, as distinct from the armed forces of States, and their subjection of children to forced conscription, torture, killing and rape;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee children, especially unaccompanied refugee minors, and internally displaced children who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(b) To take extra measures to protect refugee children, particularly girls, from being abducted by guerrilla groups;
(c) To increase and enhance cooperation at regional and international levels to combat networks of abduction and child trafficking and to suppress their activities;
(d) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed groups, as distinct from armed forces of States, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/85, 25 April 2003, §§ 2 and 5, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, to pay particular attention to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/86, 25 April 2003, § 32, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged “all States to take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … refugee children, internally displaced children, children affected by armed conflicts”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/25, 16 April 2004, § 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the elimination of violence against women, the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed deep concern that “some groups of women, such as … refugee and internally displaced women … and women in situations of armed conflict are often especially targeted or vulnerable to violence”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/46, 20 April 2004, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Also condemns the abduction of children from camps of refugees and internally displaced persons by armed groups, and their subjection of children to forced conscription, torture, killing and rape;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee children, especially unaccompanied refugee minors, and internally displaced children who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(b) To take extra measures to protect refugee children and internally displaced children, particularly girls, from being abducted by guerrilla groups;
(c) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/47, 20 April 2004, §§ 2 and 5, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylumseeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, to pay particular attention to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/48, 20 April 2004, § 32, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and notes the need to pay more systematic and indepth attention to their special assistance, protection and development needs, as well as those of other groups with special needs among the internally displaced, such as older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/55, 20 April 2004, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the right to education, the UN Commission on Human Rights urged all States “to take all appropriate measures to eliminate obstacles limiting effective access to education, notably by … refugee children, internally displaced children, [and] children affected by armed conflicts”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/21, 15 April 2005, § 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the elimination of violence against women, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Deeply concerned that all forms of discrimination, including racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, and multiple or aggravated forms of discrimination and disadvantage can lead to the particular targeting or vulnerability to violence of girls and some groups of women, such as … refugee and internally displaced women … women in situations of armed conflict …
22. Also urges States to mainstream a gender perspective into all policies and programmes, including national immigration and asylum policies, regulations and practices, as appropriate, in order to promote and protect the rights of all women and girls, including the consideration of steps to recognize genderrelated persecution and violence when assessing grounds for granting refugee status and asylum. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/41, 19 April 2005, preamble and § 22, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the abduction of children in Africa, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
2. Also condemns the abduction of children from camps of refugees and internally displaced persons by armed forces and armed groups, and their subjection of children to participation in fighting, torture, killing and rape as victims and as perpetrators;
5. Calls upon African States:
(a) To pay particular attention to the protection of refugee and internally displaced children, especially unaccompanied and separated children, who are exposed to the risk of being abducted or becoming involved in armed conflicts;
(b) To take extra measures to protect refugee children and internally displaced children, particularly girls, from being abducted;
(c) To take adequate measures to prevent the abduction and recruitment of children by armed forces and armed groups and their participation in hostilities, through, inter alia, the adoption of legal measures to prohibit and criminalize such practices and practical measures such as prompt and comprehensive birth registration of all children (including refugee and internally displaced children), documentation of children, preservation of family unity and its facilitation in case of separation, access to education, health care, vocational training and employment. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/43, 19 April 2005, §§ 2 and 5(a)–(c), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the rights of the child, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Profoundly concerned that the situation of children in many parts of the world remains critical as a result of the persistence of … armed conflicts, displacement … and convinced that urgent and effective national and international action is called for,
11. Notes with concern the large number of children, particularly … refugee children … among the victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, stresses the need to incorporate special measures, in accordance with the principle of the best interests of the child and respect for his or her views, in programmes to combat these practices, and calls upon States to provide special support and ensure equal access to services for those children;
26. Calls upon all States to protect refugee, asylumseeking and internally displaced children, in particular those who are unaccompanied, who are particularly exposed to risks in connection with armed conflict and post-conflict situations, such as recruitment, sexual violence and exploitation, to pay particular attention to programmes for voluntary repatriation and, wherever possible, local integration and resettlement, to give priority to family tracing and reunification and, where appropriate, to cooperate with international humanitarian and refugee organizations.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/44, 19 April 2005, preamble and §§ 11 and 26, voting record: 52-1-0.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on internally displaced persons, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and notes the need to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their special assistance, protection and development needs, as well as those of other groups with special needs among the internally displaced, such as older persons and persons with disabilities, taking into account the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and bearing in mind Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) of 31 October 2000. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/46, 19 April 2005, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 concerning human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Deeply disturbed by the scale and magnitude of exoduses and displacements of people in many regions of the world and by the human suffering of refugees and displaced persons, a high proportion of whom are women and children,
10. Recognizes that, in addition to the problems refugee and displaced women and girls share with all refugees and displaced persons, they are vulnerable to persecution, gender-based discrimination and gender-specific violations of human rights, and calls upon States to protect and promote and respect the human rights of refugee and displaced women and children, to ensure that their particular needs are met, and to ensure that women are full and equal participants in the planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all projects and programmes. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/48, 19 April 2005, preamble and § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on technical cooperation and advisory services in Nepal, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Calls upon the Government of Nepal to provide urgent protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, taking account of the particular needs of women and children, to facilitate their safe return, reintegration and resettlement elsewhere in the country, as appropriate, and to develop appropriate policies and legislation in this regard, using the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/78, 20 April 2005, § 9, adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the mandate of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons, the UN Human Rights Council:
Expresses particular concern at the grave problems faced by many internally displaced women and children, including violence and abuse, sexual exploitation, forced recruitment and abduction, and notes the need to continue to pay more systematic and in-depth attention to their special assistance, protection and development needs, as well as those of other groups with special needs among the internally displaced, such as older persons and persons with disabilities. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 6/32, 14 December 2007, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2001 on international protection for refugees and displaced persons, the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights noted with alarm that “the situation of women and girl refugees has been grossly exacerbated, to the extent that it requires the urgent attention of the international community”. 
UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2001/16, 16 August 2001, § 3.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1985, in its Conclusion on Refugee Women and International Protection, the UNHCR Executive Committee noted that “refugee women and girls constitute the majority of the world refugee population and that many of them are exposed to special problems in the international protection field” and recommended that States take the specificity of refugee women into account and pay special attention to their needs. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 39 (XXXVI): Refugee Women and International Protection, 18 October 1985, §§ c and h.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1990, in its Conclusion on Refugee Women and International Protection, the UNHCR Executive Committee urged States to adopt a series of practical measures in order to take into account the specificity of refugee women. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 64 (XLI): Refugee Women and International Protection, 5 October 1990, § a.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1997, in its Conclusion on Refugee Children and Adolescents, the UNHCR Executive Committee:
Calls upon States and relevant parties to respect and observe rights and principles that are in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law … including:
i) the principle of the best interests of the child;
iii) the right of children and adolescents to education, adequate food, and the highest attainable standard of health. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 84 (XLVIII): Refugee Children and Adolescents, 17 October 1997, § (a)(i) and (iii); see also Conclusion No. 47 (XXXVIII): Refugee Children, 12 October 1987, § (c) and Conclusion No. 59 (XL): Refugee Children, 13 October 1989, § d.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 2006, in its Conclusion on Women and Girls at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee:
Acknowledging that, while forcibly displaced men and boys also face protection problems, women and girls can be exposed to particular protection problems related to their gender, their cultural and socio-economic position, and their legal status, which mean they may be less likely than men and boys to be able to exercise their rights and therefore that specific action in favour of women and girls may be necessary to ensure they can enjoy protection and assistance on an equal basis with men and boys,
Recalling that the protection of women and girls is primarily the responsibility of States, whose full and effective cooperation, action and political resolve are required to enable UNHCR to fulfil its mandated functions; and that all action on behalf of women and girls must be guided by obligations under relevant international law, including, as applicable, international refugee law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law,
Bearing in mind Conclusion No. 75 (XLV) on internally displaced persons and noting that the protection challenges for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees may differ, that the normative legal frameworks for their protection are different, that humanitarian access to internally displaced persons can be more difficult, that internally displaced women and girls are more likely to be caught in armed conflict and may face specific protection risks as a result and that the responses and solutions available to refugee and internally displaced women and girls may be different,
Acknowledging that each community is different and that an in-depth understanding of religious and cultural beliefs and practices is required to address the protection risks women and girls face in a sensitive manner while bearing in mind obligations under international refugee, human rights and humanitarian law,
(a) Adopts this Conclusion regarding the identification of women and girls at risk, prevention strategies and individual responses and solutions and recommends that UNHCR include a more detailed elaboration of these issues in the UNHCR Handbook on the Protection of Women and Girls.
(j) Secure environments are to be established and strengthened, including by partnerships and actions to:
i. prevent and respond to [sexual and gender-based violence] in accordance with international standards set out in UNHCR and other relevant guidelines, including through provision of quality health services to address the specific needs of women and girls at risk;
ii. maintain the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, which is a primary responsibility of host States;
(l) Financial and other necessary resources should also be mobilized, as appropriate, including by action to ensure the provision of protection and material assistance and timely durable solutions based on international solidarity, cooperation and burden and responsibility sharing.
Individual responses and solutions
(m) Recommended actions by States, UNHCR, other relevant agencies and partners to respond to the situation of individual women and girls at risk are listed non-exhaustively below.
(n) Ensuring early identification and immediate response involves partnerships and actions to:
i. establish mechanisms, based on an analysis of the risk factors outlined above, to identify individual women and girls at risk, determine and implement appropriate immediate responses and subsequent solutions;
(o) Developing medium-term responses for individuals includes partnerships and actions to:
i. monitor on an ongoing basis initiatives taken with regard to individual safety, well-being and needs and ensure accountability for actions taken;
(p) Recommended longer-term responses and solutions include partnerships and actions to:
i. promote respect for women’s and girls’ equal rights to make a free and informed choice to return voluntarily and to their equal access to land and property in the country of origin, and incorporate measures to ensure adequate ongoing assistance and support in the country of origin for those at risk into tripartite voluntary repatriation agreements;
ii. strengthen the use of resettlement as a protection and durable solutions tool for refugee women and girls at risk; enhance identification of refugee women and girls at risk for resettlement, including through training; streamline processing further, including by establishing measures to enable the speedier departure of refugee women at risk and their dependants;
iii. consider using special evacuation programmes for internally displaced women and girls at risk, if necessary, given that resettlement is very rarely available to them;
iv. establish mechanisms, where voluntary repatriation for individual refugee women and girls at risk is not a safe option and resettlement is not available, to enable them, where appropriate, to integrate locally and safely in the country of asylum, including by examining possibilities for voluntary relocation elsewhere in the country; for internally displaced women and girls at risk, examine possibilities for allowing them to relocate elsewhere in their own country if they wish and if their safety cannot be ensured where they are; and
v. ensure support, such as medical and psychosocial care, is available to women and girls at risk to facilitate their recovery and integration, whether this be in the context of local integration, return, resettlement or other humanitarian programmes.  
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 105 (LVII): Women and Girls at Risk, 6 October 2006, preamble, §§ a, j(i)–(ii), l, m, n(i), o(i) and p(i)–(v).
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 2007, in its Conclusion on Children at Risk, the UNHCR Executive Committee:
Affirming that children, because of their age, social status and physical and mental development are often more vulnerable than adults in situations of forced displacement; recognizing that forced displacement, return to post-conflict situations, integration in new societies, protracted situations of displacement, and statelessness can increase the vulnerability of children generally; taking into account the particular vulnerability of refugee children to being forcibly exposed to the risks of physical and psychological injury, exploitation and death in connection with armed conflict; and acknowledging that wider environmental factors and individual risk factors, particularly when combined, can put children in situations of heightened risk,
Recalling that the protection of children is primarily the responsibility of States, whose full and effective cooperation, action and political resolve are required to enable UNHCR to fulfil its mandated functions,
(a) Adopts this Conclusion which provides operational guidance for States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners, including through identifying components that may form part of a comprehensive child protection system, with the aim of strengthening the protection of children at risk;
Fundamentals of child protection
(b) Recognizes that strategies and actions under this operational guidance should be underpinned by the following principles and approaches, amongst others:
i. Children should be among the first to receive protection and assistance;
ii. States should promote the establishment and implementation of child protection systems, in accordance with international obligations of States concerned, and to which children under their jurisdiction should have non-discriminatory access;
v. The principle of the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration in regard to all actions concerning children;
vi. Due consideration should be given to the importance of the family and family support structures for the protection of children;
x. A rights-based approach, which recognizes children as active subjects of rights, and according to which all interventions are consistent with States’ obligations under relevant international law, including, as applicable, international refugee law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and acknowledgement that the CRC [Committee on the Rights of the Child] provides an important legal and normative framework for the protection of children;
Prevention, response and solutions
(g) Recommends that States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners work in close collaboration to prevent children from being put at heightened risk, and respond, as necessary, through the general prevention, response and solution measures listed non-exhaustively below:
viii. Develop child and gender-sensitive national asylum procedures, where feasible, and UNHCR status determination procedures with adapted procedures including relevant evidentiary requirements, prioritized processing of unaccompanied and separated child asylum-seekers, qualified free legal or other representation for unaccompanied and separated children, and consider an age and gender-sensitive application of the 1951 [Refugee] Convention through the recognition of child-specific manifestations and forms of persecution, including under-age recruitment, child trafficking and female genital mutilation;
xi. Address, on a priority basis, the concerns of children in protracted refugee situations, including through intensifying efforts for durable solutions which will reduce the risks they face;
xii. Support the efforts of host countries to enhance education, health care and provision of other basic services in refugee-impacted areas as well as expand national protection capacities for addressing the needs of children in particular; and
(h) Further recommends that States, UNHCR and other relevant agencies and partners undertake the following non-exhaustive prevention, response and solution measures in order to address specific wider environmental or individual risks factors:
iii. Facilitate children’s enjoyment of family unity through putting in place procedures to prevent separation, and in respect of unaccompanied and separated children, facilitate tracing and family reunification with their family members in accordance with the respective child’s best interests, with due respect for the national legislation of respective States;
iv. Promote the provision of alternative care and accommodation arrangements for unaccompanied and separated children, and facilitate the appointment of a guardian or adviser when an unaccompanied or separated child is identified;
v. Make all efforts to provide a secure environment including through selecting safe locations for camps and settlements as close to local facilities as possible, undertaking child and gender-sensitive protection-based site planning;
ix. Make all efforts to ensure integrated nutrition and health interventions and access to adequate food through measures that address the root causes of food insecurity and malnutrition, including by enhancing families’ enjoyment of self-reliance, age and gender-sensitive food distribution systems, targeted nutrition programmes for pregnant women and children during their critical first years of development, and by providing treatment for malnourished children;
xiv. Facilitate the provision of child-friendly information on the conditions in places of return to enable refugee and internally displaced children, in particular those unaccompanied and separated and others at heightened risk, to participate in decision-making on their return; promote respect for protection of children’s inheritance rights; and provide, where possible and appropriate, child- and gender-sensitive/adapted reintegration support on integration and participation in the communities to which they are returning, targeting and recognizing the specific needs of the returning child;
xvii. Whether in the context of resettlement or local integration, facilitate the integration of refugee children through targeted support in schools, particularly for adolescents, and through providing language classes and education on the culture and social structures in the host country for refugee children; provide support for refugee children at heightened risk that is targeted at addressing their specific needs; and where integration is being implemented, facilitate, as far as possible, the naturalization of refugee children in accordance with national laws and regulations;
xviii. Enhance the use of resettlement as a protection and durable solutions tool for children at risk; where appropriate, take a flexible approach to family unity, including through consideration of concurrent processing of family members in different locations, as well as to the definition of family members in recognition of the preference to protect children within a family environment with both parents; and recognize UNHCR’s role in the determination of the best interests of the child which should inform resettlement decisions including in situations where only one parent is being resettled and custody disputes remain unresolved due to the unavailability or inaccessibility of competent authorities, or due to the inability to obtain official documents from the country of origin as this could jeopardize the safety of the refugee or his/her relatives; and
xix. Safeguard the right of every child to acquire a nationality, and ensure the implementation of this right in accordance with national laws and obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless; and consider the active dissemination of information regarding access to naturalization procedures. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 107 (LVIII): Children at Risk, 5 October 2007, preamble, §§ a, b(i)–(ii), (v)–(vi) and (x), g(viii) and (xi)–(xii), and h(iii)–(v), (ix), (xiv) and (xvii)–(xix).
UN Secretary-General
In 1996, in a report on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Secretary-General stated: “Particular attention should be paid to vulnerable groups, including women, children and the elderly, in the areas of prevention, protection and assistance”. 
UN Secretary-General, Report on human rights and mass exoduses, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/42, 8 February 1996, § 119.
UN Secretary-General (Representative)
In 1997, in a report on his mission to Mozambique, the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons identified “female-headed households, unaccompanied children and the disabled [as] particularly vulnerable groups” requiring special attention during return. 
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons, Report on the Representative’s visit to Mozambique from 23 November to 3 December 1996, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/43/Add.1, 24 February 1997, § 87.
UN Expert on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children
In a report in 1996, the UN Expert on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children emphasized: “Practical protection measures to prevent sexual violence [and] discrimination in delivery of relief materials … must be a priority in all assistance programmes in refugee and displaced camps.” 
UN Expert on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, Report, UN Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996, Annex, §§ 90, 110, 165 and 203.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
In 1997, in a report on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated:
UNICEF noted that its activities focused on the protection and care of refugee and displaced women and children who were likely to become victims of gender-based discrimination, violence and exploitation. 
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report on human rights and mass exoduses, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/42, 14 January 1997, p. 17, § 55.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a mission to Burundi, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions highlighted several of the special problems faced by internally displaced children, including separation from family members and the fact that “like their mothers, children are a vulnerable group subject to malnutrition, diseases and various forms of physical violence, including sexual abuse and rape”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s mission to Burundi from 19 to 29 April 1995, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1996, § 82.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on a mission to Rwanda, the Special Rapporteur of the UN High Commission on Human Rights for Zaire recommended that “the government must establish resettlement programmes for [IDPs] … covering housing, education, health and, above all, security for all, especially women and children”.  
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Zaire, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s visit to Rwanda from 6 to 14 July 1996, concerning ethnic conflict in the Northern Kivu region, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/6/Add.l, 16 September 1996, § 126(j).
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 2001, in a report on violence against women perpetrated and/or condoned by the State during times of armed conflict, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences stated:
Women and children face rape and other gender-based violence and abduction, not only during armed conflict but in flight, as well as once they have fled the conflict area. In her 1998 report, the Special Rapporteur discussed in detail the particular concerns of refugee women and the factors that impact their security differently from that of men. However, since 1997, the Special Rapporteur has become increasingly concerned with the problem of women who are internally displaced. With the epidemic of internal conflicts around the world, it has become abundantly clear that internally displaced persons (IDPs) – the majority of whom are women and children – are particularly vulnerable to violence and abuse. Unlike refugees, IDPs do not have access to legally binding international standards that are specifically designed for their protection and assistance, nor is there an international monitoring agency specifically mandated to provide protection and assistance to IDPs in the same way that UNHCR does for refugees. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Report on violence against women perpetrated and/or condoned by the State during times of armed conflict (1997–2000), UN Doc. E/CN.4/2001/73, 23 January 2001, § 54.
UNHCR Executive Committee
In 1998, in a report on regional development in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the UNHCR Executive Committee identified vulnerable groups such as internally displaced women, children and the elderly as policy priorities in determining the distribution of humanitarian assistance. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Standing Committee update on regional development in the former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. EC/48/SC/CRP.10, 2 April 1998, §§ 68–69.
OAS General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1998 on the situation of refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons in the Americas, the OAS General Assembly emphasized the urgency of specifically addressing the needs of women, elderly persons and children. 
OAS, General Assembly, Res. 1602 (XXVIII-O/98), 3 June 1998, § 4.
OAU Council of Ministers
In resolutions adopted in 1993 and 1995, the OAU Council of Ministers identified women, children, the elderly and the disabled as particularly vulnerable groups of displaced persons. 
OAU, Council of Ministers, Res. 1448 (LVIII), 21–26 June 1993, preamble; Res. 1588 (LXII), 21–23 June 1995, preamble.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution on the Movement and refugees in which it asked governments, UNHCR, National Societies and NGOs “to give special attention to the problems of refugees, returnees and displaced persons, particularly the most vulnerable groups”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. XVII, § 8.
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan in 2007, the Human Rights Committee stated:
[The Committee] remains concerned at the absence of measures to ensure the protection of displaced persons and humanitarian workers … (art. 12 of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]).
In keeping with all international standards governing the matter, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the State party should:
(a) Take such steps as are necessary to afford displaced persons, in particular women in and around camps, greater protection. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3, 29 August 2007, § 23.
[emphasis in original]
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
In 1998, in its consideration of the report of Peru, CEDAW expressed concern at the situation of displaced women in Peru and recommended that these women benefit from “programmes to promote their participation in the labour force together with access for them and their families to education, health care, housing, drinking water and other essential services”. 
CEDAW, Consideration of the report of Peru, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/1998/II/L.1/Add.7, 8 July 1998, §§ 23.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
In 1999, CEDAW stated: “States parties should ensure that adequate protection and health services, including trauma treatment and counselling, are provided for women in especially difficult circumstances, such as … women refugees.” The Committee noted with concern “the persistence of widespread violence as a result of the armed conflict” in Colombia and that “women are the principal victims and that they … lack the resources needed for their survival in a situation in which they are called upon to assume greater responsibilities”. 
CEDAW, Report of the Committee, 20th Session, 19 January–5 February 1999, UN Doc. A/54/ 38(Part I), 20 August 1999, §§ 16 and 358.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1993, in its preliminary observations on the report of Sudan, the Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed concern at the situation of internally displaced children. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Preliminary observations on the report of Sudan, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.6, 18 February 1993, §§ 9–10.
In its concluding observations, the Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed alarm at the problems faced by homeless and displaced children. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Sudan, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.10, 18 October 1993, § 14.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1997, in its concluding observations on the report of Uganda, the Committee on the Rights of the Child recommended that Uganda direct special attention “to refugee and internally displaced children to ensure that they have equal access to basic facilities”. The Committee also recommended that, in accordance with IHL, “the State party take measures to stop the killing and abduction of children”. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Uganda, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.80, 21 October 1997, §§ 34 and 37.
Committee on the Rights of the Child
In 1997, in its concluding observations on the report of Myanmar, the Committee on the Rights of the Child suggested that the government be proactive in preventing any type of involuntary population movement affecting the rights of children. 
Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the report of Myanmar, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.69, 24 January 1997, §§ 40–42.
No data.
Bangkok NGO Declaration on Human Rights
The Bangkok NGO Declaration on Human Rights adopted in 1993 states:
Crimes against women, including rape, sexual slavery and trafficking, and domestic violence, are rampant … In crisis situations – ethnic violence, communal riots, armed conflicts, military conflicts, military occupation and displacement – women’s rights are specifically violated. 
World Conference on Human Rights, Regional Preparatory Meeting for Asia-Pacific, Bangkok, 24–28 March 1993, Bangkok NGO Declaration on Human Rights, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/83, 19 April 1993, § 3.
International Institute of Humanitarian Law
In 1995, with regard to the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law commented:
Concerning categories of persons deserving special protection, we draw attention to the practice of forced displacement … of children into another territory, without leaving any trace, so that the identity of these children, when separated from their families, is not preserved. We propose:
In the case of the evacuation of children without their parents to a foreign country, such children should be registered with the appropriate impartial organization. 
International Institute of Humanitarian Law, Comments on the Turku Declaration of Minimum Humanitarian Standards submitted to the UN Secretary-General prepared pursuant to UN Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/29, 28 November 1995, p 10.