Practice Relating to Rule 131. Treatment of Displaced Persons

Geneva Convention IV
Article 49, third paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
The Occupying Power undertaking … transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation is provided to receive the protected persons, that the removals are effected in satisfactory conditions of … safety. 
Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, Article 49, third para.
Additional Protocol II
Article 17(1) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: “Should … displacements have to be carried out, all possible measures shall be taken in order that the civilian population may be received under satisfactory conditions of … safety.” 
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva, 8 June 1977, Article 17(1). Article 17 was adopted by consensus. CDDH, Official Records, Vol. VII, CDDH/SR.53, 6 June 1977, p. 144.
Kampala Convention
The 2009 Kampala Convention provides that States Parties shall “[t]ake necessary measures to ensure that the internally displaced persons are received, without discrimination of any kind and live in satisfactory conditions of safety, dignity and security”. 
African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, adopted in Kampala, Uganda, 23 October 2009, Article 9(2)(a).
Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paragraph 3 of the 1992 Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides that the security of the civilians who leave temporarily a territory shall be guaranteed by each party on the territory it controls. 
Recommendation on the Tragic Situation of Civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina, adopted at the invitation of the International Committee of the Red Cross and signed by Representatives of Mr. Alija Izetbegović (President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and President of the Party of Democratic Action), Representative of Mr. Radovan Karadžić (President of the Serbian Democratic Party), and Representative of Mr. Mate Boban (President of the Croatian Democratic Community), Geneva, 1 October 1992, § 3.
Australia
Australia’s LOAC Manual (2006) states: “Refugees and those fleeing armed conflict are protected persons who must at all times be treated humanely and shall not be attacked or threatened with acts or threats of violence.” 
Australia, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Australian Defence Headquarters, 11 May 2006, § 9.20.
The LOAC Manual (2006) replaces both the Defence Force Manual (1994) and the Commanders’ Guide (1994).
Argentina
Argentina’s Law of War Manual (1969) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Argentina, Leyes de Guerra, RC-46-1, Público, II Edición 1969, Ejército Argentino, Edición original aprobado por el Comandante en Jefe del Ejército, 9 May 1967, § 5.008.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (1999) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts: “If [civilians] do have to be displaced, arrangements must be made, if possible, for their … safety.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Level, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 1999, p. 17-5, § 41.
Canada
Canada’s LOAC Manual (2001) states in its chapter on non-international armed conflicts: “If [civilians] do have to be displaced, arrangements must be made, if possible, for their shelter, hygiene, health, safety and nutrition.” 
Canada, The Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels, Office of the Judge Advocate General, 13 August 2001, § 1724.
Côte d’Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire’s Teaching Manual (2007) provides in Book I (Basic instruction):
Lesson 1. Basic notions of IHL
The principle of distinction specifies who and what can be attacked and who and what cannot be attacked.
- Who and what must be protected?
- refugees and displaced persons,
Lesson 2. Identification
II.2 Persons and objects under special protection
- refugees and displaced persons. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre I: Instruction de base, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, pp. 13–15, 17 and 19.
In Book III, Volume 1 (Instruction of first-year trainee officers), the Teaching Manual provides:
IV.3.3. Total or partial evacuation of the civilian population
With respect to evacuations, additional limitations apply in occupied territory. …
The occupying power which undertakes these transfers or evacuations must ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that the protected persons are offered suitable accommodation, [and] that the evacuations are effected in appropriate conditions of … safety. 
Côte d’Ivoire, Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre III, Tome 1: Instruction de l’élève officier d’active de 1ère année, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 52; see also Droit de la guerre, Manuel d’instruction, Livre IV: Instruction du chef de section et du commandant de compagnie, Manuel de l’élève, Ministère de la Défense, Forces Armées Nationales, November 2007, p. 74.
Croatia
Croatia’s LOAC Compendium (1991) provides that civilian persons evacuated for security reasons shall receive “proper conditions of … safety”. 
Croatia, Compendium “Law of Armed Conflicts”, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Defence, 1991, p. 62.
Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic’s Military Manual (1980) states that when civilians are moved or resettled, soldiers “should take action to ensure their safety”. 
Dominican Republic, La Conducta en Combate según las Leyes de la Guerra, Escuela Superior de las FF. AA. “General de Brigada Pablo Duarte”, Secretaría de Estado de las Fuerzas Armadas, May 1980, p. 10.
Hungary
Hungary’s Military Manual (1992) provides that civilian persons evacuated for security reasons shall receive “proper conditions of … safety”.  
Hungary, A Hadijog, Jegyzet a Katonai, Föiskolák Hallgatói Részére, Magyar Honvédség Szolnoki Repülötiszti Föiskola, 1992, p. 98.
New Zealand
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides, with respect to non-international armed conflicts: “If [civilians] do have to be displaced, arrangements must be made, if possible, for their … safety.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1823.
Peru
Peru’s IHL Manual (2004) states: “[Commanders] must give specific orders and/or instructions for the implementation of measures to protect refugees and displaced persons.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial Nº 1394-2004-DE/CCFFAA/CDIH-FFAA, Lima, 1 December 2004, § 24.c.(6).
Peru
Peru’s IHL and Human Rights Manual (2010) states: “[Commanders] must give specific orders and/or instructions for the implementation of measures to protect refugees and displaced persons.” 
Peru, Manual de Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derechos Humanos para las Fuerzas Armadas, Resolución Ministerial No. 049-2010/DE/VPD, Lima, 21 May 2010, § 25(c)(6), p. 228.
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (1996) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Publicación OR7-004, 2 Tomos, aprobado por el Estado Mayor del Ejército, Division de Operaciones, 18 March 1996, Vol. I, § 5.5.c.(5).
Spain
Spain’s LOAC Manual (2007) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
Spain, Orientaciones. El Derecho de los Conflictos Armados, Tomo 1, Publicación OR7–004, (Edición Segunda), Mando de Adiestramiento y Doctrina, Dirección de Doctrina, Orgánica y Materiales, 2 November 2007, § 5.5.c.(5).
Switzerland
Switzerland’s Basic Military Manual (1987) provides: “Displacements are effected in satisfactory conditions of … safety.” 
Switzerland, Lois et coutumes de la guerre (Extrait et commentaire), Règlement 51.7/II f, Armée Suisse, 1987, Article 176(2).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK Military Manual (1958) provides: “To the greatest practicable extent, removals of civil inhabitants must take place under satisfactory conditions of … safety.” 
United Kingdom, The Law of War on Land being Part III of the Manual of Military Law, The War Office, HMSO, 1958, § 560.
United States of America
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Article 49 of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, § 382.
United States of America
The US Soldier’s Manual (1984) provides that, when civilians are moved or resettled, soldiers “should take action to ensure their safety”. 
United States, Your Conduct in Combat under the Law of War, Publication No. FM 27-2, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, November 1984, p. 22.
Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s International Crimes (Tribunal) Act (1973) states that the “violation of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid down in the Geneva Conventions of 1949” is a crime. 
Bangladesh, International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973, Section 3(2)(e).
Denmark
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (1973), as amended in 1978, provides:
Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. a fine, lenient imprisonment or up to 12 years’ imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 1973, as amended in 1978, § 25(1).
Denmark’s Military Criminal Code (2005) provides:
Any person who deliberately uses war means [“krigsmiddel”] or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or international customary law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.e. imprisonment up to life imprisonment]. 
Denmark, Military Criminal Code, 2005, § 36(2).
Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Criminal Code (2004) states:
Article 270.- War Crimes against the Civilian Population.
Whoever, in time of war, armed conflict or occupation organizes, orders or engages in, against the civilian population and in violation of the rules of public international law and of international humanitarian conventions:
(l) attacking … or mistreating persons who, before the beginning of hostilities, were considered as stateless persons or refugees under the relevant international instruments or under the national legislation of the State of refuge or State of residence …
is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty-five years, or, in more serious cases, with life imprisonment or death. 
Ethiopia, Criminal Code, 2004, Article 270.
Ireland
Ireland’s Geneva Conventions Act (1962), as amended in 1998, provides that any “minor breach” of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including violations of Article 49 of the Geneva Convention IV, as well as any “contravention” of the 1977 Additional Protocol II, including violations of Article 17, are punishable offences. 
Ireland, Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, as amended in 1998, Section 4(1) and (4).
Norway
Norway’s Military Penal Code (1902), as amended in 1981, provides:
Anyone who contravenes or is accessory to the contravention of provisions relating to the protection of persons or property laid down in … the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 … [and in] the two additional protocols to these Conventions … is liable to imprisonment. 
Norway, Military Penal Code, 1902, as amended in 1981, § 108.
Peru
Peru’s Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement (2005) states:
Internally displaced persons who return to their places of habitual residence or who have resettled in another part of the country have a right to:
h) Be protected against all forms of combat that may put internally displaced persons at risk, including armed attacks on camps and other settlements. The following are prohibited: starvation as a method of combat and the use of internally displaced persons or their property for the purpose of protecting military objectives, attacks on their camps or settlements and the use of anti-personnel landmines. 
Peru, Regulations to the Law on Internal Displacement, 2005, Article 6(h).
No data.
Armed groups carry out attacks against internally displaced people, terrorizing them and robbing them of any hope for security … We urge the Government of Sudan to … protect civilians, in particular, individuals living in camps as a result of being internally displaced. 
Australia, Statement by the representative of Canada before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2005, p. 1.
Belgium
In 2007, in statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on the situation in Africa, the deputy permanent representative of Belgium stated: “My delegation is convinced that the protection of … displaced persons and refugees must be the absolute priority of the international community.” 
Belgium, Statement by the deputy permanent representative of Belgium before the UN Security Council on “The situation in Africa”, 4 April 2007, p. 11.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 1992, the Presidency of the Republika Srpska of Bosnia Herzegovina made an urgent appeal “to give protection … to displaced persons”. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Appeal of the Presidency concerning the International Committee of the Red Cross Operations, Pale, 7 June 1992.
Brazil
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council on Rwanda, Brazil emphasized that part of the UNAMIR mandate was “to contribute to provid[e] security and protection for displaced persons, refugees and civilians at risk”. 
Brazil, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3388, 1 January 1994, pp. 4–8.
Canada
In 2005, in a statement before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the representative of Canada stated:
Armed groups carry out attacks against internally displaced people, terrorizing them and robbing them of any hope for security … We urge the Government of Sudan to … protect civilians, in particular, individuals living in camps as a result of being internally displaced. 
Canada, Statement by the representative of Canada before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2005, p. 1.
Chad
In 2009, during the consideration of Chad’s initial report to the Committee against Torture, a statement of the delegation of Chad was summarized by the Committee in its records as follows:
Over 500.000 refugees from … Sudan and the Central African Republic were currently located in the eastern region of Chad. A special unit comprising Chadian police and gendarmes trained by the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad had been established in order to protect refugees and prevent militarization of the camps. 
Chad, Statement by the delegation of Chad before the Committee against Torture during the consideration of the initial report of Chad, 30 April 2009, published in the summary record of the 873rd meeting, 25 September 2009, UN Doc. CAT/C/SR.873, § 29.
Chad
In 2012, in its second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, Chad stated:
76. From 2005 to 2007, a succession of crises at the regional level (in particular the Darfur conflict) and at the national level (insecurity and intercommunity and political tension) caused the internal displacement of some 180,000 persons in the eastern part of Chad, especially in the regions of Ouaddai and Sila. …
78. Between 2007 and 2008, intercommunity fighting led to the forced displacement of some 16,000 Chadians within the country, in particular in the regions of Dar Sila and Ouaddai. Most of the displaced women had suffered rape or other forms of sexual violence.
81. The Government continues to give priority to the safety of refugees [and] internally displaced persons … in Chad. It is true that general security conditions have improved. Since the departure of MINURCAT [UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad], the Chadian integrated security force DIS supported by the United Nations has played and continues to play a key role in maintaining security in and around refugee camps and in protecting convoys of displaced persons returning to their villages of origin. The presence of DIS is essential to encourage respect for the rule of law, prevent the enlistment of children in armed groups and reduce the number of acts of sexual and gender-based violence in and around camps.
The Integrated Security Force is divided into six police stations and six police posts
84. … [I]t should be emphasized that since 2009, the action of MINURCAT followed by that of DIS has ensured the security and protection of displaced persons, mainly in eastern Chad. The Government considers, however, that still more needs to be done to achieve the ultimate goal of eradicating all forms of violence against displaced persons and enabling them to return to normal life.
85. To this end, Chad and Sudan have set up a joint force to protect refugees. Since doing so, peace has been completely restored in the eastern part of the country. 
Chad, Second periodic report to the Human Rights Committee, 28 January 2013, UN Doc. CCPR/C/TCD/2, submitted 20 July 2012, §§ 76, 78, 81 and 84–85.
II. Articles 1 [containing the definition of racial discrimination], 2 [on measures to be taken to ensure the elimination of racial discrimination in all its forms] and 3 [on the prevention, prohibition and eradication of apartheid] of the Convention
France
The Report on the Practice of France notes that France has stated that it would arrest and punish those responsible for attempts on the security of displaced persons in both international and non-international conflicts. 
Report on the Practice of France, 1999, Chapter 5.5.
Germany
In 2005, in its Seventh Human Rights Policy Report submitted to the Bundestag (Lower House of Parliament), Germany’s Federal Government stated:
A particular problem is the large group of internally displaced persons; since refugees in the sense of the Geneva Refugee Convention are only persons who in their flight have crossed an international border, the Convention and its protective regime is not applicable to internally displaced persons. For their protection, international humanitarian law (in the case of armed conflicts) and human rights norms (e.g. ICCPR [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights], ICESCR [1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights] and Convention on the Rights of the Child) are decisive. The main problem of internally displaced persons is the factor that the State as such responsible for their protection, whose territory they have not left, often cannot grant that protection due to circumstance of (civil) war or other circumstances and often even causes the internal displacement. Even provisions meant to guarantee access of internally displaced persons to humanitarian assistance often fail due to the objection of the respective State …
With the 1998 guidelines on the handling of crises related to internally displaced persons (“Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement”) by the then Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Francis Deng, the international community has a practice-oriented document, which summarizes existing standards on the protection of internally displaced persons and gives further recommendations. Although these guiding principles are not a binding instrument under international law, their acceptance by States, international organizations and NGOs has continued to grow over the past years, so that now they are virtually regarded as customary international law. 
Germany, Federal Government, Seventh Human Rights Policy Report, 17 June 2005, pp. 97–98.
Greece
In 2006, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of Greece stated: “[N]ew waves of displacement and violence and abuse against displaced persons and refugees … can not be tolerated and should come to a halt.” 
Greece, Statement by the permanent representative before the UN Security Council during a debate on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 5 December 2006.
Guinea
In 2009, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guinea stated:
471. Guinea has been greatly affected by the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone that have raged since 24 December 1989. Faithfully observing international human rights agreements, the [1989] Convention [on the Rights of the Child] and the [1990] African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Guinea has generously opened its doors to more than half a million refugees, including more than 305,000 children and young persons under 18 years of age (or 61 per cent of the refugee population), traumatized and hounded by a war that threatens their survival. They have been given shelter throughout the national territory, but especially in Guinée Forestière.
482. Action taken:
- Establishment of a programme to increase the security of the nation’s borders
484. The main constraints are as follows:
- Lack of security at the borders that Guinea shares with its neighbours, owing to the repeated incursions of rebels from Sierra Leone and Liberia into Guinea. 
Guinea, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 18 April 2012, UN Doc. CRC/C/GIN/2, submitted 24 December 2009, §§ 471, 482 and 484.
India
The Report on the Practice of India notes that, in the context of the conflict in Jammu and Kashmir, the Government of India has taken a number of steps to protect persons displaced by the conflict. Policy directives have reiterated that where persons are displaced, appropriate care should be taken to protect them. 
Report on the Practice of India, 1997, Chapter 5.4 and 5.5.
Nepal
In 2007, in its National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, Nepal stated:
1. Background
Due to natural disasters, human-made circumstances and disasters, armed conflict and situations of violence and fears having [been] created therefrom, persons and families are forcefully displaced from their homes or places of their habitual residence and thus they are time and again required to face such situations that force them to reside in other parts of the country. …
Therefore, the State is required to … provide security to displaced persons …
3. Definition[s]:
For the purpose of these Policies:
(a) “Internally Displaced Person” means a person who is living somewhere else in the country after having [been] forced to flee or leave their home or place of habitual residence due to armed conflict or situation of violence or gross violations of human rights or natural disasters or human-made disasters … or with an intention of avoiding the effects of such situations.
8. Policies
In relation to internal displacement, the following policies will be adopted:
8.1 Regarding Human Rights Protection
8.1.5 Arrangements … [for] appropriate security will be made in case … any person is forcibly displaced from his/her home or place of habitual residence due to violent conflict.  
Nepal, National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons, 22 February 2007, §§ 1, 3, 8 and 8.1.5.
Armed groups carry out attacks against internally displaced people, terrorizing them and robbing them of any hope for security … We urge the Government of Sudan to … protect civilians, in particular, individuals living in camps as a result of being internally displaced. 
New Zealand, Statement by the representative of Canada before the UN Commission on Human Rights on the human rights situation in Sudan, made on behalf of Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2005, p. 1.
Pakistan
In 2001, in its second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Pakistan stated:
Pakistan will continue to carry out its moral obligation, as the country of asylum, to provide the Afghan refugees with assistance and protection and will continue to strictly abide by the principle of non-refoulement. 
Pakistan, Second periodic report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 11 April 2003, UN Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.21, submitted 19 January 2001, § 344.
Philippines
The Guidelines on Evacuations adopted by the Presidential Human Rights Committee of the Philippines in 1991 provides:
Acts or threats of violence and various forms of inhuman treatment committed by the government forces, including para-military groups and other agents of authority, for the purpose of spreading terror among the evacuees are prohibited (Protocol II, Art. 13). 
Philippines, Presidential Human Rights Committee, Resolution No. 91-001 Providing for Guidelines on Evacuations, Manila, 26 March 1991, § 4.
Russian Federation
In 1994, during a debate in the UN Security Council, the Russian Federation stated that a central element of the peacekeeping operation in Rwanda had to be the establishment of secure humanitarian areas for the protection of IDPs. 
Russian Federation, Statement before the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.3377, 16 May 1994, p. 10.
Rwanda
A declaration by the Government of Rwanda in February 1993 on the restoration of the cease-fire specified: “Those displaced by the war will be installed in the demilitarized neutral zone and will receive the protection of the international force for maintaining the cease-fire.” 
Rwanda, Declaration by the government on the restoration of the cease-fire, annexed to Letter dated 4 March 1993 to the President of the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/25363, 4 March 1993, Annex III, p. 8, § 5.
Serbia and Montenegro
In 2003, in its initial report to the Human Rights Committee, Serbia and Montenegro stated:
… Likewise, any person resettled forcibly within Serbia and Montenegro has the right to effective protection and assistance in accordance with the law and the international obligations of the country (Article 38 [of the 2003 Charter of Human and Minority Rights and Civil Liberties of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro]). 
Serbia and Montenegro, Initial report to the Human Rights Committee, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SEMO/2003/1, 24 July 2003, § 67.
South Africa
In 2010, in a statement at the Tenth Annual Regional Seminar on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Pretoria, South Africa’s Deputy Minister of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation stated:
I am happy to say that many of the articles contained within the [2009 Kampala] Convention, which inter alia refer to freedom of movement, political choice, human dignity, health care and security of persons, are already protected in the South African Constitution (Act 35 of 1997). It is our view that the AU [African Union] IDP [Internally Displaced Persons] Convention [2009 Kampala Convention] fills a void in humanitarian law, recognising that IDPs have specific vulnerabilities and must be supported. It is therefore our hope that the AU Convention is going to be of value to other regions as well and contribute globally to the strengthening of IHL. 
South Africa, Statement by the Deputy Minister of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation at the Tenth Annual Regional Seminar on the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Pretoria, 4 May 2010, p. 3.
Thailand
In 2011, in its combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Thailand stated:
Children in temporary shelters for displaced persons fleeing armed conflict
101. The aim of Thailand’s policy towards displaced persons fleeing armed conflict is to provide assistance on a humanitarian basis pending eventual repatriation. While taking refuge in the temporary shelters, displaced persons are forbidden to go out of the designated areas or take any actions that might jeopardize the relationships with Thailand’s neighbors. The management of the camps follows strict guidelines and takes into account the observations and concerns of the CRC Committee [Committee on the Rights of the Child].
102. Some of the measures taken to ensure proper care and treatment of these people are:
(d) Protection against human trafficking by imposing restriction of their mobility outside the camps and taking strict legal actions against those attempting to lure or persuade them to seek employment outside;
(e) Strict patrolling and supervision of the camps and nearby areas to safeguard against procurement of weapons[.] 
Thailand, Combined third and fourth periodic reports to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 September 2011, UN Doc. CRC/C/THA/3-4, submitted 11 July 2011, §§ 101 and 102(d)–(e).
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 1991, the United Kingdom put forward the idea of creating safe areas for displaced persons in Iraq, especially Kurds, in the aftermath of the Gulf War. The United Kingdom assisted in the establishment of these safe areas and supplied troops in order to ensure the security of the sites. 
United Kingdom, Statement by the Prime Minister: A Safe Haven for the Kurds, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Press Office, 8 April 1991, p. 714.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2003, in reply to a question in the House of Commons on “people internally displaced as a result of the conflict in Iraq”, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, stated:
We have talked to the various NGOs that may have to deal with some of the IDPs [internally displaced persons], and to the countries that may be affected as people try to move towards their borders. We have been seeking agreements with other countries about how they will respond to the refugees coming towards their borders. We have also been talking to the military, who will obviously come across IDPs very quickly. We have discussed how they will ensure that those people’s safety is guaranteed and how they will ensure that IDPs get the humanitarian aid that they need as quickly as possible. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Statement by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 19 March 2003, Vol. 401, Debates, col. 946.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In 2004, in a written answer to a question concerning representations made to the Government of Sudan, the UK Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, stated:
We … regularly raise the need for it to ensure the protection of all civilians – including displaced persons – in Darfur, and to adhere to the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, including on the need for all returns to be voluntary and appropriate. 
United Kingdom, House of Commons, Written answer by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hansard, 13 December 2004, Vol. 428, Written Answers, col. 901W.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN Security Council decided to expand UNAMIR’s mandate “to contribute to the security and protection of displaced persons, refugees and civilians at risk in Rwanda, including through the establishment and maintenance … of secure humanitarian areas”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 918, 17 May 1994, § 3, adopted without a vote.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1994, the UN Security Council reaffirmed that UNAMIR would “contribute to the security and protection of displaced persons, refugees and civilians at risk in Rwanda, including through the establishment and maintenance … of secure humanitarian areas”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 925, 8 June 1994, § 4, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1996 on Burundi, the UN Security Council underlined “the responsibility of the authorities in Burundi for the security … of displaced persons”. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1040, 29 January 1996, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 1997 concerning eastern Zaire, the UN Security Council endorsed a protection plan to ensure the security of all refugees and displaced persons.  
UN Security Council, Res. 1097, 18 February 1997, § 1, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council:
Reaffirms the need to maintain the security and civilian character of refugee and internally displaced person camps, stresses the primary responsibility of States in this regard, and encourages the Secretary-General where necessary and in the context of existing peacekeeping operations and their respective mandates, to take all feasible measures to ensure security in and around such camps and of their inhabitants. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1674, 28 April 2006, § 14, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the Sudan, the UN Security Council:
9. Decides further that the mandate of UNMIS in Darfur shall also include the following:
(b) To … coordinate international efforts towards the protection of civilians with particular attention to vulnerable groups including internally displaced persons, returning refugees, and women and children;
13. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council on the protection of civilians in refugee and internally displaced persons camps in Chad and on how to improve the security situation on the Chadian side of the border with Sudan. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1706, 31 August 2006, §§ 9 and 13, voting record: 12-0-3.
UN Security Council
In a resolution on reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan adopted in 2007, the UN Security Council:
… condemning continued violent attacks on civilians, including displaced persons, refugees, women, children, the elderly and humanitarian workers; and reiterating in the strongest terms the need for all parties to the conflict in Darfur, including non-parties to the Darfur Peace Agreement, to put an end to the violence and atrocities in Darfur and the region. 
UN Security Council, Res. 1755, 30 April 2007, preamble, voting record: 15-0-0.
UN Security Council
In 1993, in a statement by its President on Liberia, the UN Security Council strongly condemned the “massacre of innocent displaced persons” and urged all parties to the conflict “to respect the rights of the civilian population and take all necessary measures to secure their safety”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/25918, 9 June 1993, §§ 2–3.
UN Security Council
In 1995, in a statement by its President, the UN Security Council stressed that the Government of Rwanda bore the primary responsibility for the security and safety of IDPs. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1995/22, 27 April 1995, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In January 1996, in a statement by its President on Burundi, the UN Security Council expressed grave concern at “attacks on personnel of international humanitarian organizations, which have led to the suspension of essential assistance to refugees and displaced persons” and stressed that “the authorities in Burundi are responsible for the security” of both. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/1, 5 January 1996, pp. 1–2.
UN Security Council
In 1996 and 1997, in several statements by its President on the Great Lakes region/Zaire, the UN Security Council called on all parties to guarantee the safety of refugees and displaced persons. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1996/44, 1 November 1996; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/5, 7 February 1997, p. 1; Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/11, 7 March 1997, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 1997, in a statement by its President on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Security Council called for attention to be paid to the protection and security needs of all refugees and displaced persons. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/1997/31, 29 May 1997, p. 2.
UN Security Council
In 2003, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council strongly condemns all attacks and acts of violence directed against civilians or other protected persons under international law, in particular international humanitarian law in situations of armed conflict, including such attacks and acts of violence against women, children, refugees, internally displaced persons and other vulnerable groups. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2003/27, 15 December 2003, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the situation in Burundi, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council condemns with the utmost firmness the massacre of refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo which occurred on the territory of Burundi, in Gatumba, on 13 August 2004.
The Security Council requests the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Burundi, in close contact with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to establish the facts and report on them to the Council as quickly as possible.
The Security Council calls upon the authorities of Burundi and of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to cooperate actively so that the perpetrators and those responsible for those crimes be brought to justice without delay.
The Security Council calls upon all States in the region to ensure that the territorial integrity of their neighbours is respected … It encourages them to redouble their efforts in order to provide security for the civilian populations on their territory, including for the foreigners to whom they grant refuge.
The Security Council requests the United Nations Operation in Burundi and the United Nations Organization’s Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to offer their assistance to the Burundian and Congolese authorities with a view to facilitating the investigation and to strengthening the security of vulnerable populations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/30, 15 August 2004, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2004, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council reaffirms its strong condemnation of all acts of violence targeting civilians or other protected persons under international law. The Council is gravely concerned that civilians are increasingly targeted by combatants and armed elements during armed conflict, in particular women, children and other vulnerable groups, including refugees and internally displaced persons, and recognizes the negative impact this will have on durable peace and national reconciliation.
Mindful of the particular vulnerability of refugees and internally displaced persons, the Council reaffirms the primary responsibility of States to ensure their protection, in particular, by preserving the civilian character of camps of refugees and internally displaced persons and to take effective measures to protect them from infiltration by armed groups, abduction and forced military recruitment. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2004/46, 14 December 2004, pp. 1 and 3.
UN Security Council
In 2005, in a statement by its President on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the UN Security Council stated:
The Security Council, recalling its resolutions 1265 (1999) and 1296 (2000) as well as statements made by its Presidents on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, reiterates its commitment to address the widespread impact of armed conflict on civilian populations.
The Council is gravely concerned about limited progress on the ground to ensure the effective protection of civilians in situations of armed conflict. It stresses in particular the urgent need for providing better physical protection for displaced populations as well as for other vulnerable groups, in particular women and children. Efforts should be focused in areas where these populations and groups are most at risk. At the same time, it considers that contributing to the establishment of a secure environment for all vulnerable populations should be a key objective of peacekeeping operations. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2005/25, 21 June 2005, p. 1.
UN Security Council
In 2007, in a statement by its President on the situation in the Middle East, the UN Security Council underlined “the need to protect and give assistance to the civilian population, notably the Palestinian refugees”. 
UN Security Council, Statement by the President, UN Doc. S/PRST/2007/17, 11 June 2007, p. 1.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1993 on refugees and displaced persons, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses deep concern regarding serious threats to the security or the well-being of refugees, including incidents of refoulement, unlawful expulsion, physical attacks and detention under unacceptable conditions, and calls upon States to take all measures necessary to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 48/116, 20 December 1993, § 5, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 1994 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN General Assembly expressed alarm at the repeated instances of violence against displaced persons and other civilians.  
UN General Assembly, Res. 49/198, 23 December 1994, preamble and § 10, voting record: 101-13-49-22.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Afghanistan, the UN General Assembly:
Expresses gratitude to those countries that continue to host Afghan refugee populations, and at the same time once again calls upon all groups to continue to fulfil their obligations for the protection of refugees and internally displaced persons and to allow international access for their protection and care. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/27 B, 5 December 2003, preamble, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, the UN General Assembly condemned “the events that have occurred in the Jenin refugee camp in April 2002, including the loss of life, injury, destruction and displacement inflicted on many of its civilian inhabitants”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/99, 9 December 2003, § 4, voting record: 150-6-19-16.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
17. Reaffirms that host States have the primary responsibility to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, and calls upon States, in cooperation with international organizations, within their mandates, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection and, in particular, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or the activities of armed elements or used for purposes that are incompatible with their civilian character;
19. Condemns any exploitation of refugees, especially their sexual abuse and exploitation, calls for those responsible for such deplorable acts to be brought to justice, welcomes in this regard the conclusion on protection from sexual abuse and exploitation adopted by the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees at its fifty-fourth session, and notes with deep concern that inadequate protection and/or inappropriate assistance, particularly concerning the quantity and quality of food and other material assistance, increases the vulnerability of refugees and asylum-seekers to sexual abuse and exploitation;
20. Welcomes the decision of the Office of the High Commissioner to put in place a code of conduct for humanitarian personnel aimed at preventing the exploitation of refugees, especially in the area of sexual exploitation. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/149, 22 December 2003, §§ 17 and 19–20, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN General Assembly:
Reaffirming the primary responsibility of States to ensure the protection of refugees and internally displaced persons,
7. Urges States to uphold the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements, consistent with international law, inter alia, through effective measures to prevent the infiltration of armed elements, to identify and separate any such armed elements from refugee populations, to settle refugees at safe locations, where possible away from the border, and to afford prompt and unhindered access to them by humanitarian personnel. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/169, 22 December 2003, preamble and § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly:
3. Expresses once again its grave concern at:
(b) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and recalls in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
6. Once again urges the Government of Myanmar, as stated in its resolution 57/231 and in Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/12:
(c) … to end systematic enforced displacement and provide protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, to allow the safe and dignified voluntary return of refugees. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 58/247, 23 December 2003, §§ 3(b) and 6(c), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
12. Reaffirms that host States have the primary responsibility to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, and calls upon States, in cooperation with international organizations, within their mandates, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection and, in particular, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or the activities of armed elements or used for purposes that are incompatible with their civilian character;
13. Condemns all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and well-being of refugees and asylum-seekers, such as refoulement, unlawful expulsion and physical attacks, deplores, in particular, the armed attacks that took place in the Gatumba transit centre in Burundi in August 2004, calls upon States of refuge, in cooperation with international organizations, where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 59/172, 20 December 2004, §§ 12–13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on UNRWA operations, the UN General Assembly:
Affirming the applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem,
Aware of the continuing needs of the Palestine refugees throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory and in the other fields of operation, namely Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic,
Gravely concerned about the extremely difficult living conditions being faced by the Palestine refugees in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, including in the Rafah and Jabaliya refugee camps, resulting, inter alia, from loss of life and injury, extensive destruction and damage to their shelters and properties, and displacement,
8. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/102, 8 December 2005, preamble and § 8, voting record: 159-6-3-23.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
13. Further reaffirms that host States have the primary responsibility to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, and calls upon States, in cooperation with international organizations, within their mandates, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection and, in particular, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or the activities of armed elements or used for purposes that are incompatible with their civilian character;
14. Condemns all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and well-being of refugees and asylum-seekers, such as refoulement, unlawful expulsion and physical attacks, calls upon States of refuge, in cooperation with international organizations, where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/128, 16 December 2005, §§ 13–14, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Condemns all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and wellbeing of refugees and asylum-seekers, such as refoulement, unlawful expulsion and physical attacks, and calls upon all States of refuge, in cooperation with international organizations where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/129, 16 December 2005, § 18, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly:
2. Expresses grave concern at:
(g) The situation of the large number of internally displaced persons and the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries, and [recalled] in this context the obligations of Myanmar under international law;
3. Strongly calls upon the Government of Myanmar:
(g) … to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 60/233, 23 December 2005, §§ 2(g) and 3(g), adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to Palestine refugees, the UN General Assembly expressed grave concern “at the especially difficult situation of the Palestine refugees under occupation, including with regard to their safety, well-being and living conditions”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/112, 14 December 2006, preamble, voting record: 173-1-10-8.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on UNRWA, the UN General Assembly:
Affirming the applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem,
Aware of the continuing needs of the Palestine refugees throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory and in the other fields of operation, namely Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic,
Gravely concerned about the extremely difficult living conditions being faced by the Palestine refugees in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, particularly in the refugee camps in the Gaza Strip, resulting, inter alia, from the loss of life and injury, the extensive destruction of their shelters, properties and vital infrastructure and the displacement of the Palestine refugees,
10. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/114, 14 December 2006, preamble and § 10, voting record: 169-6-8-9.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 concerning the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
Strongly condemns attacks on refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons as well as acts that pose a threat to their personal security and well-being, and calls upon all concerned States and, where applicable, parties involved in an armed conflict to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/137, 19 December 2006, § 10, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
10. Recalls the conclusion on registration of refugees and asylum-seekers adopted by the Executive Committee at its fifty-second session, notes the many forms of harassment faced by refugees and asylum-seekers who remain without any form of documentation attesting to their status, recalls the responsibility of States to register refugees on their territories, and, as appropriate, the responsibility of the Office of the High Commissioner or mandated international bodies to do so, reiterates in this context the central role which early and effective registration and documentation can play, guided by protection considerations, in enhancing protection and supporting efforts to find durable solutions, and calls upon the Office, as appropriate, to help States to conduct this procedure should they be unable to register refugees on their territory;
14. Further reaffirms that host States have the primary responsibility to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, and calls upon States, in cooperation with international organizations, within their mandates, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection and, in particular, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or the activities of armed elements or used for purposes that are incompatible with their civilian character, and encourages the High Commissioner to continue efforts, in consultation with States and other relevant actors, to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of camps;
15. Condemns all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and wellbeing of refugees and asylum-seekers, such as refoulement, unlawful expulsion and physical attacks, and calls upon States of refuge, in cooperation with international organizations, where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/139, 19 December 2006, §§ 10 and 14–15, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2006 on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the UN General Assembly strongly called upon the Government of Myanmar “to provide the necessary protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, in cooperation with the international community”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 61/232, 22 December 2006, § 3(d), voting record: 82-25-45-40.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on assistance to Palestine refugees, the UN General Assembly expressed grave concern “at the especially difficult situation of the Palestine refugees under occupation, including with regard to their safety, well-being and socio-economic living conditions”. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/102, 17 December 2007, preamble, voting record: 171-2-6-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on UNRWA operations, the UN General Assembly:
Affirming the applicability of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem,
Aware of the continuing needs of the Palestine refugees throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory and in the other fields of operation, namely Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic,
Gravely concerned about the extremely difficult living conditions being faced by the Palestine refugees in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, particularly in the refugee camps in the Gaza Strip, resulting, inter alia, from the loss of life and injury, the extensive destruction of their shelters, properties and vital infrastructure, the displacement of the Palestine refugees, the prolonged closures and socio-economic decline,
10. Calls upon Israel, the occupying Power, to comply fully with the provisions of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/104, 17 December 2007, preamble and § 10, voting record: 170-6-3-13.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 concerning the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN General Assembly:
12. Strongly condemns attacks on refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons as well as acts that pose a threat to their personal security and well-being, and calls upon all concerned States and, where applicable, parties involved in an armed conflict to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for human rights and international humanitarian law;
13. Deplores the refoulement and unlawful expulsion of refugees and asylum-seekers, and calls upon all concerned States to ensure respect for the relevant principles of refugee protection and human rights. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/124, 18 December 2007, §§ 12–13, adopted without a vote.
UN General Assembly
In a resolution adopted in 2007 concerning assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, the UN General Assembly:
12. Recalls the conclusion on registration of refugees and asylum-seekers adopted by the Executive Committee at its fifty-second session, notes the many forms of harassment faced by refugees and asylum-seekers who remain without any form of documentation attesting to their status, recalls the responsibility of States to register refugees on their territories, and, as appropriate, the responsibility of the Office of the High Commissioner or mandated international bodies to do so, reiterates in this context the central role that early and effective registration and documentation can play, guided by protection considerations, in enhancing protection and supporting efforts to find durable solutions, and calls upon the Office, as appropriate, to help States to conduct this procedure should they be unable to register refugees on their territory;
16. Further reaffirms that host States have the primary responsibility to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, calls upon States, in cooperation with international organizations, within their mandates, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection and, in particular, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or the activities of armed elements or used for purposes that are incompatible with their civilian character, and encourages the High Commissioner to continue efforts, in consultation with States and other relevant actors, to ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of camps;
17. Condemns all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and wellbeing of refugees and asylum-seekers, such as refoulement, unlawful expulsion and physical attacks, calls upon States of refuge, in cooperation with international organizations, where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers, notes with interest that the High Commissioner has continued to take steps to encourage the development of measures to better ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of asylum, and encourages the High Commissioner to continue those efforts, in consultation with States and other relevant actors. 
UN General Assembly, Res. 62/125, 18 December 2007, §§ 12 and 16–17, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights expressed alarm at the repeated instances of violence against displaced persons and other civilians. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/77, 8 March 1995, preamble, voting record: 33-7-10.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 1995 on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned “all attacks against persons in the refugee camps near the borders of Rwanda” and called upon States “to take appropriate steps to prevent such attacks”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 1995/91, 8 March 1995, § 12, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Reaffirming the primary responsibility of States to ensure the protection within their own territories of refugees, as well as internally displaced persons,
6. Calls upon States to ensure effective protection of refugees by, inter alia, respecting the principle of non-refoulement and urges all States to promote and protect the human rights and fundamental freedoms of refugees and asylum-seekers;
7. Also calls upon States to ensure effective protection of, and assistance to, refugees and internally displaced persons, consistent with international law, including by ensuring full, safe and unhindered access by humanitarian workers to displaced populations and ensuring the security and civilian and humanitarian nature of camps and settlements for refugees and internally displaced persons;
10. Expresses its grave concern at allegations of sexual exploitation of and violence against refugees and internally displaced persons, condemns all instances of abuse and exploitation of such persons, and calls on all relevant agencies to ensure the effective implementation and monitoring of the United Nations Inter-Agency Standing Committee Plan of Action on “Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises” and other relevant codes of conduct. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/52, 24 April 2003, preamble and §§ 6–7 and 10, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Notes with concern reports of violence perpetrated by Afghan elements against certain ethnic groups, internally displaced persons and refugees who have returned, as well as cases of arbitrary arrest and detention and attacks against women and girls. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/77, 25 April 2003, § 8, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2003 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the “ongoing widespread violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian law, in particular against internally displaced persons”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2003/78, 25 April 2003, § 6(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2004 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the “ongoing widespread violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian law, in particular against internally displaced persons”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2004/80, 21 April 2004, § 9(c), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on human rights and mass exoduses, the UN Commission on Human Rights:
Stressing the importance of adherence to international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law in order to avert mass exoduses and displacements, to mitigate their effects and to protect refugees and internally displaced persons at all stages of the displacement cycle, and expressing its deep concern at the lack of respect for those laws and principles, especially during armed conflict, including, inter alia, the denial of full, safe and unimpeded access to displaced persons by humanitarian workers,
Reaffirming the primary responsibility of States to ensure the protection within their own territories of refugees, as well as internally displaced persons,
7. Calls upon States to ensure effective protection of refugees by, inter alia, respecting the right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to seek and enjoy asylum and the principle of non-refoulement, and urges all States to promote and protect the human rights and fundamental freedoms of refugees and asylum-seekers;
8. Also calls upon States to ensure effective protection of, and assistance to, refugees and internally displaced persons at all stages of the displacement cycle, consistent with international law, including by ensuring full, safe and unhindered access by humanitarian workers to displaced populations and ensuring the security and civilian and humanitarian nature of camps and settlements for refugees and internally displaced persons;
11. Expresses its grave concern at allegations of sexual exploitation of and violence against refugees and internally displaced persons, condemns all instances of abuse and exploitation of such persons, and calls on all relevant agencies to ensure the effective implementation and monitoring of the Plan of Action on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises drawn up by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, other relevant codes of conduct and the Secretary-General’s Bulletin on special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13). 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/48, 19 April 2005, preamble and §§ 7–8 and 11, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on advisory services and technical assistance in Burundi, the UN Commission on Human Rights strongly condemned “the massacre committed against the civilian Banyamulenge refugee population at Gatumba on 13 August 2004 and demands that the perpetrators of these killings be brought to justice”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/75, 20 April 2005, § 24, adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, the UN Commission on Human Rights called upon the Government of the Sudan to “improve security in and around the internally displaced persons’ camps”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/82, 21 April 2005, § 4(e), adopted without a vote.
UN Commission on Human Rights
In a resolution adopted in 2005 on assistance to Somalia in the field of human rights, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the “ongoing widespread violations and abuses of human rights and humanitarian law against internally displaced persons [and] refugees”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Res. 2005/83, 21 April 2005, § 7(b), adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council called upon all parties to the conflict in Darfur “to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with a special focus on vulnerable groups including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as humanitarian workers”. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 4/8, 30 March 2007, § 4, adopted without a vote.
UN Human Rights Council
In a resolution adopted in 2007 on the situation of human rights in Darfur, the UN Human Rights Council reiterated its call upon all parties “to put an end to all acts of violence against civilians, with special focus on vulnerable groups, including women, children and internally displaced persons, as well as human rights defenders and humanitarian workers”. 
UN Human Rights Council, Res. 6/35, 14 December 2007, § 7, adopted without a vote.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
In 1993, in its Conclusion on Personal Security of Refugees, the Executive Committee of UNHCR:
(a) Deplores all violations of the right to personal security of refugees …;
(b) Urges States to take all measures necessary to prevent or remove threats to personal security of refugees…;
(d) Calls upon States … to provide effective physical protection to … refugees. 
UNHCR, Executive Committee, Conclusion No. 72 (XLIV): Personal Security of Refugees, 8 October 1993, §§ (a), (b) and (d).
UN Secretary-General
In May 1994, in a report on the situation in Rwanda, the UN Secretary-General stated: “It is very urgent that … ‘secure humanitarian areas’ be established where the estimated 2 million … unfortunate displaced persons can be provided both security and assistance.” 
UN Secretary-General, Report on the situation in Rwanda, UN Doc. S/1994/640, 31 May 1994, § 16.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, in a report on extra-judicial, arbitrary or summary executions, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights recommended that the authorities in Burundi establish a national police force, stating: “One of the priority tasks of the national police force would be to ensure the security and the protection of people in … refugee camps.” 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report on the Special Rapporteur’s mission to Burundi, 19–29 April 1995, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/4/Add.1, 24 July 1995, § 93.
UN Commission on Human Rights (Special Rapporteur)
In 1996, the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on Extra-judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions intervened on behalf of displaced persons on several occasions, including one case in which a group of internally displaced persons was “to be transported … [to] an area of active armed conflict in Tajikistan, where their lives could have been at risk, especially because of the presence of landmines”. 
UN Commission on Human Rights, Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Report, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/60, 24 December 1996, § 61.
No data.
International Conference of the Red Cross (1986)
The 25th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1986 adopted a resolution on the Movement and refugees in which it called on governments “to continue their efforts to find in the near future a solution to the problem of military or armed attacks on refugee camps and settlements”. 
25th International Conference of the Red Cross, Geneva, 23–31 October 1986, Res. XVII, § 7.
International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1999)
The Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003 adopted in 1999 by the 27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent proposed that all the parties to an armed conflict take effective measures to ensure that “in the conduct of hostilities, every effort is made to spare the life, protect and respect the civilian population, with particular protective measures for … groups with special vulnerabilities such as … displaced persons”. 
27th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, Geneva, 31 October–6 November 1999, Res. I, Annex 2, Plan of Action for the years 2000–2003, Actions proposed for final goal 1.1, § 1(a).
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the initial report of Uganda, the Human Rights Committee, in 2004, stated:
The State party should take immediate and effective measures to protect the right to life and liberty of the civilian population in areas of armed conflict in northern Uganda from violations by members of the security forces. In particular, it should protect internally displaced persons confined in camps, which are constantly exposed to attacks from the Lords Resistance Army. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the initial report of Uganda, UN Doc. CCPR/CO/80/UGA, 4 May 2004, § 12.
[emphasis in original]
Human Rights Committee
In its concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan in 2007, the Human Rights Committee stated:
[The Committee] remains concerned at the absence of measures to ensure the protection of displaced persons and humanitarian workers … (art. 12 of the [1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights])
In keeping with all international standards governing the matter, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the State party should:
(a) Take such steps as are necessary to afford displaced persons, in particular women in and around camps, greater protection. 
Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the third periodic report of the Sudan, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SDN/CO/3, 29 August 2007, § 23.
[emphasis in original]
ICRC
To fulfil its task of disseminating IHL, the ICRC has delegates around the world teaching armed and security forces that: “The occupying power undertaking evacuation shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, … that the removal is effected in satisfactory conditions of … safety.” 
Frédéric de Mulinen, Handbook on the Law of War for Armed Forces, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, § 836.
No data.