Practice Relating to Rule 89. Violence to Life
Zimbabwe’s Code of Conduct for Combatants (1993) states: “As a State party to the  Geneva Conventions … your country is bound by these treaties … The States party to the Geneva Conventions pledge to … [p]rohibit … summary execution or extermination”.
The Code of Conduct also states: “Article 3 common to all four Geneva Conventions, which regulates non-international armed conflicts, … prohibits arbitrary executions”.
Zimbabwe’s Constitution (1979), as amended to 2009, states:
12 Protection of right to life
(1) No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted.
(2) A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of subsection (1) … –
(d) … if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war.
Zimbabwe’s Geneva Conventions Act (1981), as amended in 1996, punishes “any person, whatever his nationality, who, whether in or outside Zimbabwe, commits any such grave breach of [any of the 1949 Geneva] Conventions”.
Zimbabwe’s Constitution (2013) states:
Chapter 4 – Declaration of Rights
48. Right to life
(1) Every person has the right to life.
(2) A law may permit the death penalty to be imposed only on a person convicted of murder committed in aggravating circumstances …
86. Limitation of rights and freedoms
(3) No law may limit the following rights enshrined in this Chapter, and no person may violate them –
(a) the right to life, except to the extent specified in section 48;
87. Limitations during public emergency
(1) In addition to the limitations permitted by section 86, the fundamental rights and freedoms set out in this Chapter may be further limited by a written law providing for measures to deal with situations arising during a period of public emergency, but only to the extent permitted by this section and the Second Schedule.
(4) No law that provides for a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislative or other measure taken in consequence of such a declaration may –
(a) indemnify, or permit or authorise an indemnity for, the State or any institution or agency of the government at any level, or any other person, in respect of any unlawful act; or
(b) limit any of the rights referred to in section 86(3), or authorise or permit any of those rights to be violated.
According to the Report on the Practice of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe considers that civilians of any description should be protected from murder.