Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 99. Deprivation of Liberty
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides that “unlawful confinement of a protected person” is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 40.
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including “imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law” as a crime against humanity, and the war crime of “unlawful confinement” of persons protected under the 1949 Geneva Conventions in international armed conflicts. 
South Africa, ICC Act, 2002, Schedule 1, Part 2, § 1(e) and Part 3, § (a)(vii).