Practice Related to Rule 95. Forced Labour
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) provides that the “compelling of civilians to perform prohibited labour” is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) provides that “[c]ompelling civilians to perform prohibited labour” is a grave breach of the law of armed conflict and a war crime.
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states that “compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of the hostile power” is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions.
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the war crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including in international armed conflicts: “compelling a prisoner of war or other protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power” and “compelling the nationals of the hostile party to take part in the operations of war directed against their own country, even if they were in the belligerent's service before the commencement of the war”.