Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 5. Definition of Civilians
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) defines civilians as “any person who does not belong to the armed forces and does not take part in a levée en masse”. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 24(c). This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) defines a “civilian” as “any person who does not belong to the armed forces and does not take part in a ‘levée en masse’.” 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 47(c).
(emphasis in original)
The manual further states: “If persons identified as civilians (defined above) engage the armed forces, then they are regarded as unlawful combatants and may be treated under the law as criminals.” 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 50(b).