Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 28. Medical Units
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) defines medical units in accordance with Article 8 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I and states: “Medical units shall at all times be respected and protected.” 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, §§ 57–59.
The manual further provides:
55. The obligation to respect the means of medical transport does not cease unless they are used to commit acts injurious to the enemy (e.g. transporting able-bodied soldiers or weapons).
59. A medical unit must not be defended against the enemy in the event of penetration by the enemy into the territory where it is located. Such defence would constitute a hostile act, causing the unit to forfeit its right to protection. Weapons emplacements alongside or near medical units may also cause a loss of the right to protection. Other examples are locating an observation post in the unit and storing ammunition in the unit. Emphasis is placed on medical personnel being neutral. Medical personnel should ensure that nothing and no one within the unit may be considered as harmful to the enemy and thus endanger the protection of the unit. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, §§ 55 and 59.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
71. Medical Units. “Medical units” are defined as establishments and other units, whether military or civilian, which are organised for medical purposes (i.e. the search for collection, diagnosis or treatment – including first aid treatment – of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or the prevention of disease). The term includes hospitals and similar units, blood transfusion centres, preventive medicine centres, medical depots and the medical and pharmaceutical stores of such units.
72. Medical units may be fixed or mobile, permanent or temporary.
73. Medical units shall at all times be respected and protected. … [A] medical unit must not be defended against the enemy in the event of penetration by the enemy into the territory where the unit is located. Such defence would constitute a hostile act, causing the unit to forfeit its right to protection. Weapons emplacements alongside or near medical units may also cause a loss of the right to protection. Other examples are locating an observation post in the unit and storing ammunition in the unit. Emphasis is placed on medical personnel being neutral. Medical personnel should ensure that nothing and no-one within the unit may be considered as harmful to the enemy and thus endanger the protection of the unit. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, §§ 71–73.
South Africa’s ICC Act (2002) reproduces the war crimes listed in the 1998 ICC Statute, including in both international and non-international armed conflicts: “intentionally directing attacks against … hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not military objectives”. 
South Africa, ICC Act, 2002, Schedule 1, Part 3, §§ (b)(ix) and (e)(iv).