Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 154. Obedience to Superior Orders
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states:
Every soldier has a duty to obey lawful orders of superiors. Failure to do so is a serious offence. However, an order to commit a war crime is an unlawful order. A person who commits a war crime pursuant to an order is guilty of a war crime if that person knew or should have known that the order was unlawful. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 44.
The manual further states: “The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, provides that ‘no member of any security service may obey a manifestly illegal order’ [Section 199(6)].” 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 44.
South Africa’s Medical Services Military Manual provides: “When an order is manifestly illegal the subordinate has the duty to refuse to obey.” 
South Africa, Medical Services Military Manual – Humanitarian Law, South African Medical Service Academy in Voortrekkerhoogte, s.d, p. 5.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states: “[A]n order to commit a war crime is an illegal order. … The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, provides that ‘no member of any security service may obey a manifestly illegal order’ (Section 199(6)).” 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 59.
South Africa’s Code of Military Discipline (1957), as amended in 1995, in a provision entitled “Disobeying lawful commands or orders”, provides:
Any person who in wilful defiance of authority disobeys any lawful command given personally by his superior officer in execution of his duty, whether orally, in writing or by signal, shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction. 
South Africa, Code of Military Discipline, 1957, as amended in 1995, § 19(1).
South Africa’s Constitution (1996) provides: “No member of any security service [i.e. defence force, police force and intelligence services] may obey a manifestly illegal order.” 
South Africa, Constitution, 1996, Section 199(1) and (6).
South Africa’s Defence Act (2002) provides: “No member of the Defence Force may obey a manifestly illegal order.” 
South Africa, Defence Act, 2002 § 2(e).