Related Rule
South Africa
Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states:
It is clearly important that combatants, while engaged in combat action or in a military operation preparatory thereto, must distinguish themselves from the civilian population. Members of regular and assimilated armed forces normally distinguish themselves by their uniform. Members of other armed forces wear a fixed, recognisable and distinctive sign and carry their arms openly. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 26. This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
Distinction Between Civilians and Combatants. In the light of the above, it is clearly important that combatants, while engaged in combat action or in a military operation preparatory thereto, must distinguish themselves from the civilian population. Members of the regular and assimilated armed forces normally distinguish themselves by their uniform. Members of other armed forces wear a fixed, recognisable and distinctive sign and carry their arms openly. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 49.
[emphasis in original]
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states that participants in a levée en masse are considered combatants “if they carry arms openly and respect the law of war”. 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 24(b). This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997.
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
Participants in a “Levee en Masse”. Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously and in mass take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to organise themselves into armed units, are considered combatants if they carry their arms openly and respect the laws of war. 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, § 47(b).
South Africa’s LOAC Manual (1996) states:
In situations where armed combatants cannot distinguish themselves owing to the nature of the hostilities, they retain their status as combatants if they carry their arms openly during every military engagement and for as long as they are visible to the enemy while engaged in a military deployment (ie any movement towards a place from which, or where, a combat action is to take place). 
South Africa, Presentation on the South African Approach to International Humanitarian Law, Appendix A, Chapter 4: International Humanitarian Law (The Law of Armed Conflict), National Defence Force, 1996, § 27. This manual is also included in Chapter 4 of the Draft Civic Education Manual of 1997
South Africa’s Revised Civic Education Manual (2004) states:
In situations where armed combatants cannot distinguish themselves owing to the nature of the hostilities, they retain their status as combatants if they carry their arms openly during every military engagement and for as long as they are visible to the enemy while engaged in a military deployment (i.e. any movement towards a place from which, or where, a combat action is to take place). 
South Africa, Revised Civic Education Manual, South African National Defence Force, 2004, Chapter 4, [in a section numbered § 31, while in fact located between § 49 and § 50].