Related Rule
United States of America
Practice Relating to Rule 123. Recording and Notification of Personal Details of Persons Deprived of Their Liberty
The US Field Manual (1956) reproduces Articles 122 and 123 of the 1949 Geneva Convention III. 
United States, Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, US Department of the Army, 18 July 1956, as modified by Change No. 1, 15 July 1976, §§ 203 and 204.
The US Air Force Pamphlet (1976) provides: “Each party to the conflict must issue an identity card to every person under its jurisdiction liable to become a PW [prisoner of war] showing name, rank, serial number, and date of birth.” 
United States, Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, US Department of the Air Force, 1976, § 13-3.
The US Naval Handbook (2007) states: “All detainees shall … [h]ave their person and their property accounted for and records maintained.” 
United States, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M/MCWP 5-12.1/COMDTPUB P5800.7, issued by the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, US Marine Corps, and Department of Homeland Security, US Coast Guard, July 2007, § 11.2.
The US Manual on Detainee Operations (2008) states:
Internment Serial Number [ISN]
a. The ISN is the DOD [Department of Defense] identification number used to maintain accountability of detainees … All detainees under DOD control will be registered promptly, normally within 14 days of capture. Once an ISN is assigned, all further documentation, including medical records, will use only this number (no other numbering system will be used). The ISN is generated by the detainee reporting system (DRS). DRS is the required detainee accountability database for all DOD agencies. … The ISN [includes information on] … the capturing power … , the command/theater under which the detainee came into the custody of the United States, … the detainee’s power served/nationality , … the detainee’s classification …
b. When required by law and/or policy, the NDRC [National Detainee Reporting Center] provides detainee information to the ICRC to satisfy [the 1949] Geneva Convention obligations. The ICRC uses this information to provide notice of the status of the detained individual to his or her government. The United States must be vigilant in executing all obligations to account for detainees and must issue detainees an ISN when required by law and/or policy …
Property Safekeeping and Confiscation Accountability. DODD [Department of Defense Directive] 2310.01E, Department of Defense Detainee Program, states, “Detainees and their property shall be accounted for and records maintained according to applicable law, regulation, policy or other issuances.” …
Administrative Processing and Accountability. According to DODD 2310.01E, Department of Defense Detainee Program, “Detainees shall be assigned an Internment Serial Number (ISN) as soon as possible after coming under DOD control, normally within 14 days of capture. DOD components shall maintain full accountability for all detainees under DOD control. Detainee records and reports shall be maintained, safeguarded, and provided to USD(P) [Under Secretary of Defense for Policy] and other DOD components as appropriate.” Information will be collected and recorded on each detainee captured and detained by the Armed Forces of the United States and referenced to the ISN. Detainees should provide name, rank, serial number (if applicable), and date of birth for tracking purposes and appropriate country notification. However, failure to do so does not result in any treatment not otherwise consistent with this publication. Upon transfer to a theater-level facility, detainee information (including information related to personal property taken from the detainee) will be provided to the NDRC through the TDRC. The NDRC will maintain all information concerning detainees and their property.
… The ICRC and Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Similar Organizations.
(1) During the course of detention operations, it is likely that U.S. commanders will encounter representatives of organizations attempting to assert a role in protecting the interests of detainees. Such representatives will often seek access to detainees, and/or offer their services to assist in the care and maintenance of detainees … Commanders must anticipate that, upon initiation of detention operations, these organizations will request access to and/or information about detainees, and they will continue to do so throughout the operation. Commanders should seek guidance through operational command channels for responding to such requests prior to the initiation of detention operations, or as soon thereafter as possible. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. III-5–III-9.
In a chapter on “Capture and Initial Detention and Screening”, the manual states:
Once the capture of individuals has occurred, the proper identification and classification of those personnel remain critical to the overall … detainee identification effort …
… Detainees will be transported to a theater internment facility (TIF) … at which point they will normally be assigned an ISN from a block of numbers maintained by the NDRC … All detainees arriving from any and all sources and agencies will be in-processed and receive an ISN immediately upon arrival at the TIF … Units will mark and tag all detainee-associated documents and property and transfer the documents and property to the transporting unit for movement to the TIF. This will maintain detainee property accountability …
… [A] critical aspect of detainee operations is record-keeping. As detainees are in-processed, a medical screening will be conducted during which heights and weights are recorded. In addition, any marks or injuries on the detainees will be annotated and recorded. Commanders should also consider including medical screening prior to and subsequent to interrogations. A daily log will be maintained on each detainee and will include, at a minimum, records of any injuries, times of interrogations, times of medical exams, any hunger strikes and their durations, as well as any disciplinary problems and corrective measures taken. This information will be provided to the next detention facility if a detainee is transferred. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. IV-1, IV-4 and IV-6–IV-7; see also p. x.
In a chapter on “Transport Procedures”, the manual states:
Commanders of detention facilities will forward copies of detainee records (including at a minimum: capture tag, disciplinary actions, medical narrative summaries, property, and record of any injuries sustained since capture) along with a complete manifest for each detainee transferred. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, p. V-1.
In a chapter on “Theater or Strategic Internment Facility”, the manual states:
The TIF/SIF is a permanent or semi-permanent facility with the capability of detaining detainees for an extended period of time … It is possible that detainees may bypass an initial detention facility and be transferred directly to the TIF/SIF. In such cases, all in-processing and the assignment of ISNs takes place immediately upon arrival to the TIF/SIF.
… Reception of Detainees
a. The officer designated to accept … [the detainees] will properly account for all detainees received. The receipt indicates the place and date the facility assumed custody and the name, grade, and nationality of each transferred detainee. Three or more copies of the receipt will be prepared. The original, plus one copy, will be delivered to the commander of the facility to which the detainee is assigned …
b. When directed, detainees transferred between facilities and hospitals will be received and accounted for as described in [the above] paragraph … , and the receipts will be returned to the original facility …
c. The use of a manifest identifying the name, identification number, nationality, and physical condition of each detainee transferred and received is required. The manifest is attached to the original receipt of transfer and forwarded to the appropriate authorities.
d. … All detainees arriving from any and all sources and agencies will be in-processed and receive an ISN immediately upon arrival at the TIF/SIF if they do not already have one. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, p. VI-1–VI-3.
The manual also states:
Detainee Categories
The DOD [Department of Defense] definition of the word “detainee” includes any person captured, detained, or otherwise under the control of DOD personnel (military, civilian, or contractor employee) … It does not include persons being held primarily for law enforcement purposes except where the United States is the occupying power …
a. Enemy Combatant. In general, a person engaged in hostilities against the United States or its coalition partners during an armed conflict. The term “enemy combatant” includes both “lawful enemy combatants” and “unlawful enemy combatants.”
b. Enemy Prisoner of War. Individual under the custody and/or control of the DOD according to Articles 4 and 5 of the … [1949 Geneva Convention III].
c. Retained Personnel … Personnel who fall into the following categories: official medical personnel of the armed forces exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport, or treatment of wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, and staff exclusively engaged in the administration of medical units and facilities; chaplains attached to enemy armed forces; staff of national Red Cross Societies and that of other volunteer aid societies duly recognized and authorized by their governments to assist medical service personnel of their own armed forces, provided they are exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport or treatment of, the wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, and provided that the staff of such societies are subject to military laws and regulations.
d. Civilian Internee … A civilian who is interned during an armed conflict, occupation, or other military operation for security reasons, for protection, or because he or she has committed an offense against the detaining power. 
United States, Manual on Detainee Operations, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 30 May 2008, pp. I-3–I-5; see also pp. viii and GL-3.
On 25 August 2004, the report of an investigation into allegations that members of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade had been involved in detainee abuse at the Abu Ghraib Detention Facility (an investigation ordered by the Commander, Combined Joint Task Force Seven (CJTF-7), and later supplemented with the appointment of an additional and more senior investigating officer by the Commander, US Army Materiel Command), was completed and forwarded to the ordering authorities. The report, authored by Lieutenant General Anthony R. Jones and Major General George R. Fay, found:
Use of Military Detention Centers by Other Agencies. In joint military detention centers, service members should never be put in a position that potentially puts them at risk for non-compliance with the Geneva Conventions or Laws of Land Warfare. At Abu Ghraib, detainees were accepted from other agencies and services without proper in-processing, accountability, and documentation. These detainees were referred to as “ghost detainees.” Proper procedures must be followed, including, segregating detainees of military intelligence value and properly accounting and caring for detainees incarcerated at military detention centers. The number of ghost detainees temporarily held at Abu Ghraib, and the audit trail of personnel responsible for capturing, medically screening, safeguarding and properly interrogating the “ghost detainees,” cannot be determined. 
United States, Department of Defense, AR 15-6 Investigation of the Abu Ghraib Prison and 205th Military Intelligence Brigade (The Fay Report), 25 August 2004.