Related Rule
Practice Relating to Rule 57. Ruses of War
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
1.2.44. … Ruses of war are not prohibited by international humanitarian law … Such ruses are acts which are intended to mislead an adversary (e.g. the use of camouflage, mock operations, misinformation, decoys).
2.1.11. During preparation and conduct of hostilities one should clearly distinguish between perfidy … and ruses of war.
Ruses of war are acts which are intended to mislead an adversary regarding the condition, position or character of actions of a unit, command, and build-up and to induce him to act recklessly. Such actions include:
- camouflage (using the terrain, camouflage paint, camouflage nets and smoke);
- actions aimed at active camouflage (creation of false targets, decoys);
- mock operations;
- misinformation;
- imitation of military objectives by technical means (electronic devices, means of communication, etc.);
- use of enemy codes, passwords and signals;
- fighting from ambushes;
- other non-perfidious actions. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, §§ 1.2.44 and 2.1.11.