Related Rule
Ukraine
Practice Relating to Rule 1. The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
Principle of distinction means that during preparation for and conduct of combat a clear distinction must be made between civilians and combatants [and] between civilian objects and military objectives, with a view to ensuring protection of the civilian population and civilian objects from the consequences of hostilities and to concentrating the actions of forces exclusively against the enemy’s military objects. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, § 2.1.7.
Ukraine’s IHL Manual (2004) states:
1.3.2. The following methods of warfare shall be prohibited:
- killing or wounding of civilians.
1.4.10. All parties to an internal armed conflict shall provide protection to:
- persons taking no active part in the hostilities
1.4.16. [In non-international armed conflicts] [c]ivilian population and civilian persons shall not be attacked as long as they do not participate directly in the armed conflict.
2.3.5.1. During combat in an urban environment … [s]pecial attention shall be paid to the prevention of targeting [of the] civilian population and indiscriminate attacks. 
Ukraine, Manual on the Application of IHL Rules, Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2004, §§ 1.3.2, 1.4.10, 1.4.16 and 2.3.5.1.
Ukraine’s Criminal Code (2001) provides that “violence … committed against the civilian population in an area of military action under the pretext of military necessity” is a war crime. 
Ukraine, Criminal Code, 2001, Article 433(1).