Practice Relating to Rule 23. Location of Military Objectives outside Densely Populated Areas
Togo’s Military Manual (1996) states: “The belligerents must avoid locating their military installations in the vicinity of the civilian population.”
The manual further states:
Defence shall be organized, as far as possible, outside inhabited areas … When a choice is possible between several defence positions for obtaining an equivalent military advantage, the position to be selected shall be that which would cause less danger to civilian persons and objects … Military units, except medical units, shall move or stay preferably outside populated areas, when their presence, even temporary, could endanger civilian persons and objects. Even a temporary military presence can create a dangerous situation for the civilian areas and persons. Units located in or close to populated areas shall be so deployed as to create the least possible danger to civilian areas.