Related Rule
Russian Federation
Practice Relating to Rule 45. Causing Serious Damage to the Natural Environment
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) states that “substances which have widespread, long-term and severe consequences on the environment” are prohibited means of warfare. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 6(g).
Under the Russian Federation’s Criminal Code (1996), “ecocide”, namely “massive destruction of the fauna and flora, contamination of the atmosphere or water resources, as well as other acts capable of causing an ecological catastrophe”, constitutes a crime against the peace and security of mankind. 
Russian Federation, Criminal Code, 1996, Article 358.
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) states that “substances which have widespread, long-term and severe consequences on the environment” are prohibited means of warfare, referring in particular to the 1976 ENMOD Convention. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 6(g).
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
The following shall be prohibited to use in the course of combat operations: … environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 9.