Related Rule
Russian Federation
Practice Relating to Rule 29. Medical Transports
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) states that “attack, bombardment or destruction of … medical transports” is a prohibited method of warfare. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 5(g).
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “objects protected by international humanitarian law include … medical transports … Attacks against such objects are prohibited by international humanitarian law with the exception of cases stipulated by this law”. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
With regard to internal armed conflict, the Regulations states: “Medical … transports shall be respected and protected at all times and shall not be the object of attack.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 83.
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) states that “attack, bombardment or destruction of … medical aircraft displaying the distinctive emblems” is a prohibited method of warfare. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, § 5(g).
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
92. The following classes of enemy aircraft are exempt from attack:
- medical aircraft
They shall not be attacked only if:
a) for medical aircraft recognised as such:
- they are acting in compliance with an agreement between the parties to the conflict concerning medical flights. When such an agreement is concluded, it shall specify the altitudes, times and routes for safe operation and it shall include means of identification and communications;
- fly in areas under the control of own or friendly forces; or
- fly outside the area of armed conflict.
In case of doubt whether an aircraft exempt from attack is being used to make an effective contribution to military action, it shall be presumed not to be so used.
93. The aircraft falling under Paragraph 91 [sic] may be attacked by reason of a breach of a condition of exemption if:
- diversion for landing, visit and search, and possible capture, is not feasible;
- no other method is available for exercising military control;
- the circumstances of non-compliance are sufficiently grave that the aircraft has become, or may be reasonably assumed to be, a military objective;
- the collateral casualties or damage will not be disproportionate to the military advantage gained or anticipated.
Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to alight on land or water for inspection and search. Upon alighting on land or water the medical aircraft shall be inspected without delay and within the shortest possible time preventing any deterioration of condition of the wounded and sick. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence, Moscow, 8 August 2001, §§ 92–93.
The Regulations further states:
Medical aircraft … shall not be attacked if they:
- are innocently employed in their normal role;
- do not commit acts harmful to the enemy;
- immediately submit to identification and inspection when required;
- do not intentionally hamper the movement of combatants and obey orders to divert when required;
- do not violate a previously concluded agreement. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 92.
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
117. The following vessels shall not be attacked:
- military hospital ships;
- hospital ships;
- small craft used for coastal rescue operations and medical transports;
The above vessels shall not be attacked or captured if they:
- are innocently employed in their normal role;
- do not commit actions falling under Paragraph 116 [i.e., make an effective contribution to military action];
- do not intentionally hamper the movement of combatants and obey orders to stop or move out of the way when required.
118. Ships that belong to any class of vessels mentioned in Paragraph 117 may only be attacked as a last resort if:
- diversion is not feasible;
- no other method is available for exercising military control;
- the acts it commits give reasons to consider it as a military objective;
- the collateral casualties or damage will not be disproportionate to the military advantage gained or anticipated.
119. Military hospital ships shall not be attacked or captured and shall enjoy respect and protection, on condition that their names and descriptions have been notified to the parties to the conflict ten days before those ships are employed.
Hospital ships shall have the same protection as military hospital ships on condition that they observe the provision concerning notification with regard to the latter; they must also be provided with certificates from responsible authorities stating that the vessels have been under their control while fitting out and on departure.
The medical and religious personnel of hospital ships and their crews may not be captured, whether or not there are wounded and sick on board.
122. The ships described in Paragraph 119 shall not be exempt from protection provided by international humanitarian law if:
- the crews of ships are armed for the maintenance of order, for their own defence or that of the sick and wounded;
- apparatus exclusively intended to facilitate navigation or communication is present on board;
- portable arms and ammunition taken from the wounded, sick and shipwrecked is discovered on board;
- equipment and personnel intended exclusively for medical duties are transported, over and above the normal requirements. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, §§ 117–119 and 122.