Related Rule
Russian Federation
Practice Relating to Rule 151. Individual Responsibility
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states: “In accordance with international humanitarian law and the penal legislation of the Russian Federation, perpetrators of international humanitarian law breaches can be held criminally responsible.” 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 14.
The Russian Federation’s Decree on the Punishment of War Criminals (1965) states:
The peoples of the Soviet Union that suffered losses during the war cannot let fascist barbarians go unpunished. The Soviet State has always proceeded from the universally recognized rules of international law that provide for the inevitable prosecution of Nazi criminals, no matter where and for how long they have been hiding from justice. 
Russian Federation, Decree on the Punishment of War Criminals, 1965, preamble.
It also provides: “Nazi criminals, guilty of most serious crimes against peace and humanity and war crimes, are subject to prosecution and punishment.” 
Russian Federation, Decree on the Punishment of War Criminals, 1965.
The Russian Federation’s Criminal Code (1996) provides: “Persons who have committed crimes shall … be held criminally responsible.” 
Russian Federation, Criminal Code, 1996, Article 4.
In a chapter entitled “Crimes against the peace and security of mankind” and under a provision entitled “Use of banned means and methods of warfare”, the Code provides for the punishment of “cruel treatment of prisoners of war, deportation of the civilian population, plunder of the national property in the occupied territory and use in a military conflict of means and methods of warfare banned by [international treaties to which the Russian Federation is a party]”. 
Russian Federation, Criminal Code, 1996, Article 356.
The Code further provides for the punishment of offences such as genocide, ecocide, use of, and participation by, mercenaries in an armed conflict or hostilities and assaults on persons or institutions enjoying international protection. 
Russian Federation, Criminal Code, 1996, Articles 357–360.
In 2011, in a statement before the UN Security Council during a meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the permanent representative of the Russian Federation stated: “All parties to an armed conflict … must … bear the … obligations under international humanitarian law. Those guilty of violations, State and non-State actors alike[,] must not evade responsibility for crimes committed.” 
Russian Federation, Statement by the permanent representative of the Russian Federation during a UN Security Council meeting on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 9 November 2011, pp. 23–24.
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
For violations of international humanitarian law not entailing criminal liability members of the Armed Forces shall be called to account under the Disciplinary Regulations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and normative legal acts envisaging financial liability. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 15.
The Russian Federation’s Law on Amnesty for Acts Committed in the Context of the Conflict in Chechnya (1997) provides: “Persons covered by the law on the declaration of amnesty are not exempted from making reparations for the injuries caused by their unlawful acts.” 
Russian Federation, Law on Amnesty for Acts Committed in the Context of the Conflict in Chechnya, 1997, § 4.