Related Rule
Russian Federation
Practice Relating to Rule 106. Conditions for Prisoner-of-War Status
Section A. Distinction from the civilian population
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states:
Combatants have the right to take a direct part in combat operations and, if captured by the enemy, the right to be granted the prisoner of war status. Combatants are obliged to comply with the rules of international humanitarian law in their activities and to distinguish themselves from the civilian population at least by carrying their arms openly during each military engagement or while being visible to the enemy before the engagement. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.
The Regulations further states:
In case of doubt whether a person taking part in hostilities and falling into the hands of the enemy is a prisoner of war, this person is considered prisoner of war until his status is clarified by a court of justice. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 1.