Related Rule
Russian Federation
Practice Relating to Rule 10. Civilian Objects’ Loss of Protection from Attack
The Russian Federation’s Military Manual (1990) prohibits “the bombardment by military aircraft or warships of cities, harbours, villages and dwellings … provided they are not being used for military purposes”. 
Russian Federation, Instructions on the Application of the Rules of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the USSR, Appendix to Order of the USSR Defence Minister No. 75, 1990, Section II, § 5(m).
The Russian Federation’s Regulations on the Application of IHL (2001) states with regard to naval warfare:
Enemy civil vessels may only be attacked if they are:
- engaging in belligerent acts on behalf of the enemy (attacking or capturing persons or objects in neutral waters, neutral territory or airspace);
- being used as a base for operations, including attacking or capturing persons or objects outside neutral waters;
- acting as an auxiliary to the enemy armed forces;
- being incorporated into or assisting the enemy’s intelligence gathering system;
- sailing under convoy of enemy warships or military aircraft;
- refusing an order to stop or actively resisting visit, search or capture;
- otherwise making an effective contribution to military action. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 116.
The Regulations further states:
Possession of weapons by the civil vessel’s crew does not give grounds to consider such class of ships as converted into war-ships. Such vessels shall be considered civil vessels if they are innocently used in their normal role, comply with identification and visit requirements and do not intentionally hamper the movement of war-ships. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 89.
With regard to air operations, the Regulations states:
It is allowed to attack civil aircraft, if they engage in activities rendering them military objectives:
- engage in acts of war on behalf of the enemy;
- act as an auxiliary aircraft to an enemy’s armed forces;
- are incorporated into or assist the enemy intelligence-gathering system;
- fly under the protection of accompanying enemy military aircraft;
- refuse an order to identify itself, divert from its track, or proceed for visit and search to a belligerent airfield that is safe for the type of aircraft involved and reasonably accessible;
- operate target indicating system that could reasonably be construed to be part of an aircraft weapon system;
- on being intercepted clearly manoeuvre to attack the intercepting belligerent military aircraft;
- are armed with air-to-air or air-to-surface weapons;
- otherwise make an effective contribution to military action. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 94.
[emphasis in original]
The Regulations further states:
Civil aircraft bearing the marks of neutral states may not be attacked unless they:
- are believed on reasonable grounds to be carrying contraband, and, after prior warning or interception, they intentionally and clearly refuse to divert from their destination, or intentionally and clearly refuse to proceed for visit and search to a belligerent airfield that is safe for the type of aircraft involved and reasonably accessible;
- engage in belligerent acts on behalf of the enemy;
- act as auxiliaries to the enemy’s armed forces;
- are incorporated into or assist the enemy’s intelligence system;
- otherwise make an effective contribution to the military action and, after prior warning or interception, they intentionally and clearly refuse to divert from their destination, or intentionally and clearly refuse to proceed for visit and search to a belligerent airfield that is safe for the type of aircraft involved and reasonably accessible. 
Russian Federation, Regulations on the Application of International Humanitarian Law by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 8 August 2001, § 100.
The Russian Federation’s Combat Manual (2005) states:
persons and objects entitled to protection under international humanitarian law may not be attacked, if these persons are not engaged in hostile actions, and the objects are not used (nor prepared to be used) for military purposes. 
Russian Federation, Combat Manual on the Preparation and Conducting of Combined-Arms Battles (Boevoi ustav po podgotovke i vedeniu obshevoiskovogo boya), Part 3, Platoon, Subdivision, Tank, endorsed by Order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces No. 19, 24 February 2005, § 24.