Practice Relating to Rule 99. Deprivation of Liberty
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides that unlawful confinement of a protected civilian is a grave breach of the 1949 Geneva Conventions.
New Zealand’s Geneva Conventions Act (1958), as amended in 1987, provides: “Any person who in New Zealand or elsewhere commits, or aids or abets or procures the commission by another person of, a grave breach of any of the [1949 Geneva] Conventions … is guilty of an indictable offence.”
Under New Zealand’s International Crimes and ICC Act (2000), war crimes include the crimes defined in Article 8(2)(a)(vii) of the 1998 ICC Statute.