Related Rule
New Zealand
Practice Relating to Rule 6. Civilians’ Loss of Protection from Attack
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides: “Civilians shall enjoy … protection [against attack] unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 517.
The manual further states that “participation in hostilities by non-combatants” is a war crime recognized by the customary law of armed conflict. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1704(5).