Related Rule
New Zealand
Practice Relating to Rule 42. Works and Installations Containing Dangerous Forces
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides:
1. Even though they may be military objectives, works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, are not to be attacked if the result of such an attack would be the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Any other military objective at or in the vicinity of such an installation is also immune from attack if the attack might cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations in question and consequent severe losses among the civilian population.
2. The protection afforded to such installations ceases in the case of dykes, dams and all such installations and nearby military objectives “only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support” and, in the case of dykes and dams, only if they are also being used for other than their normal function.
5. Although parties not accepting [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] are free to disregard this particular protective requirement, [the 1977 Additional Protocol I], confirming customary law, authorizes Parties to agree between themselves on the provision of any additional protection that they might wish to afford such works and installations. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 521; see also § 633 (air to land operations).
The manual qualifies “launching an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces in the knowledge that such attack will cause injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects” as a grave breach of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1703(3)(c).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts, the manual states:
Reflecting the new approach to technological advances and the dangers that may be inherent in them, it is forbidden to attack certain works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, even if they may be regarded as military objectives, if such an attack might cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1821.
New Zealand’s Geneva Conventions Act (1958), as amended in 1987, provides:
Any person who in New Zealand or elsewhere commits, or aids or abets or procures the commission by another person of, a grave breach … of [the 1977 Additional Protocol I] is guilty of an indictable offence. 
New Zealand, Geneva Conventions Act, 1958, as amended in 1987, Section 3(1).
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) provides:
While parties to a conflict are required to avoid locating military objectives in the vicinity of such protected works or installations [containing dangerous forces], they are nevertheless permitted to erect such emplacements as may be necessary for the defence of the protected installations. These emplacements shall be immune from attack, provided they are not used in hostilities except in defence of the protected work or installations. Their armament must be limited to weapons capable only of repelling hostile attacks against the protected works or installations in question. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, §§ 521.4 and 633.4.