Related Rule
New Zealand
Practice Relating to Rule 29. Medical Transports
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states:
Medical transports are any means of transportation, military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical transportation and under control of a competent authority of a party to the conflict.
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land, and specially provided vessels at sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm, and maternity cases must be protected and respected in the same way as civilian hospitals. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, §§ 1007(1) and (2) and 1110(1).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, it states that “medical … transports are to be respected at all times and not made the object of attack”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1818(2).
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states: “Medical aircraft, correctly identified and exclusively used as such, are for the main part immune from attack.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 629.1.
The manual further states: “Medical aircraft must be respected and protected at all times and must not be attacked. Their immunity ceases once they are used for purposes hostile to the adverse Party and outside their humanitarian purposes.” 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1007(1).
The manual restates the rules governing medical aircraft found in Articles 25–28 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1009(1)-(5).
In addition, the manual specifies that:
Aircraft used exclusively for the removal of wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, or for the transport of medical personnel and equipment must not be attacked when flying at heights, times and on routes specifically agreed upon between all the belligerents concerned … In the absence of agreement to the contrary, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited. Such aircraft must obey every order to land, but, after landing and examination, may continue their flight. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1110(2).
According to the manual, “attacking a properly marked … medical aircraft” constitutes a war crime recognized by the customary law of armed conflict. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1704(5).
New Zealand’s Military Manual (1992) states:
Hospital ships … must be respected and protected at all times and must not be attacked …
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land, and specially provided vessels at sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm, and maternity cases must be protected and respected in the same way as civilian hospitals. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, §§ 1007(1) and (2) and 1110(1).
The manual further states that “attacking a properly marked hospital ship” constitutes a war crime recognized by the customary law of armed conflict. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1704(5).
With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, it states that “medical … transports are to be respected at all times and not made the object of attack”. 
New Zealand, Interim Law of Armed Conflict Manual, DM 112, New Zealand Defence Force, Headquarters, Directorate of Legal Services, Wellington, November 1992, § 1818(2).