Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 88. Non-Discrimination
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides that protected persons shall be treated humanely “without adverse distinction based on race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, nationality or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. VIII-2/VIII-3.
With respect to non-international armed conflict, the manual restates the principle of non-discrimination contained in common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and Article 4 of the 1977 Additional Protocol II. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. XI-1 and XI-4.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides with respect to protected persons: “Any discrimination based on race, religion, sex … is prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-38.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Individuals should be treated without detrimental discrimination on the grounds of race, gender, nationality, language, status, health, political, philosophical or religious conviction or any other such criteria.
This principle does not prejudice the distinction which may be made in the treatment of individuals in order to remedy irregularities arising from their personal circumstances, needs or emergency situation. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224(e).
The manual lists the “[p]rohibition of discrimination” as one of the standards derived from the principle of “[h]umane conduct”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 34.
The manual further states:
Protected persons must be humanely treated in all circumstances, and should at least receive protection under the fundamental guarantees, without any negative discrimination against them on grounds of race, skin colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political or other convictions, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or any other similar criteria. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0809.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
1049. Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and Article 4 of AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II], contain a number of fundamental guarantees of humane treatment that relate to all who are not participating directly in the hostilities, or have ceased to do so. Primarily this means civilians, but also members of the armed forces, dissident militias and armed groups who, due to wounds, sickness or capture, are no longer taking part in the combat or have been placed hors de combat. They must be treated without any negative discrimination on any grounds whatsoever …
1055. The wounded, the sick and shipwreck survivors must be respected and protected, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict. They must in all circumstances be humanely treated, and provided with the requisite medical care without discrimination. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 1049 and 1055.
In its chapter on peace operations, under the heading “Code of Conduct for the Armed Forces”, the manual states:
Members of the armed forces must scrupulously obey the rules of national and international law. They must show respect to their fellow human beings, even when they belong to another ethnic group or have a different culture. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 198.
In addition, the manual provides: “Persons who are not, or have ceased to be, participants in fighting or hostilities should be protected and treated without any form of discrimination.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1228.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, the following is a crime against humanity:
persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this subsection or any other crime as referred to in this Act.
Persecution is defined as “the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity”. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Articles 4(1)(h) and 4(2)(c).
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “Although it is permitted temporarily to evacuate civilians, it is prohibited to move them for reasons relating to race, skin colour, religion or belief, gender, birth or social status or any other such criterion.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1040.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides that the wounded and sick “must be treated without any distinction based on race, skin colour, sex, language, religion, political beliefs, nationality, birth or any other criteria”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VI-1, § 2 and p. VI-2.
The IFOR Instructions (1995) of the Netherlands instructs troops to take care of the wounded whether they are friends or enemies. 
Netherlands, IFOR Instructiekaart, geweldsinstructie, First Edition, 18 December 1995, § 1.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
There must be no distinction among them [the wounded and sick] founded on race, skin colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political conviction, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status or any other such criterion. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0604.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
The wounded, the sick and shipwreck survivors must be respected and protected, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict. They must in all circumstances be humanely treated, and provided with the requisite medical care without discrimination. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1055.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states:
Prisoners shall be treated with equality, without any distinction based on race, nationality, religion, political beliefs or any other criteria. The only exception is the preferential treatment based on the health situation, age … 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VII-3, § 2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “Captivity in war is not a punishment, but only a means of preventing the opponent from playing any further part in the conflict.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224(b).
The manual further states:
In principle, prisoners of war must be treated alike, without adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief, political opinions or any other similar criteria. An exception to this principle exists when preferential treatment is desirable due to gender (see point 0719), state of health, age or special skill. Different treatment on the grounds of military rank is permitted, and even mandatory to a certain degree. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0712.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states: “Detainees must also be treated equally.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1226.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides: “Practices of apartheid and other inhuman and degrading practices involving outrages upon personal dignity, based on racial discrimination, are a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IX-6.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, it is a crime to commit, in an international armed conflict, “the following acts if committed intentionally and in violation of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol (I): … practices of apartheid and other inhuman and degrading practices involving outrages upon personal dignity, based on racial discrimination”. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Article 5(2)(d)(iii); see also Article 4(1)(j) (apartheid as a crime against humanity).