Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 87. Humane Treatment
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides that protected persons shall be treated humanely. With respect to non-international armed conflicts in particular, the manual states that persons protected by common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions “shall in all circumstances be treated humanely”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. VIII-2 and XI-1.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides for the punishment of “a war law violation which contains inhuman treatment”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-44.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states that “the humanitarian law of war” limits “military force in order to avoid inhumane use of violence and unnecessary suffering”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0118.
The manual lists “humane conduct” as one of five “generally accepted principles of the humanitarian law of war”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0221 and 0223; see also § 0405, p. 39 and § 1028.
The manual states:
0224. Humane conduct
People who are outside the conflict or no longer able to take part in battle should be protected and humanely treated. The humane treatment of persons is not only a principle of the humanitarian law of war, but also of humanitarian law in general. This means that the principle is not only developed in the humanitarian law of war, but also, for example, in human rights conventions, the law of refugees and other areas of law. A number of standards deriving from human rights conventions or refugee law thus also apply during armed conflicts, especially internal armed conflict or occupation.
d. The individual is entitled to respect for his life, physical, mental and moral integrity and whatever is inseparable from his personality. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0224.
In its chapter on methods and means of warfare, the manual states that “[t]he question whether a non-lethal weapon can be used as a form of warfare will primarily depend on whether such a weapon”, inter alia, “does not conflict with the [principle] of humane treatment”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0477.
In its chapter on the protection of the civilian population, the manual states: “Protected persons must be humanely treated in all circumstances.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0809.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and Article 4 of AP II [1977 Additional Protocol II], contain a number of fundamental guarantees of humane treatment that relate to all who are not participating directly in the hostilities, or have ceased to do so. Primarily this means civilians, but also members of the armed forces, dissident militias and armed groups who, due to wounds, sickness or capture, are no longer taking part in the combat or have been placed hors de combat. They must be treated without any negative discrimination on any grounds whatsoever. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1049.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states that the use of methods and means which “violate the principles of humanitarian treatment” must be avoided. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1216.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states: “The wounded and sick must, in all circumstances, be treated humanely (with human dignity)”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0604.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
The wounded, the sick and shipwreck survivors must be respected and protected, whether or not they have taken part in the armed conflict. They must in all circumstances be humanely treated, and provided with the requisite medical care without discrimination. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1055.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states that “wounded, sick and medical personnel should always be protected and humanely treated”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1223.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides: “Prisoners of war must at all times be treated humanely.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. VII-3, § 2.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states that POWs “have the right to humane treatment. They cannot be exposed to acts of violence, insults and public curiosity.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-41.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
The purpose of holding prisoners of war is to prevent combatants from resuming their role in hostilities. Thus, being a prisoner of war is not a punishment. Prisoners of war must be humanely treated at all times. Humane treatment relates to the attitude to be taken to prisoners of war during their captivity. That is the core of the protection of prisoners of war. In particular, it is prohibited to subject them to medical or scientific experiments. Likewise prisoners of war must be protected against acts of violence, primarily physical violence. Terrorization, that is, intimidation, is also prohibited. Finally, prisoners of war must be protected against public curiosity, i.e. also against the news media (photographs, radio and television). Prisoners of war must not be recognizable.
During the Gulf War of 1990–91, prisoners of war were recognizably portrayed in TV documentaries, in breach of the Geneva Conventions. In one instance, Iraqis taken as prisoners of war were actually made to speak. In 2002, Taliban fighters taken prisoner by the Afghan Northern Alliance were interviewed, in TV documentaries, about the conditions in which they were being held.
If a prisoner of war is not properly treated, the captive may claim payment of compensation from the detaining power. In addition, the persons responsible for improper treatment of prisoners of war, or for permitting such treatment, may be prosecuted as war criminals. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0710.
The manual further states:
Prisoners of war are entitled to respect for their persons and their honour … [I]t is forbidden to disclose strictly personal particulars. One facet of this is permission to wear distinctive emblems of nationality and rank, also decorations. Prisoners of war must be protected from insults, and may not be taunted; their good name or honour must not be impugned. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0711.
The manual also provides:
If no means of transport are available, the prisoners of war may also be evacuated on foot. A trained military prisoner of war, in moderate climate conditions, must be deemed fit to move a maximum of 40 km per day in such cases. If the prisoners of war are already suffering from battle fatigue, they may cover only 20 km per day on foot. In severe weather or inhospitable terrain, progress will be slow. “Death marches” are prohibited. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0723.
In addition, the manual provides:
The transfer of prisoners of war may not take place in conditions less favourable than those in which the forces of the detaining power are transferred. Sufficient food and drinking water must be provided during the move. Sick and wounded prisoners of war may not, in principle, be transferred. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0731.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states:
Servants of the State who use violence or kill a dissident or a civilian must also have grounds in law for their actions, failing which they may be prosecuted. Members of dissident forces, militias and other armed groups who are captured have no right to prisoner-of-war status. Servants of the State, including members of the military, who are captured by a dissident movement, also have no right to prisoner-of-war status. In both cases, prisoners should be treated humanely and receive medical care if necessary. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1030.
In addition, the manual provides:
In internal armed conflicts in which members of the Dutch armed forces are involved all captured members of the military, and all captured members of dissident militias and other armed groups should be treated in the same way as prisoners of war. Any further legal steps to be taken against individual members of such movements may be taken only as instructed by competent courts or other authorized bodies or authorities. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 164.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states: “Every detainee should be treated with human dignity.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1226.
In 2007, in reply to a question concerning guidelines on the treatment of detainees, the Minister of Defence of the Netherlands stated: “At all times detainees need to be treated humanely. The Department of Defence attaches great importance to legal and ethical conduct by the Dutch armed forces.” 
Netherlands, Lower House of Parliament, Statement by Minister of Defence, Handelingen, 2007–2008 Session, 6 December 2007, Doc. 31 200-X, No. 74, p. 3.