Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 84. The Protection of Civilians and Civilian Objects from the Effects of Incendiary Weapons
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands defines incendiary weapons in accordance with Article 1 of the 1980 Protocol III to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. It further specifies:
The general rules with regard to the protection of the civilian population apply, namely, in the first place, that the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects may not be attacked. Furthermore, it is forbidden to attack military objectives located inside a concentration of civilians by air-delivered incendiary weapons. Attacks by incendiary weapons which are not air-delivered are permitted provided two conditions are fulfilled:
–The military objective has to be clearly separated from the concentration of civilians.
–Precautionary measures have to be taken to limit the incendiary effect to the military objective and to avoid collateral damage to civilians and civilian objects. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. V-13/14, § 11.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Section 17 - Incendiary weapons
0472. An incendiary weapon means any weapon or munition primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injuries to persons through the action of flame, heat or a combination of both. They include: flame throwers, rockets, grenades, mines, bombs and other containers of incendiary substances. One such substance is napalm. It is also important to know which weapons are not incendiary weapons: these are mainly munitions which may have incidental incendiary effects, such as illuminants and tracers. Anti-tank grenades, which have the capacity to pierce armour by developing a very high temperature, are not incendiary weapons. The incendiary effect here is not specifically intended to cause burn injuries to persons.
0473. In the first place, the general rules on protecting the civilian population apply to incendiary weapons. The civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects may not be attacked.
0474. It is also prohibited to attack military objects located within a concentration of civilians, using air-delivered incendiary weapons. Attacks by means of incendiary weapons which are not air-delivered are permitted, provided that two conditions are met:
- the military objective must be clearly separated from concentrations of civilians;
- precautions must be taken to limit the incendiary effect to the military objective and to avoid collateral injury to the civilian population and damage to civilian objects. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0472–0474.
In 1973, in its reply on the report of the UN Secretary-General on napalm and other incendiary weapons and all aspects of their possible use, the Netherlands supported restrictions on the use of incendiary weapons, especially to protect civilians. 
Netherlands, Reply of 30 August 1973 sent to the UN Secretary-General, reprinted in Report of the Secretary-General on napalm and other incendiary weapons and all aspects of their possible use, UN Doc. A/9207, 11 October 1973, p. 13.
In an annex to a working paper on incendiary weapons submitted by Australia, Denmark and the Netherlands to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, the Netherlands proposed the following rules:
2. Rules
(a) As a consequence of the rules of international law applicable with respect to the protection of the civilian population against the effects of hostilities, it is prohibited to make any city, town, village or other area containing a concentration of civilians the object of attack by means of any incendiary munition.
(b) Specific military objectives that are within such an area may be made the object of attack by means of incendiary munitions, provided that the attack is otherwise lawful and that all feasible precautions are taken to limit the incendiary effects to the specific military objectives and to avoid incidental loss of civilian life or injury to civilians.
(c) In order to reduce to a minimum the risks posed to civilians by the use of flame weapons, it is prohibited to make any specific military objective that is within such an area the object of aerial attack by means of napalm or other flame munition unless that objective is located within an area in which combat between ground forces is taking place or is imminent. 
Netherlands, Proposal annexed to a working paper on incendiary weapons submitted by Australia, Denmark and Netherlands to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/206 within CDDH/IV/226, 12 May 1976, pp. 562–563.
This proposal was later subject to slight revision. 
Netherlands, Revised proposal annexed to a working paper on incendiary weapons submitted by Australia, Denmark and Netherlands to the Ad Hoc Committee on Conventional Weapons established by the CDDH, Official Records, Vol. XVI, CDDH/IV/206 (Rev. 1) within CDDH/IV/226, 11 May 1977, pp. 564–565.
At the Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1978, Australia and the Netherlands sponsored a draft proposal which divided incendiary weapons into “incendiary” and “flame” munitions and stated: “It is prohibited to make any concentration of civilians the object of attack by means of any incendiary munition.” The proposal further stated that “specific military objectives that are situated within a concentration of civilians” may be attacked with incendiary weapons if “all feasible precautions are taken to limit the incendiary effects to all specific military objectives and to avoid incidental loss of civilian life or injury to civilians”. The final part of the proposal provided that, in order to
reduce to a minimum the risks posed to civilians by the use of flame weapons, it is prohibited to make any specific military objective that is situated within a concentration of civilians the object of aerial attack by means of napalm or other flame munitions unless that objective is located within an area in which combat between ground forces is taking place or appears to be imminent. 
Australia and Netherlands, Draft proposal on incendiary weapons submitted to the Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, UN Doc. A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./L.11, 13 September 1978.
In 1979, towards the end of Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Australia and the Netherlands submitted a further draft proposal on incendiary weapons. The proposal provided:
As a consequence of the rules of international law applicable with respect to the protection of civilians against the effects of hostilities, it is prohibited to make the civilian population as such as well as individual civilians the object of attack by means of incendiary munitions.
It also prohibited aerial attacks with napalm or other flame munitions against military targets situated within concentrations of civilians. Attacks with incendiary munitions against military objectives in civilian concentrations were not prohibited, “provided the attack is otherwise lawful and that all feasible precautions are taken to limit the incendiary effects to the military objective and to avoid incidental loss of civilian life and injury to civilians”. 
Australia and Netherlands, Draft proposal on incendiary weapons submitted to the Preparatory Conference for the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, UN Doc. A/CONF.95/PREP.CONF./L.15, 5 April 1979.