Related Rule
Netherlands
Practice Relating to Rule 65. Perfidy
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands provides:
Treacherous behaviour (also known as perfidy) is … prohibited … Treacherous behaviour consists of acts which are intended to deceive the enemy in order for him to believe that he is faced with a situation which is protected by the humanitarian law of war … Treacherous means misusing the protection given by the law of war. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, pp. IV-1 and IV-2.
Under the Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands, “treachery means misusing the protection provided by the law of war”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-36.
According to the Handbook, it is a prohibited method of warfare “to perform treacherous acts”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands lists “honesty and good faith” as one of five “generally accepted principles of the humanitarian law of war”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0221 and 0223; see also § 0405, p. 39 and § 1028.
The manual prohibits “[t]reacherous action” and “[a]ction in breach of good faith”. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, p. 34.
The manual further states:
There is a narrow borderline between perfidy and ruses of war. Acts of treachery (also called perfidy) are, however, forbidden. Ruses of war may be used. The exact wording of the rule is that it is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. An act of perfidy takes place when an adversary is led to believe that he is protected under the humanitarian law of war. Put more simply, it is forbidden to kill or wound an enemy by treachery. Perfidy also means misuse of the protection conferred by the humanitarian law of war, for example misuse of the emblem of the Red Cross. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0413.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states: “Perfidious action is prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1042.
In its chapter on peace operations, the manual states that the use of methods and means which “violate the principles of humanitarian treatment or of honesty and good faith” must be avoided. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1216.
In the same chapter, the manual further provides:
The principle of honesty and good faith holds an important place in peace operations. In army legal literature, this principle can be traced back to the fundamental principles of peace operations, namely transparency, impartiality and mutual respect. Methods such as perfidious action … are prohibited. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1217.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states: “The exact formulation of the rule is that it is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary in a treacherous manner.” 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands states: “It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture by means of treachery.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-36.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
Honesty and good faith
Acts of war based on treachery or acts in breach of good faith are forbidden.
Example: to behave (moaning and groaning) so as to pass oneself off to a member of the other side as wounded and wishing to surrender, and then suddenly to open fire on the person offering help.
It is, however, permitted to use stratagems. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0230.
The manual further states: “The exact wording of the rule is that it is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0413.
In its chapter on non-international armed conflict, the manual states: “Treacherously to kill/injure persons belonging to hostile groups is prohibited.” 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 1042.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, “treacherously killing or wounding individuals belonging to the hostile nation or army” is a crime, whether in time of international or non-international armed conflict. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Articles 5(3)(d) and 6(2)(d).
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour [including] feigning to be hors de combat by wounds or sickness”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides that it is a prohibited method of warfare “to perform treacherous acts (for example, feigning to have been killed or to be wounded … and then suddenly resume fighting)”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of incapacitation by wounds or sickness;
It is forbidden to lead an adversary in battle to believe, by behaviour (moaning and groaning) that you are wounded and wish to surrender and then suddenly to open fire on those offering help. A combatant who feigns death on the battlefield to evade capture and then return to his own lines commits no act of perfidy. He only wants to mislead the enemy. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, §§ 0414–0415.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: … feigning to surrender”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides that it is a prohibited method of warfare “to perform treacherous acts (for example, feigning … to surrender and then suddenly resume fighting)”. 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-40.
It also states: “Misuse of the white flag is treachery.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-36.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of an intent to … surrender. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0414.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: feigning intent to negotiate under the flag of parlementaires”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Handbook (1995) of the Netherlands provides: “Misuse of the white flag is treachery.” 
Netherlands, Handboek Militair, Ministerie van Defensie, 1995, p. 7-36.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0414.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states:
Treachery means misusing the protection given by the law of war, for example misusing the Red Cross … [The 1977 Additional Protocol I] gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: … feigning to possess the status of civilian or non combatant (for example medical personnel or the personnel of the Red Cross). 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
It is forbidden to misuse the recognized emblems of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. It is also forbidden to make unauthorized use of other signs and emblems mentioned in the conventions on the law of war. These include signs of civilian protection and cultural property. Signs mean illuminated signs and electronic communication and identification, as governed by AP [1977 Additional Protocol I] Annex I. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0416.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, it is a crime, during an international armed conflict, to commit “the following acts, when they are committed intentionally and in violation of the relevant provisions of Additional Protocol (I) and cause death or serious injury to body or health: … the perfidious use … of the distinctive emblem of the red cross or red crescent”. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Article 5(2)(c)(vi).
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: feigning to possess a protected position by using signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of protected status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0414.
Under the International Crimes Act (2003) of the Netherlands, it is a crime, during an international armed conflict, to commit “the following acts, when they are committed intentionally and in violation of the relevant provisions of Additional Protocol (I) and cause death or serious injury to body or health: … the perfidious use … of … protective emblems recognized by the Geneva Conventions or Additional Protocol (I)”. 
Netherlands, International Crimes Act, 2003, Article 5(2)(c)(vi).
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: feigning to possess the status of civilian or noncombatant”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of civilian or non-combatant status (e.g., as a carer of the wounded or a member of the Red Cross). 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0414.
The Military Manual (1993) of the Netherlands states that the 1977 Additional Protocol I “gives a number of examples of treacherous behaviour: feigning to possess a protected position by using signs, emblems or uniforms … of States which are not parties to the conflict”. 
Netherlands, Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht, Voorschift No. 27-412/1, Koninklijke Landmacht, Ministerie van Defensie, 1993, p. IV-2.
The Military Manual (2005) of the Netherlands states:
AP I [1977 Additional Protocol I] lists a number of examples of acts of perfidy:
- the feigning of protected status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations or of States not parties to the conflict. 
Netherlands, Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding, Voorschift No. 27-412, Koninklijke Landmacht, Militair Juridische Dienst, 2005, § 0414.